Abstract

Past studies have demonstrated that combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can successfully discriminate between normal, tumor core, and tumor margin tissues in the brain. To achieve efficient, real-time surgical resection guidance with optical biopsy, probe-based spectroscopy must be extended to spectral imaging to spatially demarcate the tumor margins. We describe the design and characterization of a combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance imaging system that uses liquid-crystal tunable filter technology. Experiments were conducted to quantitatively determine the linearity, field of view, spatial and spectral resolution, and wavelength sensitivity of the imaging system. Spectral images were acquired from tissue phantoms, mouse brain in vitro, and human cortex in vivo for functional testing of the system. The spectral imaging system produces measured intensities that are linear with sample emission intensity and integration time and possesses a 1 in. (2.54 cm) field of view for a 7 in. (18 cm) object distance. The spectral resolution is linear with wavelength, and the spatial resolution is pixel-limited. The sensitivity spectra for the imaging system provide a guide for the distribution of total image integration time between wavelengths. Functional tests in vitro demonstrate the capability to spectrally discriminate between brain tissues based on exogenous fluorescence contrast or endogenous tissue composition. In vivo imaging captures adequate fluorescence and diffuse reflectance intensities within a clinically viable 2 min imaging time frame and demonstrates the importance of hemostasis to acquired signal strengths and imaging speed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

2006 (7)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fabian, N. A. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, "Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 874-882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2011-2027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

I. M. Orfanoudaki, G. C. Themelis, S. K. Sifakis, D. H. Fragouli, J. G. Panayiotides, E. M. Vazgiouraki, and E. E. Koumantakis, "A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system," Gynecol. Oncol. 96, 119-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Gebhart, D. Stokes, T. Vo-Dinh, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Instrumentation considerations in spectral imaging for tissue demarcation: comparing three methods of spectral resolution," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications, and Analysis III, R. Levenson, ed., Proc. SPIE 5694, 41-52 (2005).

S. A. Toms, W. C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative optical spectroscopy identifies infiltrating glioma margins with high sensitivity," Neurosurgery 57, 382-391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Characterization of a spectral imaging system," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications and Analysis II, R. Levenson, G. Bearman, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4959, 34-45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (9)

N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biological tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative application of optical spectroscopy in the presence of blood," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 996-1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Khait, S. Smirnov, and C. D. Tran, "Multispectral imaging microscope with millisecond time resolution," Anal. Chem. 73, 732-739 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Tran, "Development and analytical applications of multispectral imaging techniques: an overview," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 369, 313-319 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Balas, "A novel optical imaging method for the early detection, quantitative grading, and mapping of cancerous and precancerous lesions of cervix," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 96-104 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Nadeau and W. Groner, "The role of a new noninvasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of anemia," J. Nutr. 131, 1610S-1614S (2001).
[PubMed]

U. Thomale, K. Schaser, A. W. Unterberg, and J. F. Stover, "Visualization of rat pial microcirculation using the novel orthogonal polarized spectral (OPS) imaging after brain injury," J. Neurosci. Methods 108, 85-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Motamedi, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy; an in vitro study," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 214-220 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

V. V. Lazarev, R. A. Roth, Y. Kazakevich, and J. Hang, "Detection of premalignant oral lesions in hamsters with an endoscopic fluorescence imaging system," Cancer 85, 1421-1429 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Toms, D. Z. Ferson, and R. Sawaya, "Basic surgical techniques in the resection of malignant gliomas," J. Neuro-Oncol. 42, 215-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, Jr., R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, "Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy," Neurosurgery 43, 514-526; discussion 527-528 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Dorward, O. Alberti, B. Velani, F. A. Gerritsen, W. F. Harkness, N. D. Kitchen, and D. G. Thomas, "Postimaging brain distortion: magnitude, correlates, and impact on neuronavigation," J. Neurosurg. 88, 656-662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Chamberlain and P. A. Kormanik, "Practical guidelines for the treatment of malignant gliomas," West J. Med. 168, 114-120 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. T. Selch, B. W. Goy, S. P. Lee, S. El-Sàdin, P. Kincaid, S. H. Park, and H. R. Withers, "Gangliogliomas: experience with 34 patients and review of the literature," Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 557-564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. D. LeRoux, T. C. Winter, M. S. Berger, L. A. Mack, K. Wang, and J. P. Elliott, "A comparison between preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound tumor volumes and margins," J. Clin. Ultrasound 22, 29-36 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Morris, C. C. Hoyt, and P. J. Treado, "Imaging spectrometers for fluorescence and Raman microscopy-acoustooptic and liquid-crystal tunable filters," Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 857-866 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Ammirati, N. Vick, Y. L. Liao, I. Ciric, and M. Mikhael, "Effect of the extent of surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with supratentorial glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 21, 201-206 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. E. Knake, R. A. Bowerman, T. M. Silver, and S. McCracken, "Neurosurgical applications of intraoperative ultrasound," Radiol. Clin. North Am. 23, 73-90 (1985).
[PubMed]

Alberti, O.

N. L. Dorward, O. Alberti, B. Velani, F. A. Gerritsen, W. F. Harkness, N. D. Kitchen, and D. G. Thomas, "Postimaging brain distortion: magnitude, correlates, and impact on neuronavigation," J. Neurosurg. 88, 656-662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, J. W.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amidei, C.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ammirati, M.

M. Ammirati, N. Vick, Y. L. Liao, I. Ciric, and M. Mikhael, "Effect of the extent of surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with supratentorial glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 21, 201-206 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ataelmannan, K.

K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auer, L. M.

L. M. Auer and V. V. Velthoven, Intraoperative Ultrasound Imaging in Neurosurgery: Comparison with CT and MRI (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Balas, C.

C. Balas, "A novel optical imaging method for the early detection, quantitative grading, and mapping of cancerous and precancerous lesions of cervix," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 96-104 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bambery, K. R.

K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barth, S. F.

D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barwise, J. A.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, Jr., R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, "Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy," Neurosurgery 43, 514-526; discussion 527-528 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beek, J. F.

Berger, M. S.

P. D. LeRoux, T. C. Winter, M. S. Berger, L. A. Mack, K. Wang, and J. P. Elliott, "A comparison between preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound tumor volumes and margins," J. Clin. Ultrasound 22, 29-36 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowerman, R. A.

J. E. Knake, R. A. Bowerman, T. M. Silver, and S. McCracken, "Neurosurgical applications of intraoperative ultrasound," Radiol. Clin. North Am. 23, 73-90 (1985).
[PubMed]

Canti, G.

S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, M. C.

M. C. Chamberlain and P. A. Kormanik, "Practical guidelines for the treatment of malignant gliomas," West J. Med. 168, 114-120 (1998).
[PubMed]

Chance, B.

N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biological tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H. P.

Chen, J.

N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biological tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciric, I.

M. Ammirati, N. Vick, Y. L. Liao, I. Ciric, and M. Mikhael, "Effect of the extent of surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with supratentorial glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 21, 201-206 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, G.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DeNovo, R.

M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Denovo, R. C.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dicker, D. T.

D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dohrmann, G.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. L. Dorward, O. Alberti, B. Velani, F. A. Gerritsen, W. F. Harkness, N. D. Kitchen, and D. G. Thomas, "Postimaging brain distortion: magnitude, correlates, and impact on neuronavigation," J. Neurosurg. 88, 656-662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eiden, M.

H. Fabian, N. A. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, "Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 874-882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eker, C.

S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Deiry, W. S.

D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elder, D. E.

D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. D. LeRoux, T. C. Winter, M. S. Berger, L. A. Mack, K. Wang, and J. P. Elliott, "A comparison between preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound tumor volumes and margins," J. Clin. Ultrasound 22, 29-36 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. T. Selch, B. W. Goy, S. P. Lee, S. El-Sàdin, P. Kincaid, S. H. Park, and H. R. Withers, "Gangliogliomas: experience with 34 patients and review of the literature," Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 557-564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Fabian, N. A. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, "Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 874-882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, J.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. A. Toms, D. Z. Ferson, and R. Sawaya, "Basic surgical techniques in the resection of malignant gliomas," J. Neuro-Oncol. 42, 215-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fitzpatrick, J. M.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, Jr., R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, "Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy," Neurosurgery 43, 514-526; discussion 527-528 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fragouli, D. H.

I. M. Orfanoudaki, G. C. Themelis, S. K. Sifakis, D. H. Fragouli, J. G. Panayiotides, E. M. Vazgiouraki, and E. E. Koumantakis, "A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system," Gynecol. Oncol. 96, 119-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gebhart, S.

S. Gebhart, D. Stokes, T. Vo-Dinh, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Instrumentation considerations in spectral imaging for tissue demarcation: comparing three methods of spectral resolution," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications, and Analysis III, R. Levenson, ed., Proc. SPIE 5694, 41-52 (2005).

Gebhart, S. C.

S. C. Gebhart, S. K. Majumder, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Comparison of spectral variation from spectroscopy to spectral imaging," Appl. Opt. 46, 1343-1360 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2011-2027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Characterization of a spectral imaging system," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications and Analysis II, R. Levenson, G. Bearman, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4959, 34-45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Majumder, S. C. Gebhart, M. Johnson, R. C. Thompson, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "A probability-based multiclass diagnostic algorithm for in vivo optical separation of tumor margin and tumor from normal human brain tissue," Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Gerritsen, F. A.

N. L. Dorward, O. Alberti, B. Velani, F. A. Gerritsen, W. F. Harkness, N. D. Kitchen, and D. G. Thomas, "Postimaging brain distortion: magnitude, correlates, and impact on neuronavigation," J. Neurosurg. 88, 656-662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossage, K.

N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biological tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goy, B. W.

M. T. Selch, B. W. Goy, S. P. Lee, S. El-Sàdin, P. Kincaid, S. H. Park, and H. R. Withers, "Gangliogliomas: experience with 34 patients and review of the literature," Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 557-564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griebel, R. W.

K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
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R. G. Nadeau and W. Groner, "The role of a new noninvasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of anemia," J. Nutr. 131, 1610S-1614S (2001).
[PubMed]

Guerry, D. T.

D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hang, J.

V. V. Lazarev, R. A. Roth, Y. Kazakevich, and J. Hang, "Detection of premalignant oral lesions in hamsters with an endoscopic fluorescence imaging system," Cancer 85, 1421-1429 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harkness, W. F.

N. L. Dorward, O. Alberti, B. Velani, F. A. Gerritsen, W. F. Harkness, N. D. Kitchen, and D. G. Thomas, "Postimaging brain distortion: magnitude, correlates, and impact on neuronavigation," J. Neurosurg. 88, 656-662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hekmatpanah, J.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herlyn, M.

D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewett, J.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, D. L.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, Jr., R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, "Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy," Neurosurgery 43, 514-526; discussion 527-528 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoyt, C. C.

Ibbotson, S.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

S. A. Toms, W. C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative optical spectroscopy identifies infiltrating glioma margins with high sensitivity," Neurosurgery 57, 382-391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative application of optical spectroscopy in the presence of blood," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 996-1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Motamedi, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy; an in vitro study," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 214-220 (2000).
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A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
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Johnson, M.

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Majumder, S. C. Gebhart, M. Johnson, R. C. Thompson, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "A probability-based multiclass diagnostic algorithm for in vivo optical separation of tumor margin and tumor from normal human brain tissue," Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Johnson, M. D.

S. A. Toms, W. C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative optical spectroscopy identifies infiltrating glioma margins with high sensitivity," Neurosurgery 57, 382-391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juurlink, B. H.

K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasili, P.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazakevich, Y.

V. V. Lazarev, R. A. Roth, Y. Kazakevich, and J. Hang, "Detection of premalignant oral lesions in hamsters with an endoscopic fluorescence imaging system," Cancer 85, 1421-1429 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennel, S.

M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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O. Khait, S. Smirnov, and C. D. Tran, "Multispectral imaging microscope with millisecond time resolution," Anal. Chem. 73, 732-739 (2001).
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Kincaid, P.

M. T. Selch, B. W. Goy, S. P. Lee, S. El-Sàdin, P. Kincaid, S. H. Park, and H. R. Withers, "Gangliogliomas: experience with 34 patients and review of the literature," Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 557-564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitchen, N. D.

N. L. Dorward, O. Alberti, B. Velani, F. A. Gerritsen, W. F. Harkness, N. D. Kitchen, and D. G. Thomas, "Postimaging brain distortion: magnitude, correlates, and impact on neuronavigation," J. Neurosurg. 88, 656-662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klinteberg, C. af

S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
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J. E. Knake, R. A. Bowerman, T. M. Silver, and S. McCracken, "Neurosurgical applications of intraoperative ultrasound," Radiol. Clin. North Am. 23, 73-90 (1985).
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M. C. Chamberlain and P. A. Kormanik, "Practical guidelines for the treatment of malignant gliomas," West J. Med. 168, 114-120 (1998).
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R. L. Sidman, B. Kosaras, B. M. Misra, and S. L. Senft, "High resolution mouse brain atlas," http://www.hms.harvard.edu/research/brain, 1999.

Koumantakis, E. E.

I. M. Orfanoudaki, G. C. Themelis, S. K. Sifakis, D. H. Fragouli, J. G. Panayiotides, E. M. Vazgiouraki, and E. E. Koumantakis, "A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system," Gynecol. Oncol. 96, 119-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczuk, A.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, S.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnasamy, S.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasch, P.

H. Fabian, N. A. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, "Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 874-882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lazarev, V. V.

V. V. Lazarev, R. A. Roth, Y. Kazakevich, and J. Hang, "Detection of premalignant oral lesions in hamsters with an endoscopic fluorescence imaging system," Cancer 85, 1421-1429 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. P.

M. T. Selch, B. W. Goy, S. P. Lee, S. El-Sàdin, P. Kincaid, S. H. Park, and H. R. Withers, "Gangliogliomas: experience with 34 patients and review of the literature," Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 557-564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerner, J.

D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeRoux, P. D.

P. D. LeRoux, T. C. Winter, M. S. Berger, L. A. Mack, K. Wang, and J. P. Elliott, "A comparison between preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound tumor volumes and margins," J. Clin. Ultrasound 22, 29-36 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Y. L.

M. Ammirati, N. Vick, Y. L. Liao, I. Ciric, and M. Mikhael, "Effect of the extent of surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with supratentorial glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 21, 201-206 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, W. C.

S. A. Toms, W. C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative optical spectroscopy identifies infiltrating glioma margins with high sensitivity," Neurosurgery 57, 382-391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, W.-C.

S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2011-2027 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Characterization of a spectral imaging system," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications and Analysis II, R. Levenson, G. Bearman, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4959, 34-45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative application of optical spectroscopy in the presence of blood," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 996-1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Motamedi, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy; an in vitro study," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 214-220 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Majumder, S. C. Gebhart, M. Johnson, R. C. Thompson, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "A probability-based multiclass diagnostic algorithm for in vivo optical separation of tumor margin and tumor from normal human brain tissue," Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Macdonald, R. L.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, S. T. Rigley

K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maciunas, R. J.

D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, Jr., R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, "Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy," Neurosurgery 43, 514-526; discussion 527-528 (1998).
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R. J. Maciunas, Interactive Image-Guided Neurosurgery (American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1993).

R. J. Maciunas, Minimally Invasive Therapy of the Brain (Thieme, 1997).

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P. D. LeRoux, T. C. Winter, M. S. Berger, L. A. Mack, K. Wang, and J. P. Elliott, "A comparison between preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound tumor volumes and margins," J. Clin. Ultrasound 22, 29-36 (1994).
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S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2011-2027 (2006).
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S. A. Toms, W. C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative optical spectroscopy identifies infiltrating glioma margins with high sensitivity," Neurosurgery 57, 382-391 (2005).
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S. Gebhart, D. Stokes, T. Vo-Dinh, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Instrumentation considerations in spectral imaging for tissue demarcation: comparing three methods of spectral resolution," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications, and Analysis III, R. Levenson, ed., Proc. SPIE 5694, 41-52 (2005).

S. C. Gebhart, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Characterization of a spectral imaging system," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications and Analysis II, R. Levenson, G. Bearman, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4959, 34-45 (2003).
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W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative application of optical spectroscopy in the presence of blood," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 996-1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Motamedi, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy; an in vitro study," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 214-220 (2000).
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S. K. Majumder, S. C. Gebhart, M. Johnson, R. C. Thompson, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "A probability-based multiclass diagnostic algorithm for in vivo optical separation of tumor margin and tumor from normal human brain tissue," Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Majumder, S. K.

S. C. Gebhart, S. K. Majumder, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Comparison of spectral variation from spectroscopy to spectral imaging," Appl. Opt. 46, 1343-1360 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Majumder, S. C. Gebhart, M. Johnson, R. C. Thompson, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "A probability-based multiclass diagnostic algorithm for in vivo optical separation of tumor margin and tumor from normal human brain tissue," Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).
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M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
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M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
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K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
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M. Ammirati, N. Vick, Y. L. Liao, I. Ciric, and M. Mikhael, "Effect of the extent of surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with supratentorial glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 21, 201-206 (1987).
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R. L. Sidman, B. Kosaras, B. M. Misra, and S. L. Senft, "High resolution mouse brain atlas," http://www.hms.harvard.edu/research/brain, 1999.

Morris, H. R.

Moseley, H.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
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W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Motamedi, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy; an in vitro study," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 214-220 (2000).
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A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
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A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
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A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
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R. G. Nadeau and W. Groner, "The role of a new noninvasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of anemia," J. Nutr. 131, 1610S-1614S (2001).
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J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
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H. Fabian, N. A. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, "Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 874-882 (2006).
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I. M. Orfanoudaki, G. C. Themelis, S. K. Sifakis, D. H. Fragouli, J. G. Panayiotides, E. M. Vazgiouraki, and E. E. Koumantakis, "A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system," Gynecol. Oncol. 96, 119-131 (2005).
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M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
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J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
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I. M. Orfanoudaki, G. C. Themelis, S. K. Sifakis, D. H. Fragouli, J. G. Panayiotides, E. M. Vazgiouraki, and E. E. Koumantakis, "A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system," Gynecol. Oncol. 96, 119-131 (2005).
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M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
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M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
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Pifferi, A.

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Qu, J. N. Y.

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N. Ramanujam, J. Chen, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, and B. Chance, "Fast and noninvasive fluorescence imaging of biological tissues in vivo using a flying-spot scanner," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 1034-1041 (2001).
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V. V. Lazarev, R. A. Roth, Y. Kazakevich, and J. Hang, "Detection of premalignant oral lesions in hamsters with an endoscopic fluorescence imaging system," Cancer 85, 1421-1429 (1999).
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S. A. Toms, D. Z. Ferson, and R. Sawaya, "Basic surgical techniques in the resection of malignant gliomas," J. Neuro-Oncol. 42, 215-226 (1999).
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U. Thomale, K. Schaser, A. W. Unterberg, and J. F. Stover, "Visualization of rat pial microcirculation using the novel orthogonal polarized spectral (OPS) imaging after brain injury," J. Neurosci. Methods 108, 85-90 (2001).
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H. Fabian, N. A. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, "Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 874-882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
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M. T. Selch, B. W. Goy, S. P. Lee, S. El-Sàdin, P. Kincaid, S. H. Park, and H. R. Withers, "Gangliogliomas: experience with 34 patients and review of the literature," Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 557-564 (1998).
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Senft, S. L.

R. L. Sidman, B. Kosaras, B. M. Misra, and S. L. Senft, "High resolution mouse brain atlas," http://www.hms.harvard.edu/research/brain, 1999.

Sibbett, W.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, and M. Padgett, "The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278-282 (2001).
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R. L. Sidman, B. Kosaras, B. M. Misra, and S. L. Senft, "High resolution mouse brain atlas," http://www.hms.harvard.edu/research/brain, 1999.

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. M. Orfanoudaki, G. C. Themelis, S. K. Sifakis, D. H. Fragouli, J. G. Panayiotides, E. M. Vazgiouraki, and E. E. Koumantakis, "A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system," Gynecol. Oncol. 96, 119-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Knake, R. A. Bowerman, T. M. Silver, and S. McCracken, "Neurosurgical applications of intraoperative ultrasound," Radiol. Clin. North Am. 23, 73-90 (1985).
[PubMed]

Smigal, C.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Khait, S. Smirnov, and C. D. Tran, "Multispectral imaging microscope with millisecond time resolution," Anal. Chem. 73, 732-739 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Stokes, D.

S. Gebhart, D. Stokes, T. Vo-Dinh, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Instrumentation considerations in spectral imaging for tissue demarcation: comparing three methods of spectral resolution," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications, and Analysis III, R. Levenson, ed., Proc. SPIE 5694, 41-52 (2005).

Stover, J. F.

U. Thomale, K. Schaser, A. W. Unterberg, and J. F. Stover, "Visualization of rat pial microcirculation using the novel orthogonal polarized spectral (OPS) imaging after brain injury," J. Neurosci. Methods 108, 85-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweeney, P.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Themelis, G. C.

I. M. Orfanoudaki, G. C. Themelis, S. K. Sifakis, D. H. Fragouli, J. G. Panayiotides, E. M. Vazgiouraki, and E. E. Koumantakis, "A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system," Gynecol. Oncol. 96, 119-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thi, N. A.

H. Fabian, N. A. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, "Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 874-882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomale, U.

U. Thomale, K. Schaser, A. W. Unterberg, and J. F. Stover, "Visualization of rat pial microcirculation using the novel orthogonal polarized spectral (OPS) imaging after brain injury," J. Neurosci. Methods 108, 85-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. L. Dorward, O. Alberti, B. Velani, F. A. Gerritsen, W. F. Harkness, N. D. Kitchen, and D. G. Thomas, "Postimaging brain distortion: magnitude, correlates, and impact on neuronavigation," J. Neurosurg. 88, 656-662 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. K. Majumder, S. C. Gebhart, M. Johnson, R. C. Thompson, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "A probability-based multiclass diagnostic algorithm for in vivo optical separation of tumor margin and tumor from normal human brain tissue," Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toms, S. A.

S. A. Toms, W. C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative optical spectroscopy identifies infiltrating glioma margins with high sensitivity," Neurosurgery 57, 382-391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative application of optical spectroscopy in the presence of blood," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 996-1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Motamedi, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy; an in vitro study," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 214-220 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Toms, D. Z. Ferson, and R. Sawaya, "Basic surgical techniques in the resection of malignant gliomas," J. Neuro-Oncol. 42, 215-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tran, C. D.

O. Khait, S. Smirnov, and C. D. Tran, "Multispectral imaging microscope with millisecond time resolution," Anal. Chem. 73, 732-739 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Tran, "Development and analytical applications of multispectral imaging techniques: an overview," Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 369, 313-319 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Treado, P. J.

Unterberg, A. W.

U. Thomale, K. Schaser, A. W. Unterberg, and J. F. Stover, "Visualization of rat pial microcirculation using the novel orthogonal polarized spectral (OPS) imaging after brain injury," J. Neurosci. Methods 108, 85-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. T. Dicker, J. Lerner, P. Van Belle, S. F. Barth, D. T. Guerry, M. Herlyn, D. E. Elder, and W. S. El-Deiry, "Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging," Cancer Biol. Ther. 5, 1033-1038 (2006).
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Vangemert, M. J. C.

Vanwieringen, N.

Vazgiouraki, E. M.

I. M. Orfanoudaki, G. C. Themelis, S. K. Sifakis, D. H. Fragouli, J. G. Panayiotides, E. M. Vazgiouraki, and E. E. Koumantakis, "A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system," Gynecol. Oncol. 96, 119-131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Velani, B.

N. L. Dorward, O. Alberti, B. Velani, F. A. Gerritsen, W. F. Harkness, N. D. Kitchen, and D. G. Thomas, "Postimaging brain distortion: magnitude, correlates, and impact on neuronavigation," J. Neurosurg. 88, 656-662 (1998).
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L. M. Auer and V. V. Velthoven, Intraoperative Ultrasound Imaging in Neurosurgery: Comparison with CT and MRI (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Vick, N.

M. Ammirati, N. Vick, Y. L. Liao, I. Ciric, and M. Mikhael, "Effect of the extent of surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with supratentorial glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 21, 201-206 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vo-Dinh, T.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Gebhart, D. Stokes, T. Vo-Dinh, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Instrumentation considerations in spectral imaging for tissue demarcation: comparing three methods of spectral resolution," in SPIE Photonics West, Spectral Imaging: Instrumentation, Applications, and Analysis III, R. Levenson, ed., Proc. SPIE 5694, 41-52 (2005).

Vokes, E. E.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wabuyele, M. B.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, I.

S. Andersson-Engels, G. Canti, R. Cubeddu, C. Eker, C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, and I. Wang, "Preliminary evaluation of two fluorescence imaging methods for the detection and the delineation of basal cell carcinomas of the skin," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 76-82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

P. D. LeRoux, T. C. Winter, M. S. Berger, L. A. Mack, K. Wang, and J. P. Elliott, "A comparison between preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound tumor volumes and margins," J. Clin. Ultrasound 22, 29-36 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. L. Hill, C. R. Maurer, Jr., R. J. Maciunas, J. A. Barwise, J. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Y. Wang, "Measurement of intraoperative brain surface deformation under a craniotomy," Neurosurgery 43, 514-526; discussion 527-528 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
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Weil, R. J.

S. A. Toms, W. C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative optical spectroscopy identifies infiltrating glioma margins with high sensitivity," Neurosurgery 57, 382-391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weir, B. K.

A. Kowalczuk, R. L. Macdonald, C. Amidei, G. Dohrmann, 3rd, R. K. Erickson, J. Hekmatpanah, S. Krauss, S. Krishnasamy, G. Masters, S. F. Mullan, A. J. Mundt, P. Sweeney, E. E. Vokes, B. K. Weir, and R. L. Wollman, "Quantitative imaging study of extent of surgical resection and prognosis of malignant astrocytomas," Neurosurgery 41, 1028-1036 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D.

M. E. Martin, M. B. Wabuyele, K. Chen, P. Kasili, M. Panjehpour, M. Phan, B. Overholt, G. Cunningham, D. Wilson, R. C. Denovo, and T. Vo-Dinh, "Development of an advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system with applications for cancer detection," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1061-1068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. D. LeRoux, T. C. Winter, M. S. Berger, L. A. Mack, K. Wang, and J. P. Elliott, "A comparison between preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound tumor volumes and margins," J. Clin. Ultrasound 22, 29-36 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. R. Bambery, E. Schultke, B. R. Wood, S. T. Rigley MacDonald, K. Ataelmannan, R. W. Griebel, B. H. Juurlink, and D. McNaughton, "A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758, 900-907 (2006).
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Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
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Am. J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

M. T. Selch, B. W. Goy, S. P. Lee, S. El-Sàdin, P. Kincaid, S. H. Park, and H. R. Withers, "Gangliogliomas: experience with 34 patients and review of the literature," Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 557-564 (1998).
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S. K. Majumder, S. C. Gebhart, M. Johnson, R. C. Thompson, W.-C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "A probability-based multiclass diagnostic algorithm for in vivo optical separation of tumor margin and tumor from normal human brain tissue," Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).
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A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, C. Smigal, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2006," CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 106-130 (2006).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative application of optical spectroscopy in the presence of blood," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 996-1003 (2001).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

C. Balas, "A novel optical imaging method for the early detection, quantitative grading, and mapping of cancerous and precancerous lesions of cervix," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 96-104 (2001).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W.-C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Motamedi, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy; an in vitro study," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 214-220 (2000).
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J. Clin. Ultrasound (1)

P. D. LeRoux, T. C. Winter, M. S. Berger, L. A. Mack, K. Wang, and J. P. Elliott, "A comparison between preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound tumor volumes and margins," J. Clin. Ultrasound 22, 29-36 (1994).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

M. E. Martin, M. Wabuyele, M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, R. DeNovo, S. Kennel, G. Cunningham, and T. Vo-Dinh, "An AOTF-based dual-modality hyperspectral imaging system (DMHSI) capable of simultaneous fluorescence and reflectance imaging," Med. Eng. Phys. 28, 149-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neurosurgery (4)

S. A. Toms, W. C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Intraoperative optical spectroscopy identifies infiltrating glioma margins with high sensitivity," Neurosurgery 57, 382-391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) LCTF spectral imaging system coupled to the side assembly of a Wild Heerbrugg M690 operating microscope. (b) Schematic of excitation optics for combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) NBS 1963A spatial resolution target. (b) Sample intensity profile calculated by averaging the measured intensity across a set of rulings for all wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (a) reduced scattering and (b) absorption spectra from white matter, gray matter, and tumor tissues (Ref. [39]), and phantoms using a single-integrating-sphere spectrophotometer and the inverse adding–doubling technique (Ref. [40]).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linearity measurements at 600 nm for (a) constant integration time, variable sample emission and (b) constant sample emission, variable integration time. Measured intensities, ideal emission intensities, and integration times are normalized relative to the maximum intensity images in each set of measurements ( OD = 0 and 5000 ms integration).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Imaging system field of view as a function of object distance from the distal face of the LCTF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Mean imaging spectra of various laser inputs across the spectral range of the LCTF. (b) Measured spectral bandwidth of the imaging system as a function of peak emission intensity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Sigmoid relationship between the measured PVRs as a function of separation distance between ruling lines. (b) Zoomed view of the sigmoid curve centered around the region where separation distance yields a PVR equal to the square root of 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Sensitivity and (b) dynamic range spectra of the system for fluorescence and diffuse reflectance imaging.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Diffuse reflectance and (b) fluorescence spectral images of a brain tissue phantom in vitro. Image intensities reflect a summation of the measured spectral intensities at each pixel. (c) Mean diffuse reflectance spectra (over boxed 20 × 20 pixel regions) for the three tissue types. (d) Mean fluorescence spectra. (e) Discrimination image depicting normal (black) and tumor (white) tissues, created using F 460 / R d 700 . Pixels with F 460 / R d 700 < 1.15 were classified as tumor, F 460 / R d 700 > 1.35 classified as normal, and 1.15 < F 460 / R d 700 < 1.35 classified as transitional areas (gray).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Diffuse reflectance and (b) fluorescence spectral images of a frontal slice of mouse brain imaged in vitro. Color intensities reflect a weighted integration scheme, shown in (e), of the measured spectral intensities at each pixel. (c) Composite Nissl (pink) and myelin (black) stained frontal section through the rostral diencephalon of the mouse brain (Ref. [20]). (d) Raw fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra for white and gray matter tissues ( 10 × 10 pixel regions) before correction for integration time and system sensitivity as a function of wavelength. (e) Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra after correction and the custom integration scheme (solid thick lines) employed to produce color images from spectral imaging data.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

In vivo (a) diffuse reflectance and (b) fluorescence spectral images of the cortical surface of a human brain tumor patient. (c) Raw fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra ( 20 × 20 pixel regions) from tumor (left of major blood vessel vertically bisecting the image) and normal cortex (right) before correction for integration time and system sensitivity as a function of wavelength. (d) Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra after correction.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Component Concentrations a for Tissue Phantoms that Mimic White Matter, Gray Matter, and Tumor Tissue

Tables Icon

Table 2 Regressions Statistics for Linearity Measurements Averaged Across all Wavelengths

Metrics