Abstract

We report on the microscopic surface structure of carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C∕SiC) composite mirrors that have been improved for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and other cooled telescopes. The C∕SiC composite consists of carbon fiber, silicon carbide, and residual silicon. Specific microscopic structures are found on the surface of the bare C∕SiC mirrors after polishing. These structures are considered to be caused by the different hardness of those materials. The roughness obtained for the bare mirrors is 20  nm rms for flat surfaces and 100   nm rms for curved surfaces. It was confirmed that a SiSiC slurry coating is effective in reducing the roughness to 2   nm rms. The scattering properties of the mirrors were measured at room temperature and also at 95 K. No significant change was found in the scattering properties through cooling, which suggests that the microscopic surface structure is stable with changes in temperature down to cryogenic values. The C∕SiC mirror with the SiSiC slurry coating is a promising candidate for the SPICA telescope.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Nakagawa and SPICA working group, "SPICA: space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics," Adv. Sp. Res. 34, 645-650 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Onaka and T. Nakagawa, "SPICA: a 3.5 meter space infrared telescope for mid- and far-infrared astronomy," Adv. Sp. Res. 36, 1123-1127 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Murakami, "ASTROF Infrared Sky Survey Mission," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 330-337 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. T. Pilbratt, "Herschel mission: status and observing opportunities," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 401-412 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Enya, H. Murakami, R. Yamashiro, T. Ezaki, Y. Numao, and Y. Sugiyama "Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope," Appl. Opt. 44, 6823-6832 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, and T. Nakagawa, "Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures," in IR Space Telescope and Instrumentation, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 230-240 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 873.
  13. Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 154.
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2005 (3)

T. Onaka and T. Nakagawa, "SPICA: a 3.5 meter space infrared telescope for mid- and far-infrared astronomy," Adv. Sp. Res. 36, 1123-1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Enya, H. Murakami, R. Yamashiro, T. Ezaki, Y. Numao, and Y. Sugiyama "Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope," Appl. Opt. 44, 6823-6832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

2004 (6)

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagawa and SPICA working group, "SPICA: space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics," Adv. Sp. Res. 34, 645-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Sabelhaus and J. Decker, "An overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 550-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, "ASTROF Infrared Sky Survey Mission," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 330-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Pilbratt, "Herschel mission: status and observing opportunities," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 401-412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, and T. Nakagawa, "Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures," in IR Space Telescope and Instrumentation, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Chambure, D.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Decker, J.

P. A. Sabelhaus and J. Decker, "An overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 550-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deny, P.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duran, M.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Enya, K.

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Enya, H. Murakami, R. Yamashiro, T. Ezaki, Y. Numao, and Y. Sugiyama "Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope," Appl. Opt. 44, 6823-6832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ezaki, T.

Kaneda, H.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Enya, H. Murakami, R. Yamashiro, T. Ezaki, Y. Numao, and Y. Sugiyama "Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope," Appl. Opt. 44, 6823-6832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, and T. Nakagawa, "Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures," in IR Space Telescope and Instrumentation, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kataza, H.

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kataza, K.

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, R. K.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 873.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 154.

Krodel, M.

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kume, M.

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. Y. R.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 873.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 154.

Matsuhara, H.

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

Matsumoto, T.

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Enya, H. Murakami, R. Yamashiro, T. Ezaki, Y. Numao, and Y. Sugiyama "Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope," Appl. Opt. 44, 6823-6832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murakami, "ASTROF Infrared Sky Survey Mission," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 330-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, T.

T. Onaka and T. Nakagawa, "SPICA: a 3.5 meter space infrared telescope for mid- and far-infrared astronomy," Adv. Sp. Res. 36, 1123-1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Enya, H. Murakami, R. Yamashiro, T. Ezaki, Y. Numao, and Y. Sugiyama "Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope," Appl. Opt. 44, 6823-6832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nakagawa and SPICA working group, "SPICA: space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics," Adv. Sp. Res. 34, 645-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, and T. Nakagawa, "Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures," in IR Space Telescope and Instrumentation, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakawaga, T.

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

Numao, Y.

Onaka, T.

T. Onaka and T. Nakagawa, "SPICA: a 3.5 meter space infrared telescope for mid- and far-infrared astronomy," Adv. Sp. Res. 36, 1123-1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Enya, H. Murakami, R. Yamashiro, T. Ezaki, Y. Numao, and Y. Sugiyama "Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope," Appl. Opt. 44, 6823-6832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, and T. Nakagawa, "Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures," in IR Space Telescope and Instrumentation, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, T.

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Passovogel, T.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pilbratt, G. T.

G. T. Pilbratt, "Herschel mission: status and observing opportunities," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 401-412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sabelhaus, P. A.

P. A. Sabelhaus and J. Decker, "An overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 550-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Safa, F.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sein, E.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smithells, C. J.

C. J. Smithells, Metals Reference Books, 5th ed. (Butterworths, 1977).

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (Mcgraw-Hill, 1990),
p. 18.

Sugiyama, Y.

Taylor, R. E.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 154.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 873.

Toulemont, Y.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Touloukinan, Y. S.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 154.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 873.

Yamashiro, R.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Enya, H. Murakami, R. Yamashiro, T. Ezaki, Y. Numao, and Y. Sugiyama "Cryogenic optical performance of the ASTRO-F SiC telescope," Appl. Opt. 44, 6823-6832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, and T. Nakagawa, "Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures," in IR Space Telescope and Instrumentation, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, Y. Y.

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Sp. Res. (2)

T. Nakagawa and SPICA working group, "SPICA: space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics," Adv. Sp. Res. 34, 645-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka and T. Nakagawa, "SPICA: a 3.5 meter space infrared telescope for mid- and far-infrared astronomy," Adv. Sp. Res. 36, 1123-1127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Proc. SPIE (8)

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, and T. Nakagawa, "Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures," in IR Space Telescope and Instrumentation, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passovogel, and G. T. Pilbratt, "A 3.5 m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission," in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 4850, 606-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Sabelhaus and J. Decker, "An overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 550-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, H., Kaneda, K. Enya, T. Nakawaga, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, and H. Kataza, "Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission," in Optical Design and Engineering II, L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962, 448-462 (2005).

T. Ozaki, M. Kume, T. Oshima, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Kaneda, H. Murakami, K. Kataza, K. Enya, T. Onaka, and M. Krodel, "Mechanical and thermal performance of C/SiC composites for SPICA mirror," in Optical Fabrication, Metrology, and Material Advancements for Telescopes, E. Atad-Ettedgui and P. Dierickx, eds., Proc. SPIE 5494, 366-373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Enya, T. Nakagawa, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, Y. Y. Yamashita, T. Onaka, T. Oshima, and T. Ozaki, "Optical quality of C/SiC composite for the SPICA telescope," in Optical Infrared, and Millimeter Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1092-1099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, "ASTROF Infrared Sky Survey Mission," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 330-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Pilbratt, "Herschel mission: status and observing opportunities," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 401-412 (2004).
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Other (5)

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 873.

Y. S. Touloukinan, R. K. Kirby, R. E. Taylor, and T. Y. R. Lee, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, the TPRC Data Series, Vol. 13, Thermal Expansion, Nonmetallic Solids (Wiley, 1977) p. 154.

Catalogue of DIALEAD Carbon Fibers (Mitsubishi Chemical Functional Products, Inc., 2000).

C. J. Smithells, Metals Reference Books, 5th ed. (Butterworths, 1977).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (Mcgraw-Hill, 1990),
p. 18.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Examples of flat test mirrors for examining the manufacturing process of the C∕SiC composite material, the polishing technique, and the microscopic surface structures. The left and the right mirrors are sampled before and after the trial in which the carbon fiber was more dispersed and the residual Si was reduced. The middle and the right mirrors are test pieces in the trial of the improvement. The size of the right mirror is 50   mm × 50   mm × 10   mm . Half of the polished surface is coated with aluminum for measurements of the scattered light described in Section 4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (Top) Left figure shows the microscopic surface structures obtained from the interferometer (ZYGO Maxim-NT) for a flat test mirror of the conventional C∕SiC composite. The right figure is a photographic image of the same part of the surface with visible light. The relatively light gray area indicates residual Si. The dark gray part corresponds to SiC and carbon fiber. The average surface roughness of this sample is 40   nm rms. (Middle) Microscopic surface structure of a flat test mirror of the improved C∕SiC composite. The average value of surface roughness is 20   nm rms. (Bottom) Microscopic surface structure of a SiSiC slurry-coated flat test mirror using the ZYGO New-View. The relatively bright and dark gray areas in the photograph correspond to silicon and SiC, respectively. SiC regions are higher than silicon regions. The morphology of the slurry-coated surface is quite different from that of the bare surface. The average roughness of the coated surface is 2   nm rms. Note that the vertical scale is not the same for each figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Left and right show front and back view of the 160 mm diameter test mirror of the improved C∕SiC composite. The radius of curvature of the spherical part is 900   mm , while the periphery is flat. Three segments that were fan shaped with a 120° central angle were joined at the ribs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Microscopic surface structure of the 160 mm spherical mirror of the bare C∕SiC composite. (Top) Left and right figures are the results of interferometer measurements and photographic images of the flat part obtained using the WYKO NT1100, respectively. The average roughness is 20   nm rms. The observed structures are similar to those of the flat test mirrors shown in Fig. 2. (Middle) Left and right show the spherical part of the mirror by the same method. The average roughness of this part is 100 nm rms. (Bottom) Joint in the 160 mm spherical mirror of the bare C∕SiC composite. Left and right figures are the results of interferometer measurements and photographic images. The average width of the joint is 0.5 mm, where no carbon fiber is found. The bright region in the right figure corresponds to residual silicon. The silicon region is 20 50   nm lower than the SiC regions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Configuration used for the scattered light measurements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light scattered from flat test mirrors at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. The top and middle figures show the results of the improved C∕SiC bare mirror and the SiSiC-coated mirror. The bottom figure shows the data for a BK7 glass mirror as a reference.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optical Specifications for the SPICA Telescope

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Table 2 Microscopic Surface Quality of C∕SiC Composite Mirrors

Equations (1)

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TIS = E s E a = ( 4 π σ cos θ i λ ) 2 ,

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