Abstract

We outline a computationally efficient image correction algorithm, which we have applied to diffuse optical tomography (DOT) image time series derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain model. Results show that the algorithm increases spatial resolution, decreases spatial bias, and only modestly reduces temporal accuracy for noise levels typically seen in experiment, and produces results comparable to image reconstructions that incorporate information from MRI priors. We demonstrate that this algorithm has robust performance in the presence of noise, background heterogeneity, irregular external and internal boundaries, and error in the initial guess. However, the algorithm introduces artifacts when the absorption and scattering coefficients of the reference medium are overestimated—a situation that is easily avoided in practice. The considered algorithm offers a practical approach to improving the quality of images from time-series DOT, even without the use of MRI priors.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. G. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 48, 34-40 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, "Functional imaging with diffusing light," in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC, 2003), pp. 21-1-21-45.
  3. Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for dc optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 5755-5769 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 9, 97-109 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of spatiotemporal coincident states by DC optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 852-866 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and C. H. Schmitz, "Imaging of vascular chaos," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 577-590 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2153 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine II: modelling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, and Y. Pei, "Quantification and enhancement of image reconstruction accuracy by frequency encoding of spatial information," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 635-637.
  15. R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. Aronson, "Strategies for imaging diffusing media," Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. 33, 361-371 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution technique to improve the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional diffuse optical tomographic images," Appl. Opt. 44, 941-953 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images by means of spatial deconvolution: two-dimensional quantitative characterization," Appl. Opt. 44, 2115-2139 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Image quality improvement via spatial deconvolution in optical tomography: time-series imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051701 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/loadFile.do?objectId=4879.
  20. F. X. Castellanos, A. Di Martino, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic optical tomography of cerebral vascular hemodynamics," Poster no. 650 at Human Brain Mapping 2003 (New York, N.Y., 18-22 June 2003).
  21. http://gid.cimne.upc.es/intro/.
  22. A. Y. Bluestone, G. Abdoulaev, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head," Opt. Express 9, 272-286 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue: A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, 1990).
  24. D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, s275-s288 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. L. Graber, J. Chang, R. Aronson, and R. L. Barbour, "A perturbation model for imaging in dense scattering media: derivation and evaluation of imaging operators," in SPIE Institute of Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring (SPIE, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 121-143.
  26. H. L. Graber, J. Chang, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of multiple targets in dense scattering media," in Experimental and Numerical Methods for Solving Ill-Posed Inverse Problems: Medical and Nonmedical Applications,Proc. SPIE 2570, 219-234 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, "Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography," Med. Phys. 30, 861-869 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Jiang, "Frequency-domain fluorescent diffusion tomography: a finite-element-based algorithm and simulations," Appl. Opt. 37, 5337-5343 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, and J. Lubowsky, "Model for 3-D optical imaging of tissue," in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (1990), Vol. 2, pp. 1395-1399.
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, J. Lubowsky, and H. L. Graber, "Application of transport theory to infra-red medical imaging," in Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Transport Theory, Blacksburg Va., 22-26 May 1989 (Birkhauser-Verlag, 1991), Vol. 51, pp. 64-75.
  31. S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Reconstruction methods for infrared absorption imaging," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE 1431, 204-215 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. Huang, T. Xie, N. G. Chen, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous reconstruction of absorption and scattering maps with ultrasound localization: feasibility study using transmission geometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 4102-4114 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images via spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 83 at Fourth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 20-22 September 2004).
    [PubMed]
  36. Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution of 3-D diffuse optical tomographic time series: influence of background medium heterogeneity," Poster no. 686 T-PM at Human Brain Mapping 2006 (Florence, Italy, 11-15 June 2006).
  37. H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Image enhancement by linear spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 77 at Fifth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 25-27 September 2006).
    [PubMed]
  38. U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
  39. N. K. Logothetis, "The underpinnings of the BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging signal," J. Neurosci. 23, 3963-3971 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  40. B. Alacam, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Extended Kalman filtering for the modeling and analysis of ICG pharmacokinetics in cancerous tumors using NIR optical methods," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1861-1871 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. C. J. Long, P. L. Purdon, S. Temereanca, N. U. Desai, M. Hamalainen, and E. N. Brown, "Large scale Kalman filtering solutions to the electrophysiological source localization problem: a MEG case study," at the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper SaB02.5.
  42. A. Hyvärinen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  43. M. Stetter, Exploration of Cortical Function (Kluwer Academic, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  44. H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Image correction scheme applied to functional diffuse optical tomography scattering images," Appl. Opt. 46, 1705-1716 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

B. Alacam, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Extended Kalman filtering for the modeling and analysis of ICG pharmacokinetics in cancerous tumors using NIR optical methods," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1861-1871 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution technique to improve the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional diffuse optical tomographic images," Appl. Opt. 44, 941-953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images by means of spatial deconvolution: two-dimensional quantitative characterization," Appl. Opt. 44, 2115-2139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Image quality improvement via spatial deconvolution in optical tomography: time-series imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, s275-s288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. Aronson, "Strategies for imaging diffusing media," Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. 33, 361-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, "Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography," Med. Phys. 30, 861-869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

N. K. Logothetis, "The underpinnings of the BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging signal," J. Neurosci. 23, 3963-3971 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Huang, T. Xie, N. G. Chen, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous reconstruction of absorption and scattering maps with ultrasound localization: feasibility study using transmission geometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 4102-4114 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of spatiotemporal coincident states by DC optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 852-866 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and C. H. Schmitz, "Imaging of vascular chaos," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 577-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for dc optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 5755-5769 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 9, 97-109 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Bluestone, G. Abdoulaev, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head," Opt. Express 9, 272-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine II: modelling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

A. G. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 48, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of multiple targets in dense scattering media," in Experimental and Numerical Methods for Solving Ill-Posed Inverse Problems: Medical and Nonmedical Applications,Proc. SPIE 2570, 219-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Reconstruction methods for infrared absorption imaging," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE 1431, 204-215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abdoulaev, G.

Alacam, B.

B. Alacam, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Extended Kalman filtering for the modeling and analysis of ICG pharmacokinetics in cancerous tumors using NIR optical methods," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1861-1871 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aronson, R.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. Aronson, "Strategies for imaging diffusing media," Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. 33, 361-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, R. Aronson, and R. L. Barbour, "A perturbation model for imaging in dense scattering media: derivation and evaluation of imaging operators," in SPIE Institute of Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring (SPIE, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 121-143.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, and J. Lubowsky, "Model for 3-D optical imaging of tissue," in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (1990), Vol. 2, pp. 1395-1399.
[CrossRef]

R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, J. Lubowsky, and H. L. Graber, "Application of transport theory to infra-red medical imaging," in Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Transport Theory, Blacksburg Va., 22-26 May 1989 (Birkhauser-Verlag, 1991), Vol. 51, pp. 64-75.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine II: modelling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Reconstruction methods for infrared absorption imaging," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE 1431, 204-215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, R. L.

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Image correction scheme applied to functional diffuse optical tomography scattering images," Appl. Opt. 46, 1705-1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution technique to improve the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional diffuse optical tomographic images," Appl. Opt. 44, 941-953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images by means of spatial deconvolution: two-dimensional quantitative characterization," Appl. Opt. 44, 2115-2139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Image quality improvement via spatial deconvolution in optical tomography: time-series imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. Aronson, "Strategies for imaging diffusing media," Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. 33, 361-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of spatiotemporal coincident states by DC optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 852-866 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and C. H. Schmitz, "Imaging of vascular chaos," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 577-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Bluestone, G. Abdoulaev, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head," Opt. Express 9, 272-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 9, 97-109 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for dc optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 5755-5769 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of multiple targets in dense scattering media," in Experimental and Numerical Methods for Solving Ill-Posed Inverse Problems: Medical and Nonmedical Applications,Proc. SPIE 2570, 219-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, R. Aronson, and R. L. Barbour, "A perturbation model for imaging in dense scattering media: derivation and evaluation of imaging operators," in SPIE Institute of Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring (SPIE, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 121-143.

F. X. Castellanos, A. Di Martino, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic optical tomography of cerebral vascular hemodynamics," Poster no. 650 at Human Brain Mapping 2003 (New York, N.Y., 18-22 June 2003).

H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, and Y. Pei, "Quantification and enhancement of image reconstruction accuracy by frequency encoding of spatial information," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 635-637.

R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, J. Lubowsky, and H. L. Graber, "Application of transport theory to infra-red medical imaging," in Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Transport Theory, Blacksburg Va., 22-26 May 1989 (Birkhauser-Verlag, 1991), Vol. 51, pp. 64-75.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, and J. Lubowsky, "Model for 3-D optical imaging of tissue," in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (1990), Vol. 2, pp. 1395-1399.
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images via spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 83 at Fourth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 20-22 September 2004).
[PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution of 3-D diffuse optical tomographic time series: influence of background medium heterogeneity," Poster no. 686 T-PM at Human Brain Mapping 2006 (Florence, Italy, 11-15 June 2006).

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Image enhancement by linear spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 77 at Fifth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 25-27 September 2006).
[PubMed]

Blattman, S. B.

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bluestone, A. Y.

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, s275-s288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, "Functional imaging with diffusing light," in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC, 2003), pp. 21-1-21-45.

Brown, E. N.

C. J. Long, P. L. Purdon, S. Temereanca, N. U. Desai, M. Hamalainen, and E. N. Brown, "Large scale Kalman filtering solutions to the electrophysiological source localization problem: a MEG case study," at the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper SaB02.5.

Castellanos, F. X.

F. X. Castellanos, A. Di Martino, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic optical tomography of cerebral vascular hemodynamics," Poster no. 650 at Human Brain Mapping 2003 (New York, N.Y., 18-22 June 2003).

Chance, B.

B. Alacam, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Extended Kalman filtering for the modeling and analysis of ICG pharmacokinetics in cancerous tumors using NIR optical methods," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1861-1871 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 48, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of multiple targets in dense scattering media," in Experimental and Numerical Methods for Solving Ill-Posed Inverse Problems: Medical and Nonmedical Applications,Proc. SPIE 2570, 219-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, R. Aronson, and R. L. Barbour, "A perturbation model for imaging in dense scattering media: derivation and evaluation of imaging operators," in SPIE Institute of Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring (SPIE, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 121-143.

Chen, N. G.

Choe, R.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Choudhury, D.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Cope, M.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Reconstruction methods for infrared absorption imaging," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE 1431, 204-215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coussirat, D.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Culver, J. P.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, A. M.

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, s275-s288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Reconstruction methods for infrared absorption imaging," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE 1431, 204-215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Desai, N. U.

C. J. Long, P. L. Purdon, S. Temereanca, N. U. Desai, M. Hamalainen, and E. N. Brown, "Large scale Kalman filtering solutions to the electrophysiological source localization problem: a MEG case study," at the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper SaB02.5.

Di Martino, A.

F. X. Castellanos, A. Di Martino, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic optical tomography of cerebral vascular hemodynamics," Poster no. 650 at Human Brain Mapping 2003 (New York, N.Y., 18-22 June 2003).

Duck, F. A.

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue: A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, 1990).

Durduran, T.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdell, N. L.

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farber, M. B.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini, M. A.

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, s275-s288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, N. A.

Gibson, A. P.

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Graber, H. L.

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Image correction scheme applied to functional diffuse optical tomography scattering images," Appl. Opt. 46, 1705-1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution technique to improve the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional diffuse optical tomographic images," Appl. Opt. 44, 941-953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images by means of spatial deconvolution: two-dimensional quantitative characterization," Appl. Opt. 44, 2115-2139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Image quality improvement via spatial deconvolution in optical tomography: time-series imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. Aronson, "Strategies for imaging diffusing media," Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. 33, 361-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of spatiotemporal coincident states by DC optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 852-866 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and C. H. Schmitz, "Imaging of vascular chaos," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 577-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 9, 97-109 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for dc optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 5755-5769 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of multiple targets in dense scattering media," in Experimental and Numerical Methods for Solving Ill-Posed Inverse Problems: Medical and Nonmedical Applications,Proc. SPIE 2570, 219-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, R. Aronson, and R. L. Barbour, "A perturbation model for imaging in dense scattering media: derivation and evaluation of imaging operators," in SPIE Institute of Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring (SPIE, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 121-143.

F. X. Castellanos, A. Di Martino, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic optical tomography of cerebral vascular hemodynamics," Poster no. 650 at Human Brain Mapping 2003 (New York, N.Y., 18-22 June 2003).

H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, and Y. Pei, "Quantification and enhancement of image reconstruction accuracy by frequency encoding of spatial information," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 635-637.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, and J. Lubowsky, "Model for 3-D optical imaging of tissue," in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (1990), Vol. 2, pp. 1395-1399.
[CrossRef]

R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, J. Lubowsky, and H. L. Graber, "Application of transport theory to infra-red medical imaging," in Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Transport Theory, Blacksburg Va., 22-26 May 1989 (Birkhauser-Verlag, 1991), Vol. 51, pp. 64-75.

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images via spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 83 at Fourth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 20-22 September 2004).
[PubMed]

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Image enhancement by linear spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 77 at Fifth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 25-27 September 2006).
[PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution of 3-D diffuse optical tomographic time series: influence of background medium heterogeneity," Poster no. 686 T-PM at Human Brain Mapping 2006 (Florence, Italy, 11-15 June 2006).

Gratton, E.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Gu, X.

X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, "Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography," Med. Phys. 30, 861-869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamalainen, M.

C. J. Long, P. L. Purdon, S. Temereanca, N. U. Desai, M. Hamalainen, and E. N. Brown, "Large scale Kalman filtering solutions to the electrophysiological source localization problem: a MEG case study," at the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper SaB02.5.

Hanson, K. M.

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardin, R. E.

Hebden, J. C.

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine II: modelling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

A. Y. Bluestone, G. Abdoulaev, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head," Opt. Express 9, 272-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holboke, M. J.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

Hull, S.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Hyvärinen, A.

A. Hyvärinen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Intes, X.

B. Alacam, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Extended Kalman filtering for the modeling and analysis of ICG pharmacokinetics in cancerous tumors using NIR optical methods," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1861-1871 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, "Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography," Med. Phys. 30, 861-869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, "Frequency-domain fluorescent diffusion tomography: a finite-element-based algorithm and simulations," Appl. Opt. 37, 5337-5343 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karhunen, J.

A. Hyvärinen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M. S.

Klemer, D. P.

Klose, A. D.

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landis, G. S.

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levi, M.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Levin, M. B.

Levina, R. D.

Logothetis, N. K.

N. K. Logothetis, "The underpinnings of the BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging signal," J. Neurosci. 23, 3963-3971 (2003).
[PubMed]

Long, C. J.

C. J. Long, P. L. Purdon, S. Temereanca, N. U. Desai, M. Hamalainen, and E. N. Brown, "Large scale Kalman filtering solutions to the electrophysiological source localization problem: a MEG case study," at the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper SaB02.5.

Lubowsky, J.

R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, J. Lubowsky, and H. L. Graber, "Application of transport theory to infra-red medical imaging," in Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Transport Theory, Blacksburg Va., 22-26 May 1989 (Birkhauser-Verlag, 1991), Vol. 51, pp. 64-75.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, and J. Lubowsky, "Model for 3-D optical imaging of tissue," in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (1990), Vol. 2, pp. 1395-1399.
[CrossRef]

Mantulin, W. W.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Michalos, A.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Ntziachristos, V.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oja, E.

A. Hyvärinen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Leary, M. A.

Panetta, T. F.

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunescu, L. A.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Pei, Y.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Image quality improvement via spatial deconvolution in optical tomography: time-series imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution technique to improve the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional diffuse optical tomographic images," Appl. Opt. 44, 941-953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images by means of spatial deconvolution: two-dimensional quantitative characterization," Appl. Opt. 44, 2115-2139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. Aronson, "Strategies for imaging diffusing media," Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. 33, 361-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of spatiotemporal coincident states by DC optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 852-866 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and C. H. Schmitz, "Imaging of vascular chaos," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 577-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 9, 97-109 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for dc optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 5755-5769 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images via spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 83 at Fourth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 20-22 September 2004).
[PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution of 3-D diffuse optical tomographic time series: influence of background medium heterogeneity," Poster no. 686 T-PM at Human Brain Mapping 2006 (Florence, Italy, 11-15 June 2006).

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Image enhancement by linear spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 77 at Fifth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 25-27 September 2006).
[PubMed]

F. X. Castellanos, A. Di Martino, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic optical tomography of cerebral vascular hemodynamics," Poster no. 650 at Human Brain Mapping 2003 (New York, N.Y., 18-22 June 2003).

H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, and Y. Pei, "Quantification and enhancement of image reconstruction accuracy by frequency encoding of spatial information," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 635-637.

Purdon, P. L.

C. J. Long, P. L. Purdon, S. Temereanca, N. U. Desai, M. Hamalainen, and E. N. Brown, "Large scale Kalman filtering solutions to the electrophysiological source localization problem: a MEG case study," at the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper SaB02.5.

Safonova, L. P.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Schmitz, C. H.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2153 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and C. H. Schmitz, "Imaging of vascular chaos," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 577-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Bluestone, G. Abdoulaev, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head," Opt. Express 9, 272-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Castellanos, A. Di Martino, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic optical tomography of cerebral vascular hemodynamics," Poster no. 650 at Human Brain Mapping 2003 (New York, N.Y., 18-22 June 2003).

Slemp, A.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, W. B.

Stetter, M.

M. Stetter, Exploration of Cortical Function (Kluwer Academic, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Temereanca, S.

C. J. Long, P. L. Purdon, S. Temereanca, N. U. Desai, M. Hamalainen, and E. N. Brown, "Large scale Kalman filtering solutions to the electrophysiological source localization problem: a MEG case study," at the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper SaB02.5.

Tullis, I. D. C.

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaithianathan, T.

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Zee, P.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Reconstruction methods for infrared absorption imaging," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE 1431, 204-215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Wolf, U.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

Xie, T.

Xu, Y.

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Image correction scheme applied to functional diffuse optical tomography scattering images," Appl. Opt. 46, 1705-1716 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution technique to improve the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional diffuse optical tomographic images," Appl. Opt. 44, 941-953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images by means of spatial deconvolution: two-dimensional quantitative characterization," Appl. Opt. 44, 2115-2139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Image quality improvement via spatial deconvolution in optical tomography: time-series imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. Aronson, "Strategies for imaging diffusing media," Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. 33, 361-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, "Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography," Med. Phys. 30, 861-869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Image enhancement by linear spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 77 at Fifth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 25-27 September 2006).
[PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution of 3-D diffuse optical tomographic time series: influence of background medium heterogeneity," Poster no. 686 T-PM at Human Brain Mapping 2006 (Florence, Italy, 11-15 June 2006).

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images via spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 83 at Fourth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 20-22 September 2004).
[PubMed]

Yazici, B.

B. Alacam, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Extended Kalman filtering for the modeling and analysis of ICG pharmacokinetics in cancerous tumors using NIR optical methods," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1861-1871 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 426-428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 48, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, "Functional imaging with diffusing light," in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC, 2003), pp. 21-1-21-45.

Zhu, Q.

Zubkov, L.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

B. Alacam, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Extended Kalman filtering for the modeling and analysis of ICG pharmacokinetics in cancerous tumors using NIR optical methods," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 1861-1871 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2)

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of spatiotemporal coincident states by DC optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 852-866 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Image quality improvement via spatial deconvolution in optical tomography: time-series imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

N. K. Logothetis, "The underpinnings of the BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging signal," J. Neurosci. 23, 3963-3971 (2003).
[PubMed]

Med. Phys. (3)

X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, "Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography," Med. Phys. 30, 861-869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, "Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation," Med. Phys. 22, 691-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and M. A. Franceschini, "Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy," Neuroimage 23, s275-s288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Hebden, "Optical imaging in medicine II: modelling and reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 841-853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

A. G. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 48, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

G. S. Landis, T. F. Panetta, S. B. Blattman, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Clinical applications of dynamic optical tomography in vascular disease," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and C. H. Schmitz, "Imaging of vascular chaos," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds., Proc. SPIE 4250, 577-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Reconstruction methods for infrared absorption imaging," in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, ed., Proc. SPIE 1431, 204-215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, and R. L. Barbour, "Imaging of multiple targets in dense scattering media," in Experimental and Numerical Methods for Solving Ill-Posed Inverse Problems: Medical and Nonmedical Applications,Proc. SPIE 2570, 219-234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

N. L. Everdell, A. P. Gibson, I. D. C. Tullis, T. Vaithianathan, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A frequency multiplexed near infrared topography system for imaging functional activation in the brain," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, M. B. Farber, M. Stewart, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color DOT imager," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 094302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. (1)

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. Aronson, "Strategies for imaging diffusing media," Transp. Theory Stat. Phys. 33, 361-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, R. Aronson, and J. Lubowsky, "Model for 3-D optical imaging of tissue," in International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (1990), Vol. 2, pp. 1395-1399.
[CrossRef]

R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, J. Lubowsky, and H. L. Graber, "Application of transport theory to infra-red medical imaging," in Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Transport Theory, Blacksburg Va., 22-26 May 1989 (Birkhauser-Verlag, 1991), Vol. 51, pp. 64-75.

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue: A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, 1990).

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, R. Aronson, and R. L. Barbour, "A perturbation model for imaging in dense scattering media: derivation and evaluation of imaging operators," in SPIE Institute of Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring (SPIE, 1993), Vol. IS11, pp. 121-143.

Y. Xu, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, "Improved accuracy of reconstructed diffuse optical tomographic images via spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 83 at Fourth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 20-22 September 2004).
[PubMed]

Y. Xu, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Spatial deconvolution of 3-D diffuse optical tomographic time series: influence of background medium heterogeneity," Poster no. 686 T-PM at Human Brain Mapping 2006 (Florence, Italy, 11-15 June 2006).

H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, Y. Pei, and R. L. Barbour, "Image enhancement by linear spatial deconvolution: recent developments," Poster no. 77 at Fifth Inter-Institute Workshop on Optical Diagnostic Imaging from Bench to Bedside at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md., 25-27 September 2006).
[PubMed]

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).

A. G. Yodh and D. A. Boas, "Functional imaging with diffusing light," in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC, 2003), pp. 21-1-21-45.

H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, and Y. Pei, "Quantification and enhancement of image reconstruction accuracy by frequency encoding of spatial information," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 635-637.

http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/loadFile.do?objectId=4879.

F. X. Castellanos, A. Di Martino, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, and R. L. Barbour, "Dynamic optical tomography of cerebral vascular hemodynamics," Poster no. 650 at Human Brain Mapping 2003 (New York, N.Y., 18-22 June 2003).

http://gid.cimne.upc.es/intro/.

C. J. Long, P. L. Purdon, S. Temereanca, N. U. Desai, M. Hamalainen, and E. N. Brown, "Large scale Kalman filtering solutions to the electrophysiological source localization problem: a MEG case study," at the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper SaB02.5.

A. Hyvärinen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Stetter, Exploration of Cortical Function (Kluwer Academic, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tissue model used to generate simulated data. The section shown intersects the premotor and primary motor cortices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Two-dimensional heterogeneous model geometry, with the subregions coded by gray levels, derived from the portion of Fig. 1 bounded by a dashed curve. (b) Exterior view of the 3D model geometry generated by extruding the 2D model in the third dimension, with source and detector positions indicated as small white circles. (c) Interior view of the 3D model from Fig. 2(b), revealing the inclusion embedded in gray matter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of μ a versus time, in the inclusion and gray-matter compartments of the 3D tissue model of Figs. 2(b) and 2(c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Volume rendering of the Target2 target medium, at time frame 100. (b)–(e) Volume renderings of images reconstructed from Target1–Target4 detector data, respectively, by solving Eq. (3). For all four targets, the R r , w a , and w s factors are computed from the Reference2 medium (see Table 1). (f)–(i) Volume renderings of the Target1–Target4 images, respectively, after they have been spatially deconvolved, using the method of Subsection 2.E. In each subfigure, the range of μ a values plotted runs from μ a max / 2 to μ a max .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Bar graph of relative percent change in image spatial correlation, comparing the image-to-target SC [Eq. (4)] after and before spatial image correction, for all 16 target–reference pairings. (b) Bar graph of the corresponding RPCs in image TC. Each bar represents the average RPC s [Eq. (6)] or RPC t [Eq. (7)] across all 100 time frames. Annotations indicate whether the reference-medium CSF optical coefficients match (M), overestimate (O) or underestimate (U) those of the target medium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatially corrected images, for time frame 100, reconstructed from noisy detector data. (a), (d), (g) Noise level 1: noise standard deviation is 1%–10% of noise-free detector reading. (b), (e), (h) Noise level 2: noise standard deviation is 2%–20% of noise-free detector reading. (c), (f), (i) Noise level 3: noise standard deviation is 3%–30% of noise-free detector reading. (a)–(c) No noise suppression method is used. (d)–(f) tLPF used to suppress noise. (g)–(i) sLPFs and tLPFs used to suppress noise.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plots of image-versus-target spatial correlation versus time frame, before (dashed curves) and after (solid curves) spatial correction, for images recovered from data contaminated with level-3 noise. (a) No noise-suppression method is used. (b) tLPF used to suppress noise. (c) sLPFs and tLPFs used to suppress noise. D = uncorrected image, +D = corrected image.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) (a) Contour map of RPC in image spatial correlation, comparing the image-versus-target SC [Eq. (4)] after and before spatial correction, for the four TargetN–Reference3 pairings, three noise levels, and four varieties of noise suppression. (b) Contour map of the corresponding RPCs in image temporal correlation. Each square represents the average RPC s [Eq. (6)] or RPC t [Eq. (7)] across all 100 time frames.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of rmsd versus Tikhonov regularization parameter λ, for the Target3–Reference3 combination and level-1 noise. The dotted vertical line indicates optimal value of λ, as derived from an L-curve analysis. D = uncorrected image, + D = corrected image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Coefficient Values Assigned to the Different Tissue Compartments, for All Target and Reference Media a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spatial and Temporal Image-Versus-Target Correlations, before and after Image Correction, for Different Strategies for Applying the Correction Scheme a

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ a g ( t ) = μ a g 0 [ 1 + m r   sin ( 2 π f r t + φ r ) + m c   sin ( 2 π f c t + φ c ) ]
μ a i ( t ) = μ a i 0 [ 1 + m v   sin ( 2 π f v t + φ v ) ]
( R R 0 R 0 ) j R j r = k ( w j k a Δ μ a , k + w j k s Δ μ s , k ) ,
SC ( t 0 ) = 1 N n 1 k = 1 N n ( u k u ¯ s u ) ( v k v ¯ s v ) ,
TC ( r 0 ) = 1 N t 1 k = 1 N t ( u k u ¯ s u ) ( v k v ¯ s v ) ,
RPC s = 100 SC c SC u SC u ,
RPC t = 100 TC c TC u TC u ,

Metrics