Abstract

Field tests in desert terrain of a distributed sensor system for detecting and locating intruders based on the phase-sensitive optical-time-domain reflectometer (ϕ- OTDR) are described. The sensing element is a single-mode telecommunications fiber in a 4.5  mm diameter cable buried in a trench filled with loose sand. Light pulses from a continuous-wave Er:fiber Fabry–Perot laser with a narrow (<3  kHz) instantaneous linewidth and low (few kilohertz per second) frequency drift are injected into one end of the fiber, and the orthogonal polarizations of the backscattered light are monitored with separate receivers. Localized phase changes in the optical carrier are sensed by subtracting a ϕ- OTDR trace from an earlier stored trace. High sensitivity and consistent detection of intruders on foot and of vehicles traveling down a road near the cable line was realized over a cable length of 8.5  km and a total fiber path of 19 km in real time.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 2081-2087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Juarez and H. F. Taylor, "Polarization discrimination in a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer intrusion-sensor system," Opt. Lett. 30, 3284-3286 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. N. Choi, J. C. Juarez, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber-optic pressure/seismic sensor for low-cost monitoring of long perimeters," in Proc. SPIE 5090, 134-141 (2003).

1984 (1)

A. H. Hartog and M. P. Gold, "On the theory of backscattering in single mode-fiber optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 76-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

Barnoski, M. K.

Choi, K. N.

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 2081-2087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Choi, J. C. Juarez, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber-optic pressure/seismic sensor for low-cost monitoring of long perimeters," in Proc. SPIE 5090, 134-141 (2003).

Costa, B.

B. Costa and B. Sordo, "Experimental study of optical fiber attenuation by a modified backscattering technique," in Digest of 3rd European Conference on Optical Communication (1977) p. 69.

Gold, M. P.

A. H. Hartog and M. P. Gold, "On the theory of backscattering in single mode-fiber optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 76-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hartog, A. H.

A. H. Hartog and M. P. Gold, "On the theory of backscattering in single mode-fiber optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 76-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, S. M.

Juarez, J. C.

J. C. Juarez and H. F. Taylor, "Polarization discrimination in a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer intrusion-sensor system," Opt. Lett. 30, 3284-3286 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 2081-2087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Choi, J. C. Juarez, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber-optic pressure/seismic sensor for low-cost monitoring of long perimeters," in Proc. SPIE 5090, 134-141 (2003).

Lee, C. E.

H. F. Taylor and C. E. Lee, "Apparatus and method for fiber optic intrusion sensing," U.S. patent 5,194,847 (16 March 1993).

Maier, E. W.

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 2081-2087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Melville, R. T.

Rourke, M. D.

Sordo, B.

B. Costa and B. Sordo, "Experimental study of optical fiber attenuation by a modified backscattering technique," in Digest of 3rd European Conference on Optical Communication (1977) p. 69.

Taylor, H. F.

J. C. Juarez and H. F. Taylor, "Polarization discrimination in a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer intrusion-sensor system," Opt. Lett. 30, 3284-3286 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 2081-2087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Choi, J. C. Juarez, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber-optic pressure/seismic sensor for low-cost monitoring of long perimeters," in Proc. SPIE 5090, 134-141 (2003).

H. F. Taylor and C. E. Lee, "Apparatus and method for fiber optic intrusion sensing," U.S. patent 5,194,847 (16 March 1993).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. C. Juarez, E. W. Maier, K. N. Choi, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 2081-2087 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Hartog and M. P. Gold, "On the theory of backscattering in single mode-fiber optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 76-82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

B. Costa and B. Sordo, "Experimental study of optical fiber attenuation by a modified backscattering technique," in Digest of 3rd European Conference on Optical Communication (1977) p. 69.

H. F. Taylor and C. E. Lee, "Apparatus and method for fiber optic intrusion sensing," U.S. patent 5,194,847 (16 March 1993).

K. N. Choi, J. C. Juarez, and H. F. Taylor, "Distributed fiber-optic pressure/seismic sensor for low-cost monitoring of long perimeters," in Proc. SPIE 5090, 134-141 (2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for erbium-doped fiber laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Field tests setup for characterizing the ϕ - OTDR system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Screen capture of PC during an intruder's step. Raw data (upper trace); processed signal (lower trace).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Summary of sensitivity tests at different ranges.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Response to vehicle traveling on road 4 m from the buried sensor.

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