Abstract

We report initial findings for research aimed at creating photostable lanthanide chelate reporters for proximity assays. These reporters take advantage of the nanometer-scale distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement for molecules in the vicinity of noble metal nanoparticles and also capitalize on some unique properties of lanthanide chelates. This approach promises to lead to proximity assays that do not suffer from photobleaching and offer very high on∕off enhancement ratios. Results for lanthanide chelates on silver island films and in colloidal suspensions are reported. Enhancement factors range from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, with larger enhancements for strongly quenched lanthanides.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Vanduyne, "Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry. 1. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic-amines adsorbed on anodized silver electrode," J Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84, 1-20 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Wokaun, "Surface enhancement of optical fields. Mechanisms and applications," Mol. Phys. 56, 1-33 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Aroca, G. J. Kovacs, C. A. Jennings, R. O. Loutfy, and P. S. Vincett, "Fluorescent enhancement from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on silver island films," Langmuir 4, 518-521 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides," Anal. Biochem. 315, 57-66 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, C. D. Hanson, T. J. Gramila, and J. I. Gersten, "Fluorescent lifetimes of molecules on silver-island films," Opt. Lett. 7, 89-91 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, and I. Gryczynski, "Increased intensities of YOYO-l-labeled DNA oligomers near silver particles," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 604-607 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: a new approach to in vivo imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 472-478 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores on fractal silver surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8829-8833 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescent biomarkers for cardiac risk assessment," Proc. SPIE 5327, 45-52 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).
  13. F. Yu, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the interaction between an antibody and its surface-coupled antigen," Anal. Chem. 75, 2610-2617 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, "Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films," Anal. Chem. 70, 3898-3905 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. Hemmila, S. Dakubu, V. M. Mukkala, H. Siitari, and T. Lovgren, "Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays," Anal. Biochem. 137, 335-343 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. F. Dickson, A. Pollak, and E. P. Diamandis, "Time-resolved detection of lanthanide luminescence for ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 27, 3-19 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).
  18. X. Xiao, J. P. Haushalter, and G. W. Faris, "Upconversion from aqueous phase lanthanide chelates," Opt. Lett. 30, 1674-1676 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. R. Lakowicz, B. P. Maliwal, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, "Effects of silver island films on the luminescent intensity and decay times of lanthanide chelates," J. Fluoresc. 12, 431-437 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Nabika and S. Deki, "Surface-enhanced luminescence from Eu3+ complex nearby Ag colloids," Eur. Phys. J. D 24, 369-372 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, "Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 62-69 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, "Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264-5271 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. J. Tarcha, J. Desaja-Gonzalez, S. Rodriguez-Llorente, and R. Aroca, "Surface-enhanced fluorescence on SiO2-coated silver island films," Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 43-48 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescent biomarkers for cardiac risk assessment," Proc. SPIE 5327, 45-52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

F. Yu, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the interaction between an antibody and its surface-coupled antigen," Anal. Chem. 75, 2610-2617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides," Anal. Biochem. 315, 57-66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, and I. Gryczynski, "Increased intensities of YOYO-l-labeled DNA oligomers near silver particles," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 604-607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: a new approach to in vivo imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 472-478 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores on fractal silver surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8829-8833 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nabika and S. Deki, "Surface-enhanced luminescence from Eu3+ complex nearby Ag colloids," Eur. Phys. J. D 24, 369-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, "Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264-5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, B. P. Maliwal, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, "Effects of silver island films on the luminescent intensity and decay times of lanthanide chelates," J. Fluoresc. 12, 431-437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, "Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films," Anal. Chem. 70, 3898-3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

E. F. Dickson, A. Pollak, and E. P. Diamandis, "Time-resolved detection of lanthanide luminescence for ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 27, 3-19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. Aroca, G. J. Kovacs, C. A. Jennings, R. O. Loutfy, and P. S. Vincett, "Fluorescent enhancement from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on silver island films," Langmuir 4, 518-521 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. Wokaun, "Surface enhancement of optical fields. Mechanisms and applications," Mol. Phys. 56, 1-33 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

I. Hemmila, S. Dakubu, V. M. Mukkala, H. Siitari, and T. Lovgren, "Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays," Anal. Biochem. 137, 335-343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Vanduyne, "Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry. 1. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic-amines adsorbed on anodized silver electrode," J Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84, 1-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, "Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 62-69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aroca, R.

P. J. Tarcha, J. Desaja-Gonzalez, S. Rodriguez-Llorente, and R. Aroca, "Surface-enhanced fluorescence on SiO2-coated silver island films," Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 43-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Aroca, G. J. Kovacs, C. A. Jennings, R. O. Loutfy, and P. S. Vincett, "Fluorescent enhancement from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on silver island films," Langmuir 4, 518-521 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aslan, K.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Badugu, R.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Bohn, E.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, "Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 62-69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, M. H.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Chumanov, G.

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, "Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films," Anal. Chem. 70, 3898-3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotton, T. M.

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, "Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films," Anal. Chem. 70, 3898-3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dakubu, S.

I. Hemmila, S. Dakubu, V. M. Mukkala, H. Siitari, and T. Lovgren, "Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays," Anal. Biochem. 137, 335-343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deki, S.

H. Nabika and S. Deki, "Surface-enhanced luminescence from Eu3+ complex nearby Ag colloids," Eur. Phys. J. D 24, 369-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Desaja-Gonzalez, J.

Diamandis, E. P.

E. F. Dickson, A. Pollak, and E. P. Diamandis, "Time-resolved detection of lanthanide luminescence for ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 27, 3-19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, E. F.

E. F. Dickson, A. Pollak, and E. P. Diamandis, "Time-resolved detection of lanthanide luminescence for ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 27, 3-19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyer, M. J.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, "Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264-5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

Faris, G. W.

X. Xiao, J. P. Haushalter, and G. W. Faris, "Upconversion from aqueous phase lanthanide chelates," Opt. Lett. 30, 1674-1676 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

Fink, A.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, "Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 62-69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Garoff, S.

Geddes, C. D.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores on fractal silver surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8829-8833 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: a new approach to in vivo imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 472-478 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gersten, J. I.

Gramila, T. J.

Gryczynski, I.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescent biomarkers for cardiac risk assessment," Proc. SPIE 5327, 45-52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores on fractal silver surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8829-8833 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, and I. Gryczynski, "Increased intensities of YOYO-l-labeled DNA oligomers near silver particles," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 604-607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides," Anal. Biochem. 315, 57-66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: a new approach to in vivo imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 472-478 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, B. P. Maliwal, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, "Effects of silver island films on the luminescent intensity and decay times of lanthanide chelates," J. Fluoresc. 12, 431-437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, Z.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescent biomarkers for cardiac risk assessment," Proc. SPIE 5327, 45-52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides," Anal. Biochem. 315, 57-66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, B. P. Maliwal, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, "Effects of silver island films on the luminescent intensity and decay times of lanthanide chelates," J. Fluoresc. 12, 431-437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, "Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264-5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, C. D.

Haushalter, J. P.

Hemmila, I.

I. Hemmila, S. Dakubu, V. M. Mukkala, H. Siitari, and T. Lovgren, "Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays," Anal. Biochem. 137, 335-343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeanmaire, D. L.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Vanduyne, "Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry. 1. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic-amines adsorbed on anodized silver electrode," J Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84, 1-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, C. A.

R. Aroca, G. J. Kovacs, C. A. Jennings, R. O. Loutfy, and P. S. Vincett, "Fluorescent enhancement from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on silver island films," Langmuir 4, 518-521 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kane, J.

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

Knoll, W.

F. Yu, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the interaction between an antibody and its surface-coupled antigen," Anal. Chem. 75, 2610-2617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacs, G. J.

R. Aroca, G. J. Kovacs, C. A. Jennings, R. O. Loutfy, and P. S. Vincett, "Fluorescent enhancement from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on silver island films," Langmuir 4, 518-521 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescent biomarkers for cardiac risk assessment," Proc. SPIE 5327, 45-52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores on fractal silver surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8829-8833 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, and I. Gryczynski, "Increased intensities of YOYO-l-labeled DNA oligomers near silver particles," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 604-607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: a new approach to in vivo imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 472-478 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides," Anal. Biochem. 315, 57-66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, B. P. Maliwal, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, "Effects of silver island films on the luminescent intensity and decay times of lanthanide chelates," J. Fluoresc. 12, 431-437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loutfy, R. O.

R. Aroca, G. J. Kovacs, C. A. Jennings, R. O. Loutfy, and P. S. Vincett, "Fluorescent enhancement from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on silver island films," Langmuir 4, 518-521 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lovgren, T.

I. Hemmila, S. Dakubu, V. M. Mukkala, H. Siitari, and T. Lovgren, "Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays," Anal. Biochem. 137, 335-343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukomska, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides," Anal. Biochem. 315, 57-66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores on fractal silver surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8829-8833 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, and I. Gryczynski, "Increased intensities of YOYO-l-labeled DNA oligomers near silver particles," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 604-607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: a new approach to in vivo imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 472-478 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, B. P. Maliwal, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, "Effects of silver island films on the luminescent intensity and decay times of lanthanide chelates," J. Fluoresc. 12, 431-437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J. B.

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescent biomarkers for cardiac risk assessment," Proc. SPIE 5327, 45-52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maliwal, B. P.

J. R. Lakowicz, B. P. Maliwal, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, "Effects of silver island films on the luminescent intensity and decay times of lanthanide chelates," J. Fluoresc. 12, 431-437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matveeva, E.

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescent biomarkers for cardiac risk assessment," Proc. SPIE 5327, 45-52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mukkala, V. M.

I. Hemmila, S. Dakubu, V. M. Mukkala, H. Siitari, and T. Lovgren, "Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays," Anal. Biochem. 137, 335-343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabika, H.

H. Nabika and S. Deki, "Surface-enhanced luminescence from Eu3+ complex nearby Ag colloids," Eur. Phys. J. D 24, 369-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ng, S. Y.

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

Nowaczyk, K.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Parfenov, A.

A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores on fractal silver surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8829-8833 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peppers, N. A.

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

Pollak, A.

E. F. Dickson, A. Pollak, and E. P. Diamandis, "Time-resolved detection of lanthanide luminescence for ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 27, 3-19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, K.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Rodriguez-Llorente, S.

Rossi, M.

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

Sabanayagam, C. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Schneider, L. V.

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

Siitari, H.

I. Hemmila, S. Dakubu, V. M. Mukkala, H. Siitari, and T. Lovgren, "Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays," Anal. Biochem. 137, 335-343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, "Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films," Anal. Chem. 70, 3898-3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stöber, W.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, "Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 62-69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Szmacinski, H.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Tarcha, P. J.

Vanduyne, R. P.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Vanduyne, "Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry. 1. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic-amines adsorbed on anodized silver electrode," J Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84, 1-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vincett, P. S.

R. Aroca, G. J. Kovacs, C. A. Jennings, R. O. Loutfy, and P. S. Vincett, "Fluorescent enhancement from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on silver island films," Langmuir 4, 518-521 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weimer, W. A.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, "Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264-5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

Wokaun, A.

A. Wokaun, "Surface enhancement of optical fields. Mechanisms and applications," Mol. Phys. 56, 1-33 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

Yao, D.

F. Yu, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the interaction between an antibody and its surface-coupled antigen," Anal. Chem. 75, 2610-2617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, F.

F. Yu, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the interaction between an antibody and its surface-coupled antigen," Anal. Chem. 75, 2610-2617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarling, D. A.

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

Zhang, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Anal. Biochem. (3)

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Effects of fluorophore-to-silver distance on the emission of cyanine-dye-labeled oligonucleotides," Anal. Biochem. 315, 57-66 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hemmila, S. Dakubu, V. M. Mukkala, H. Siitari, and T. Lovgren, "Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays," Anal. Biochem. 137, 335-343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

F. Yu, D. Yao, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy studies of the interaction between an antibody and its surface-coupled antigen," Anal. Chem. 75, 2610-2617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, G. Chumanov, and T. M. Cotton, "Enhancement of molecular fluorescence near the surface of colloidal metal films," Anal. Chem. 70, 3898-3905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

H. Nabika and S. Deki, "Surface-enhanced luminescence from Eu3+ complex nearby Ag colloids," Eur. Phys. J. D 24, 369-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. (1)

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Vanduyne, "Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry. 1. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic-amines adsorbed on anodized silver electrode," J Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84, 1-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, "Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5264-5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced emission from indocyanine green: a new approach to in vivo imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 472-478 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, "Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 62-69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, B. P. Maliwal, J. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, "Effects of silver island films on the luminescent intensity and decay times of lanthanide chelates," J. Fluoresc. 12, 431-437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

E. F. Dickson, A. Pollak, and E. P. Diamandis, "Time-resolved detection of lanthanide luminescence for ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 27, 3-19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. Parfenov, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, C. D. Geddes, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Enhanced fluorescence from fluorophores on fractal silver surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8829-8833 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

R. Aroca, G. J. Kovacs, C. A. Jennings, R. O. Loutfy, and P. S. Vincett, "Fluorescent enhancement from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on silver island films," Langmuir 4, 518-521 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

A. Wokaun, "Surface enhancement of optical fields. Mechanisms and applications," Mol. Phys. 56, 1-33 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, J. Malicka, and I. Gryczynski, "Increased intensities of YOYO-l-labeled DNA oligomers near silver particles," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 604-607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescent biomarkers for cardiac risk assessment," Proc. SPIE 5327, 45-52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, C. D. Geddes, I. Gryczynski, J. B. Malicka, Z. Gryczynski, K. Aslan, J. Lukomska, and J. Huang, "Advances in surface-enhanced fluorescence," Proc. SPIE 5327, 10-28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, "Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: a new detection technology," Proc. SPIE 6099, 34-48 (2006).

Other (1)

D. A. Zarling, M. Rossi, N. A. Peppers, J. Kane, G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, S. Y. Ng, and L. V. Schneider, "Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques (upconverting chelate patent)," U.S. patent 5,891, 656 (6 April 1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Absorption spectra for two Ag films prepared under similar conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Comparison of Eu emission on a Ag island film and glass showing (a) enhancement of emission intensity and (b) increased radiative rate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Spectra for a Sm chelate showing enhanced emission on Ag island films as compared with a glass surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Spectra for a Tb chelate showing enhanced emission on silica-coated Ag island film as compared with a glass surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Shift in surface plasmon peak with increasing protein concentration; (a) individual spectra and (b) peak positions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Schematic of protein coated Ag particles; (b) spectra illustrating enhancement of Tb emission on Ag colloid.

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