Abstract

A compact 1.5μm all-fiber pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind sensing, which includes the functions of variable pulse width and automatic polarization control has been developed. The system configuration is introduced and key components used in the system are explained. Theoretical performances of the system in wind sensing are estimated and compared with experimental results. The measurable range corresponding to the detection probability of >80% is ∼1 km or more in the case of 150  m range resolution under the normal atmospheric conditions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, "Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems," Proc. IEEE 84, 181-204 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Vaughhan, K. O. Steinvall, C. Werner, and P. H. Flamant, "Coherent laser radar in Europe," Proc. IEEE 84, 205-226 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. M. Huffaker, A. V. Jelalian, and J. A. L. Thompson, "Laser-Doppler system for detection of aircraft trailing vortices," Proc. IEEE 58, 322-326 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. W. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, "Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 65, 348-359 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Bilbro, C. Dimarzio, D. Fitzjarrald, S. Johnson, and W. Jones, "Airborne Doppler lidar measurements," Appl. Opt. 25, 3952-3960 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. E. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. J. Post, R. A. Ritcher, and B. F. Weber, "Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar," Appl. Opt. 23, 2503-2506 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Post and W. D. Neff, "Doppler lidar measurements of winds in a narrow mountain valley," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 67, 274-281 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. J. Kavaya, S. W. Henderson, J. R. Magee, C. P. Hale, and R. M. Huffaker, "Remote wind profiling with a solid-state Nd:YAG coherent lidar system," Opt. Lett. 14, 776-778 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. J. Kane, W. J. Kozlovsky, R. L. Byer, and C. E. Byvik, "Coherent laser radar at 1.06 μm using Nd:YAG lasers," Opt. Lett. 12, 239-241 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. G. Hawley, R. Targ, S. Henderson, C. P. Hale, M. J. Kavaya, and D. Moerder, "Coherent launch-site atmospheric wind sounder: theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 32, 4557-4568 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, J. R. Magee, M. J. Kavaya, and A. V. Huffaker, "Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 μm using Tm, Ho:YAG lasers," Opt. Lett. 16, 773-775 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-15 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Targ, M. J. Kavaya, R. M. Huffaker, and R. L. Bowles, "Coherent lidar airborne windshear sensor: performance evaluation," Appl. Opt. 30, 2013-2026 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Targ, B. C. Steakley, J. G. Hawley, L. L. Ames, P. Fomey, D. Swanson, R. Stone, R. G. Otto, V. Zarifis, P. Brockman, R. S. Calloway, S. H. Klein, and P. A. Robinson, "Coherent lidar airborne wind sensor II: flight-test results at 2 and 10 μm," Appl. Opt. 35, 7117-7127 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Asaka, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ooga, K. Hamazu, T. Tajime, and Y. Hirano, "Development of 1.5-μm eye-safe coherent Doppler lidar system," in Proceedings of the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency, Malvern, 2001), pp. 147-150.
  16. T. Yanagisawa, K. Asaka, K. Hamazu, and Y. Hirano, "11 mJ, 15 Hz single-frequency diode-pumped Q-switched Er, Yb:phosphate glass laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1262-1264 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. J. Karlsson, F. A. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, "All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements," Appl. Opt. 39, 3716-3726 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. N. Pearson, P. J. Roberts, J. R. Eacock, and M. Harris, "Analysis of the performance of a coherent pulsed fiber lidar for aerosol backscatter applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 6442-6450 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakamura, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Kameyama, T. Ando, and Y. Hirano, "Modified coherent laser radar equation using nearest Gaussian approximation," in Proceedings of the 13th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kamakura, 2005), pp. 174-177.
  21. R. M. Hardesty, "Performance of a spectral peak frequency estimator for Doppler wind velocity measurement," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 777-783 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I: Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 16-27 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. II: Correlogram accumulation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 28-35 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. A. Thompson, S. M. Hannon, P. J. M. Suni, and R. M. Huffaker, Coherent Lidar System for High Resolution Measurement of Atmospheric Wind Velocity and Water Vapor Fields, NTIS Technical Rep. AD-A257 725 (U.S. Army Research Office, 1992), p. 5.
    [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1996 (3)

R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, "Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems," Proc. IEEE 84, 181-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughhan, K. O. Steinvall, C. Werner, and P. H. Flamant, "Coherent laser radar in Europe," Proc. IEEE 84, 205-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Targ, B. C. Steakley, J. G. Hawley, L. L. Ames, P. Fomey, D. Swanson, R. Stone, R. G. Otto, V. Zarifis, P. Brockman, R. S. Calloway, S. H. Klein, and P. A. Robinson, "Coherent lidar airborne wind sensor II: flight-test results at 2 and 10 μm," Appl. Opt. 35, 7117-7127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I: Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 16-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. II: Correlogram accumulation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 28-35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Hawley, R. Targ, S. Henderson, C. P. Hale, M. J. Kavaya, and D. Moerder, "Coherent launch-site atmospheric wind sounder: theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 32, 4557-4568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (3)

M. J. Post and W. D. Neff, "Doppler lidar measurements of winds in a narrow mountain valley," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 67, 274-281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Bilbro, C. Dimarzio, D. Fitzjarrald, S. Johnson, and W. Jones, "Airborne Doppler lidar measurements," Appl. Opt. 25, 3952-3960 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Hardesty, "Performance of a spectral peak frequency estimator for Doppler wind velocity measurement," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 777-783 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakamura, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. M. Huffaker, A. V. Jelalian, and J. A. L. Thompson, "Laser-Doppler system for detection of aircraft trailing vortices," Proc. IEEE 58, 322-326 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ames, L. L.

Ando, T.

S. Kameyama, T. Ando, and Y. Hirano, "Modified coherent laser radar equation using nearest Gaussian approximation," in Proceedings of the 13th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kamakura, 2005), pp. 174-177.

Asaka, K.

T. Yanagisawa, K. Asaka, K. Hamazu, and Y. Hirano, "11 mJ, 15 Hz single-frequency diode-pumped Q-switched Er, Yb:phosphate glass laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1262-1264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Asaka, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ooga, K. Hamazu, T. Tajime, and Y. Hirano, "Development of 1.5-μm eye-safe coherent Doppler lidar system," in Proceedings of the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency, Malvern, 2001), pp. 147-150.

Bilbro, J. W.

J. W. Bilbro, C. Dimarzio, D. Fitzjarrald, S. Johnson, and W. Jones, "Airborne Doppler lidar measurements," Appl. Opt. 25, 3952-3960 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, "Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 65, 348-359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bowles, R. L.

Brockman, P.

Bruns, D. L.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Byvik, C. E.

Calloway, R. S.

Dimarzio, C.

Eacock, J. R.

Fichtl, G.

J. W. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, "Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 65, 348-359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fitzjarrald, D.

J. W. Bilbro, C. Dimarzio, D. Fitzjarrald, S. Johnson, and W. Jones, "Airborne Doppler lidar measurements," Appl. Opt. 25, 3952-3960 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, "Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 65, 348-359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

J. M. Vaughhan, K. O. Steinvall, C. Werner, and P. H. Flamant, "Coherent laser radar in Europe," Proc. IEEE 84, 205-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fomey, P.

Hale, C. P.

Hall, F. F.

Hamazu, K.

T. Yanagisawa, K. Asaka, K. Hamazu, and Y. Hirano, "11 mJ, 15 Hz single-frequency diode-pumped Q-switched Er, Yb:phosphate glass laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1262-1264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Asaka, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ooga, K. Hamazu, T. Tajime, and Y. Hirano, "Development of 1.5-μm eye-safe coherent Doppler lidar system," in Proceedings of the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency, Malvern, 2001), pp. 147-150.

Hannon, S. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thompson, S. M. Hannon, P. J. M. Suni, and R. M. Huffaker, Coherent Lidar System for High Resolution Measurement of Atmospheric Wind Velocity and Water Vapor Fields, NTIS Technical Rep. AD-A257 725 (U.S. Army Research Office, 1992), p. 5.
[PubMed]

Hardesty, R. M.

R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, "Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems," Proc. IEEE 84, 181-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I: Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 16-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. II: Correlogram accumulation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 28-35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hardesty, "Performance of a spectral peak frequency estimator for Doppler wind velocity measurement," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 777-783 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. E. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. J. Post, R. A. Ritcher, and B. F. Weber, "Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar," Appl. Opt. 23, 2503-2506 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, M.

Hawley, J. G.

Henderson, S.

Henderson, S. W.

Hirano, Y.

T. Yanagisawa, K. Asaka, K. Hamazu, and Y. Hirano, "11 mJ, 15 Hz single-frequency diode-pumped Q-switched Er, Yb:phosphate glass laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1262-1264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Asaka, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ooga, K. Hamazu, T. Tajime, and Y. Hirano, "Development of 1.5-μm eye-safe coherent Doppler lidar system," in Proceedings of the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency, Malvern, 2001), pp. 147-150.

S. Kameyama, T. Ando, and Y. Hirano, "Modified coherent laser radar equation using nearest Gaussian approximation," in Proceedings of the 13th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kamakura, 2005), pp. 174-177.

Huffaker, A. V.

Huffaker, R. M.

R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, "Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems," Proc. IEEE 84, 181-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Targ, M. J. Kavaya, R. M. Huffaker, and R. L. Bowles, "Coherent lidar airborne windshear sensor: performance evaluation," Appl. Opt. 30, 2013-2026 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kavaya, S. W. Henderson, J. R. Magee, C. P. Hale, and R. M. Huffaker, "Remote wind profiling with a solid-state Nd:YAG coherent lidar system," Opt. Lett. 14, 776-778 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. E. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. J. Post, R. A. Ritcher, and B. F. Weber, "Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar," Appl. Opt. 23, 2503-2506 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Huffaker, A. V. Jelalian, and J. A. L. Thompson, "Laser-Doppler system for detection of aircraft trailing vortices," Proc. IEEE 58, 322-326 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thompson, S. M. Hannon, P. J. M. Suni, and R. M. Huffaker, Coherent Lidar System for High Resolution Measurement of Atmospheric Wind Velocity and Water Vapor Fields, NTIS Technical Rep. AD-A257 725 (U.S. Army Research Office, 1992), p. 5.
[PubMed]

Jackson, M. E.

Jelalian, A. V.

R. M. Huffaker, A. V. Jelalian, and J. A. L. Thompson, "Laser-Doppler system for detection of aircraft trailing vortices," Proc. IEEE 58, 322-326 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S.

Jones, W.

Kameyama, S.

S. Kameyama, T. Ando, and Y. Hirano, "Modified coherent laser radar equation using nearest Gaussian approximation," in Proceedings of the 13th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kamakura, 2005), pp. 174-177.

Kane, T. J.

Karlsson, C. J.

Kavaya, M. J.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakamura, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Klein, S. H.

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Krause, M.

J. W. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, "Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 65, 348-359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, T. R.

Letalick, D.

Magee, J. R.

Moerder, D.

Nakamura, A.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakamura, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Neff, W. D.

M. J. Post and W. D. Neff, "Doppler lidar measurements of winds in a narrow mountain valley," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 67, 274-281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakamura, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, F. A. A.

Ooga, Y.

K. Asaka, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ooga, K. Hamazu, T. Tajime, and Y. Hirano, "Development of 1.5-μm eye-safe coherent Doppler lidar system," in Proceedings of the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency, Malvern, 2001), pp. 147-150.

Otto, R. G.

Pearson, G. N.

Post, M. J.

Ritcher, R. A.

Roberts, P. J.

Robinson, P. A.

Rye, B. J.

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I: Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 16-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. II: Correlogram accumulation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 28-35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steakley, B. C.

Steinvall, K. O.

J. M. Vaughhan, K. O. Steinvall, C. Werner, and P. H. Flamant, "Coherent laser radar in Europe," Proc. IEEE 84, 205-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R.

Suni, P. J. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thompson, S. M. Hannon, P. J. M. Suni, and R. M. Huffaker, Coherent Lidar System for High Resolution Measurement of Atmospheric Wind Velocity and Water Vapor Fields, NTIS Technical Rep. AD-A257 725 (U.S. Army Research Office, 1992), p. 5.
[PubMed]

Swanson, D.

Tajime, T.

K. Asaka, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ooga, K. Hamazu, T. Tajime, and Y. Hirano, "Development of 1.5-μm eye-safe coherent Doppler lidar system," in Proceedings of the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency, Malvern, 2001), pp. 147-150.

Targ, R.

Thompson, J. A.

J. A. Thompson, S. M. Hannon, P. J. M. Suni, and R. M. Huffaker, Coherent Lidar System for High Resolution Measurement of Atmospheric Wind Velocity and Water Vapor Fields, NTIS Technical Rep. AD-A257 725 (U.S. Army Research Office, 1992), p. 5.
[PubMed]

Thompson, J. A. L.

R. M. Huffaker, A. V. Jelalian, and J. A. L. Thompson, "Laser-Doppler system for detection of aircraft trailing vortices," Proc. IEEE 58, 322-326 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vaughhan, J. M.

J. M. Vaughhan, K. O. Steinvall, C. Werner, and P. H. Flamant, "Coherent laser radar in Europe," Proc. IEEE 84, 205-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, B. F.

Werner, C.

J. M. Vaughhan, K. O. Steinvall, C. Werner, and P. H. Flamant, "Coherent laser radar in Europe," Proc. IEEE 84, 205-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yanagisawa, T.

T. Yanagisawa, K. Asaka, K. Hamazu, and Y. Hirano, "11 mJ, 15 Hz single-frequency diode-pumped Q-switched Er, Yb:phosphate glass laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1262-1264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Asaka, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ooga, K. Hamazu, T. Tajime, and Y. Hirano, "Development of 1.5-μm eye-safe coherent Doppler lidar system," in Proceedings of the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency, Malvern, 2001), pp. 147-150.

Yuen, E. H.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zarifis, V.

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. W. Bilbro, C. Dimarzio, D. Fitzjarrald, S. Johnson, and W. Jones, "Airborne Doppler lidar measurements," Appl. Opt. 25, 3952-3960 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. E. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. J. Post, R. A. Ritcher, and B. F. Weber, "Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar," Appl. Opt. 23, 2503-2506 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Hawley, R. Targ, S. Henderson, C. P. Hale, M. J. Kavaya, and D. Moerder, "Coherent launch-site atmospheric wind sounder: theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 32, 4557-4568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Targ, M. J. Kavaya, R. M. Huffaker, and R. L. Bowles, "Coherent lidar airborne windshear sensor: performance evaluation," Appl. Opt. 30, 2013-2026 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Targ, B. C. Steakley, J. G. Hawley, L. L. Ames, P. Fomey, D. Swanson, R. Stone, R. G. Otto, V. Zarifis, P. Brockman, R. S. Calloway, S. H. Klein, and P. A. Robinson, "Coherent lidar airborne wind sensor II: flight-test results at 2 and 10 μm," Appl. Opt. 35, 7117-7127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Karlsson, F. A. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, "All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements," Appl. Opt. 39, 3716-3726 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Pearson, P. J. Roberts, J. R. Eacock, and M. Harris, "Analysis of the performance of a coherent pulsed fiber lidar for aerosol backscatter applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 6442-6450 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

J. W. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, "Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 65, 348-359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post and W. D. Neff, "Doppler lidar measurements of winds in a narrow mountain valley," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 67, 274-281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakamura, "Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum," Electron. Lett. 16, 630-631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hardesty, "Performance of a spectral peak frequency estimator for Doppler wind velocity measurement," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-24, 777-783 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. (2)

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I: Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 16-27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye and R. M. Hardesty, "Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. II: Correlogram accumulation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. 31, 28-35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. IEEE (3)

R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, "Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems," Proc. IEEE 84, 181-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughhan, K. O. Steinvall, C. Werner, and P. H. Flamant, "Coherent laser radar in Europe," Proc. IEEE 84, 205-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Huffaker, A. V. Jelalian, and J. A. L. Thompson, "Laser-Doppler system for detection of aircraft trailing vortices," Proc. IEEE 58, 322-326 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Asaka, T. Yanagisawa, Y. Ooga, K. Hamazu, T. Tajime, and Y. Hirano, "Development of 1.5-μm eye-safe coherent Doppler lidar system," in Proceedings of the 11th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency, Malvern, 2001), pp. 147-150.

S. Kameyama, T. Ando, and Y. Hirano, "Modified coherent laser radar equation using nearest Gaussian approximation," in Proceedings of the 13th Coherent Laser Radar Conference (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kamakura, 2005), pp. 174-177.

J. A. Thompson, S. M. Hannon, P. J. M. Suni, and R. M. Huffaker, Coherent Lidar System for High Resolution Measurement of Atmospheric Wind Velocity and Water Vapor Fields, NTIS Technical Rep. AD-A257 725 (U.S. Army Research Office, 1992), p. 5.
[PubMed]

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Appearance of system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of self-heterodyne-detected signal obtained with a DFB-EDFL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured result of the RIN level of a DFB-EDFL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relation between the local power and the efficiency on power penalty in heterodyne detection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured results of noise from a balanced receiver.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity ratio of the leak pulse to shot noise in a frequency bin, which corresponds to 0 m / s .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Extinction ratio of a single AOM versus delay time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Envelope of transmitting pulsed laser light transmitted from an EDFA [FWHM is (a) 0.2 μ s , (b) 0.4 μ s , and (c) 0.7 μ s ].

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Configuration of the polarization control circuit.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Effect of automatic polarization control.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Range dependence of the SNR and LOS velocity in wind sensing (points, experimental; solid curve, theoretical).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Periodgrams obtained by the same experiment as in Fig. 12 [target range is (a) 225 , (b) 975 , (c) 1575 , and (d) 2025 m ].

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Relation between wideband SNR, estimation accuracy, and detection probability for accuracy of < 1 m / s .

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Results of a continuous operation test [(a) time record of the measurement range; (b) correlation of the SNR and particle count].

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Time record of the estimated LOS velocity obtained by the same test as in Fig. 15 [target range is (a) 225 , (b) 975 , and (c) 1575   m ].

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Specification of Transmitting Pulsed Laser Light from an EDFA

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Table 2 Summary of System Efficiency

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Table 3 Parameters Corresponding to the Hard-Target Calibration Experiment

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Table 4 Parameters Corresponding to the Wind-Sensing Experiment

Equations (5)

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η P P = ( 1 + 2 k T F N h ν η q e 2 P L R L + η q P L R i n R B 2 h ν ) 1 ,
R I = A A A F η q P T h ν B ,
SNR ( L ) = η D ( L ) λ E β K 2 L / 1000 π D 2 8 h B L 2 ,
η D ( L ) = η S η F { 1 + ( 1 L F ) 2 [ π ( A C D ) 2 4 λ L ] 2 + ( A C D 2 S 0 ( L ) ) 2 } ,
η S = η I η R E η A η P P η q ,

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