Abstract

A new facility for measuring irradiance in the UV was commissioned recently at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The facility uses the calculable radiation from the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility as the primary standard. To measure the irradiance from a source under test, an integrating sphere spectrometer–detector system measures both the source under test and the synchrotron radiation sequentially, and the irradiance from the source under test can be determined. In particular, we discuss the calibration of deuterium lamps using this facility from 200 to 400  nm. This facility improves the current NIST UV irradiance scale to a relative measurement uncertainty of 1.2%(k=2).

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, J. L. Gardener, eds., Optical Radiometry, Vol. 41 of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences (Elsevier, 2005).
  2. R. Stair, R. G. Johnson, and E. W. Halback, "Standard of spectral radiance for the region of 0.25 to 2.6 microns," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 64A, 291-296 (1960).
  3. R. Stair, W. Schneider, and J. K. Jackson, "A new standard of spectral irradiance," Appl. Opt. 2, 1151-1154 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. R. Ott, P. Fieffe-Prevost, and W. L. Wiese, "VUV radiometry with hydrogen arcs. 1: Principle of the method and comparisons with blackbody calibrations from 1650 A to 3600 A," Appl. Opt. 12, 1618-1629 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. R. Ott, K. Behringer, and G. Gieres, "Vacuum ultraviolet radiometry with hydrogen arcs. 2: The high power arc as an absolute standard of spectral irradiance from 124 nm to 360 nm," Appl. Opt. 14, 2121-2128 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Bridges and W. R. Ott, "Vacuum ultraviolet radiometry. 3: The argon mini-arc as a new secondary standard of spectral radiance," Appl. Opt. 16, 367-376 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Stuck and B. Wende, "Photometric comparison between two calculable vacuum-ultraviolet standard radiation sources: synchrotron radiation and plasma-blackbody radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 96-100 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, "Spectral and angular distribution of ultraviolet radiation from the 300 MeV Cornell synchrotron," Phys. Rev. 102, 1423-1447 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Codling and R. P. Madden, "Characteristics of the 'synchrotron light' from the NBS 180 MeV machine," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380-387 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Bathow, E. Freytag, and R. Haensel, "Measurement of synchrotron radiation in the x-ray region," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3449-3454 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Lemke and D. Labs, "The synchrotron radiation of the 6 GeV DESY machine as a fundamental radiometric standard," Appl. Opt. 6, 1043-1048 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Pitz, "Absolute calibration of light sources in the vacuum ultraviolet by means of the synchrotron radiation of DESY," Appl. Opt. 8, 255-259 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, and A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-1 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).
  14. J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).
  15. J. Schwinger, "On the classical radiation of accelerated electrons," Phys. Rev. 75, 1912-1925 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Ederer, E. B. Saloman, S. C. Ebner, and R. P. Madden, "The use of synchrotron radiation as an absolute source of VUV radiation," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 79A, 761-774 (1975).
  17. P. J. Key and T. H. Ward, "The establishment of ultraviolet spectral emission scales using synchrotron radiation," Metrologia 14, 17-29 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Zama and I. Saito, "Calibration of absolute spectral radiation in UV and VUV regions by using synchrotron radiation," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1087-1091 (2005).
  19. M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Lei, W. Paustian, and E. Tegeler, "Determination of the spectral radiance of transfer standards in the spectral range 110 nm to 400 nm using BESSY as a primary source standard," Metrologia 32, 589-592 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).
  22. L. R. Hughey and A. R. Schaefer, "Reduced absolute uncertainty in the irradiance of SURF-II and instrumentation for measuring linearity of x-ray, XUV and UV detectors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 367-370 (1982).
  23. A. R. Schaefer, L. R. Hughey, and J. B. Fowler, "Direct determination of the stored electron beam current at the NBS electron storage ring, SURF-II," Metrologia 19, 131-136 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiode physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).
  25. H. J. Kostkowski, J. L. Lean, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NBS SURF and tungsten ultraviolet irradiance standards," Appl. Opt. 25, 3297-3306 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. L. Lean, H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NIST SURF and argon miniarc irradiance standards at 214 nm," Appl. Opt. 28, 3246-3253 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Thompson, E. A. Early, and T. R. O'Brian, "Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1-13 (1998).
  28. U. Arp, R. Friedman, M. L. Furst, S. Makar, and P.-S. Shaw, "SURF III--an improved storage ring for radiometry," Metrologia 37, 357-360 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based absolute radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).
  31. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1975), Chap. 14.
  32. H. J. Kostkowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, 1997), Chap. 4.
  33. S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).
  34. Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Characterization of an ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet irradiance meter with synchrotron radiation," Appl. Opt. 41, 7173-7178 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Stability of photodiodes under irradiation with a 157-nm pulsed excimer laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 197-207 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, and K. R. Lykke, "Absolute radiant flux measurement of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 070701 (2006).
  38. G. P. Eppeldauer and J. E. Hardis, "Fourteen-decade photocurrent measurements with large-area silicon photodiodes at room temperature," Appl. Opt. 30, 3091-3099 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources," Metrologia 37, 579-582 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. D. Saunders, W. R. Ott, and J. M. Bridges, "Spectral irradiance standard for the ultraviolet: the deuterium lamp (E)," Appl. Opt. 17, 593-600 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, "Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance," Metrologia 40, S111-S114 (2003).

2006

2005

2002

P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Characterization of an ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet irradiance meter with synchrotron radiation," Appl. Opt. 41, 7173-7178 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources," Metrologia 37, 579-582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Arp, R. Friedman, M. L. Furst, S. Makar, and P.-S. Shaw, "SURF III--an improved storage ring for radiometry," Metrologia 37, 357-360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, and T. R. O'Brian, "Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1-13 (1998).

1995

F. Lei, W. Paustian, and E. Tegeler, "Determination of the spectral radiance of transfer standards in the spectral range 110 nm to 400 nm using BESSY as a primary source standard," Metrologia 32, 589-592 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1989

1986

H. J. Kostkowski, J. L. Lean, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NBS SURF and tungsten ultraviolet irradiance standards," Appl. Opt. 25, 3297-3306 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiode physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

1984

A. R. Schaefer, L. R. Hughey, and J. B. Fowler, "Direct determination of the stored electron beam current at the NBS electron storage ring, SURF-II," Metrologia 19, 131-136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978

P. J. Key and T. H. Ward, "The establishment of ultraviolet spectral emission scales using synchrotron radiation," Metrologia 14, 17-29 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Saunders, W. R. Ott, and J. M. Bridges, "Spectral irradiance standard for the ultraviolet: the deuterium lamp (E)," Appl. Opt. 17, 593-600 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

1975

1973

1972

1969

1967

1966

G. Bathow, E. Freytag, and R. Haensel, "Measurement of synchrotron radiation in the x-ray region," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3449-3454 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, "Characteristics of the 'synchrotron light' from the NBS 180 MeV machine," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380-387 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963

1960

R. Stair, R. G. Johnson, and E. W. Halback, "Standard of spectral radiance for the region of 0.25 to 2.6 microns," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 64A, 291-296 (1960).

1956

D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, "Spectral and angular distribution of ultraviolet radiation from the 300 MeV Cornell synchrotron," Phys. Rev. 102, 1423-1447 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1949

J. Schwinger, "On the classical radiation of accelerated electrons," Phys. Rev. 75, 1912-1925 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Arp, U.

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Arp, R. Friedman, M. L. Furst, S. Makar, and P.-S. Shaw, "SURF III--an improved storage ring for radiometry," Metrologia 37, 357-360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, and K. R. Lykke, "Absolute radiant flux measurement of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 070701 (2006).

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based absolute radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).

Bathow, G.

G. Bathow, E. Freytag, and R. Haensel, "Measurement of synchrotron radiation in the x-ray region," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3449-3454 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Behringer, K.

Bridges, J. M.

Brown, S. W.

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources," Metrologia 37, 579-582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).

Clark, D. K.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).

Codling, K.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, "Characteristics of the 'synchrotron light' from the NBS 180 MeV machine," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380-387 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Datla, R. U.

A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, J. L. Gardener, eds., Optical Radiometry, Vol. 41 of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences (Elsevier, 2005).

Early, E. A.

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, and T. R. O'Brian, "Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1-13 (1998).

Ebner, S. C.

D. L. Ederer, E. B. Saloman, S. C. Ebner, and R. P. Madden, "The use of synchrotron radiation as an absolute source of VUV radiation," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 79A, 761-774 (1975).

Ederer, D. L.

D. L. Ederer, E. B. Saloman, S. C. Ebner, and R. P. Madden, "The use of synchrotron radiation as an absolute source of VUV radiation," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 79A, 761-774 (1975).

Eppeldauer, G. P.

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources," Metrologia 37, 579-582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer and J. E. Hardis, "Fourteen-decade photocurrent measurements with large-area silicon photodiodes at room temperature," Appl. Opt. 30, 3091-3099 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinholz, M. E.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).

Fieffe-Prevost, P.

Fischer, J.

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flora, S. J.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).

Fowler, J. B.

A. R. Schaefer, L. R. Hughey, and J. B. Fowler, "Direct determination of the stored electron beam current at the NBS electron storage ring, SURF-II," Metrologia 19, 131-136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Freidrich, R.

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Freytag, E.

G. Bathow, E. Freytag, and R. Haensel, "Measurement of synchrotron radiation in the x-ray region," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3449-3454 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, R.

U. Arp, R. Friedman, M. L. Furst, S. Makar, and P.-S. Shaw, "SURF III--an improved storage ring for radiometry," Metrologia 37, 357-360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Furst, M. L.

U. Arp, R. Friedman, M. L. Furst, S. Makar, and P.-S. Shaw, "SURF III--an improved storage ring for radiometry," Metrologia 37, 357-360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gardener, J. L.

A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, J. L. Gardener, eds., Optical Radiometry, Vol. 41 of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences (Elsevier, 2005).

Gieres, G.

Gupta, R.

Haensel, R.

G. Bathow, E. Freytag, and R. Haensel, "Measurement of synchrotron radiation in the x-ray region," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3449-3454 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Halback, E. W.

R. Stair, R. G. Johnson, and E. W. Halback, "Standard of spectral radiance for the region of 0.25 to 2.6 microns," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 64A, 291-296 (1960).

Hardis, J. E.

Hartman, P. L.

D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, "Spectral and angular distribution of ultraviolet radiation from the 300 MeV Cornell synchrotron," Phys. Rev. 102, 1423-1447 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Hattenburg, A. T.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, and A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-1 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

Hollandt, J.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).

Hughey, L. R.

J. L. Lean, H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NIST SURF and argon miniarc irradiance standards at 214 nm," Appl. Opt. 28, 3246-3253 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Kostkowski, J. L. Lean, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NBS SURF and tungsten ultraviolet irradiance standards," Appl. Opt. 25, 3297-3306 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiode physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

A. R. Schaefer, L. R. Hughey, and J. B. Fowler, "Direct determination of the stored electron beam current at the NBS electron storage ring, SURF-II," Metrologia 19, 131-136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Hughey and A. R. Schaefer, "Reduced absolute uncertainty in the irradiance of SURF-II and instrumentation for measuring linearity of x-ray, XUV and UV detectors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 367-370 (1982).

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1975), Chap. 14.

Jackson, J. K.

R. Stair, W. Schneider, and J. K. Jackson, "A new standard of spectral irradiance," Appl. Opt. 2, 1151-1154 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

Johnson, B. C.

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).

Johnson, R. G.

R. Stair, R. G. Johnson, and E. W. Halback, "Standard of spectral radiance for the region of 0.25 to 2.6 microns," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 64A, 291-296 (1960).

Jung, H. J.

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Key, P. J.

P. J. Key and T. H. Ward, "The establishment of ultraviolet spectral emission scales using synchrotron radiation," Metrologia 14, 17-29 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kostkowski, H. J.

Kroth, U.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).

Labs, D.

Lean, J. L.

Lei, F.

F. Lei, W. Paustian, and E. Tegeler, "Determination of the spectral radiance of transfer standards in the spectral range 110 nm to 400 nm using BESSY as a primary source standard," Metrologia 32, 589-592 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, D.

Lykke, K. R.

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Stability of photodiodes under irradiation with a 157-nm pulsed excimer laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 197-207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Characterization of an ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet irradiance meter with synchrotron radiation," Appl. Opt. 41, 7173-7178 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources," Metrologia 37, 579-582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, and K. R. Lykke, "Absolute radiant flux measurement of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 070701 (2006).

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based absolute radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).

Madden, R. P.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, "Characteristics of the 'synchrotron light' from the NBS 180 MeV machine," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380-387 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Ederer, E. B. Saloman, S. C. Ebner, and R. P. Madden, "The use of synchrotron radiation as an absolute source of VUV radiation," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 79A, 761-774 (1975).

Makar, S.

U. Arp, R. Friedman, M. L. Furst, S. Makar, and P.-S. Shaw, "SURF III--an improved storage ring for radiometry," Metrologia 37, 357-360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McSparron, D. A.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

Metzdorf, J.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, "Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance," Metrologia 40, S111-S114 (2003).

Nawo, B.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, "Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance," Metrologia 40, S111-S114 (2003).

O'Brian, T. R.

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, and T. R. O'Brian, "Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1-13 (1998).

Ohno, Y.

Ott, W. R.

Parr, A. C.

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, J. L. Gardener, eds., Optical Radiometry, Vol. 41 of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences (Elsevier, 2005).

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based absolute radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).

Paustian, W.

F. Lei, W. Paustian, and E. Tegeler, "Determination of the spectral radiance of transfer standards in the spectral range 110 nm to 400 nm using BESSY as a primary source standard," Metrologia 32, 589-592 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).

Pitz, E.

Raatz, K.-H.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, "Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance," Metrologia 40, S111-S114 (2003).

Rabus, H.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).

Richter, M.

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).

Saito, I.

T. Zama and I. Saito, "Calibration of absolute spectral radiation in UV and VUV regions by using synchrotron radiation," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1087-1091 (2005).

Saloman, E. B.

D. L. Ederer, E. B. Saloman, S. C. Ebner, and R. P. Madden, "The use of synchrotron radiation as an absolute source of VUV radiation," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 79A, 761-774 (1975).

Saunders, R. D.

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lean, H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NIST SURF and argon miniarc irradiance standards at 214 nm," Appl. Opt. 28, 3246-3253 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiode physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

H. J. Kostkowski, J. L. Lean, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NBS SURF and tungsten ultraviolet irradiance standards," Appl. Opt. 25, 3297-3306 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Saunders, W. R. Ott, and J. M. Bridges, "Spectral irradiance standard for the ultraviolet: the deuterium lamp (E)," Appl. Opt. 17, 593-600 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, and A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-1 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based absolute radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

Schaefer, A. R.

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiode physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

A. R. Schaefer, L. R. Hughey, and J. B. Fowler, "Direct determination of the stored electron beam current at the NBS electron storage ring, SURF-II," Metrologia 19, 131-136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Hughey and A. R. Schaefer, "Reduced absolute uncertainty in the irradiance of SURF-II and instrumentation for measuring linearity of x-ray, XUV and UV detectors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 367-370 (1982).

Schneider, W.

Schwinger, J.

J. Schwinger, "On the classical radiation of accelerated electrons," Phys. Rev. 75, 1912-1925 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, P.-S.

P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Stability of photodiodes under irradiation with a 157-nm pulsed excimer laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 197-207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Characterization of an ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet irradiance meter with synchrotron radiation," Appl. Opt. 41, 7173-7178 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Arp, R. Friedman, M. L. Furst, S. Makar, and P.-S. Shaw, "SURF III--an improved storage ring for radiometry," Metrologia 37, 357-360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, and K. R. Lykke, "Absolute radiant flux measurement of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 070701 (2006).

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based absolute radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).

Shear, D.

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sperfeld, P.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, "Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance," Metrologia 40, S111-S114 (2003).

Stair, R.

R. Stair, W. Schneider, and J. K. Jackson, "A new standard of spectral irradiance," Appl. Opt. 2, 1151-1154 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. Stair, R. G. Johnson, and E. W. Halback, "Standard of spectral radiance for the region of 0.25 to 2.6 microns," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 64A, 291-296 (1960).

Stamilio, R. J.

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stock, K. D.

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, "Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance," Metrologia 40, S111-S114 (2003).

Stock, M.

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stuck, D.

Tegeler, E.

F. Lei, W. Paustian, and E. Tegeler, "Determination of the spectral radiance of transfer standards in the spectral range 110 nm to 400 nm using BESSY as a primary source standard," Metrologia 32, 589-592 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A.

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, and T. R. O'Brian, "Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1-13 (1998).

Thornagel, R.

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).

Tomboulian, D. H.

D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, "Spectral and angular distribution of ultraviolet radiation from the 300 MeV Cornell synchrotron," Phys. Rev. 102, 1423-1447 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, and A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-1 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

Ward, T. H.

P. J. Key and T. H. Ward, "The establishment of ultraviolet spectral emission scales using synchrotron radiation," Metrologia 14, 17-29 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wende, B.

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Stuck and B. Wende, "Photometric comparison between two calculable vacuum-ultraviolet standard radiation sources: synchrotron radiation and plasma-blackbody radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 96-100 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W. L.

Yarbrough, M. A.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).

Yoon, H. W.

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based absolute radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).

Zama, T.

T. Zama and I. Saito, "Calibration of absolute spectral radiation in UV and VUV regions by using synchrotron radiation," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1087-1091 (2005).

Zong, Y.

Appl. Opt.

R. Stair, W. Schneider, and J. K. Jackson, "A new standard of spectral irradiance," Appl. Opt. 2, 1151-1154 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. Lemke and D. Labs, "The synchrotron radiation of the 6 GeV DESY machine as a fundamental radiometric standard," Appl. Opt. 6, 1043-1048 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pitz, "Absolute calibration of light sources in the vacuum ultraviolet by means of the synchrotron radiation of DESY," Appl. Opt. 8, 255-259 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Ott, P. Fieffe-Prevost, and W. L. Wiese, "VUV radiometry with hydrogen arcs. 1: Principle of the method and comparisons with blackbody calibrations from 1650 A to 3600 A," Appl. Opt. 12, 1618-1629 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Ott, K. Behringer, and G. Gieres, "Vacuum ultraviolet radiometry with hydrogen arcs. 2: The high power arc as an absolute standard of spectral irradiance from 124 nm to 360 nm," Appl. Opt. 14, 2121-2128 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bridges and W. R. Ott, "Vacuum ultraviolet radiometry. 3: The argon mini-arc as a new secondary standard of spectral radiance," Appl. Opt. 16, 367-376 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Saunders, W. R. Ott, and J. M. Bridges, "Spectral irradiance standard for the ultraviolet: the deuterium lamp (E)," Appl. Opt. 17, 593-600 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Kostkowski, J. L. Lean, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NBS SURF and tungsten ultraviolet irradiance standards," Appl. Opt. 25, 3297-3306 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Lean, H. J. Kostkowski, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Comparison of the NIST SURF and argon miniarc irradiance standards at 214 nm," Appl. Opt. 28, 3246-3253 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Eppeldauer and J. E. Hardis, "Fourteen-decade photocurrent measurements with large-area silicon photodiodes at room temperature," Appl. Opt. 30, 3091-3099 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Characterization of an ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet irradiance meter with synchrotron radiation," Appl. Opt. 41, 7173-7178 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-S. Shaw, R. Gupta, and K. R. Lykke, "Stability of photodiodes under irradiation with a 157-nm pulsed excimer laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 197-207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zong, S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, K. R. Lykke, and Y. Ohno, "Simple spectral stray light correction method for array spectroradiometers," Appl. Opt. 45, 1111-1119 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, "Characteristics of the 'synchrotron light' from the NBS 180 MeV machine," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380-387 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. Bathow, E. Freytag, and R. Haensel, "Measurement of synchrotron radiation in the x-ray region," J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3449-3454 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

T. Zama and I. Saito, "Calibration of absolute spectral radiation in UV and VUV regions by using synchrotron radiation," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1087-1091 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.)

D. L. Ederer, E. B. Saloman, S. C. Ebner, and R. P. Madden, "The use of synchrotron radiation as an absolute source of VUV radiation," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 79A, 761-774 (1975).

R. Stair, R. G. Johnson, and E. W. Halback, "Standard of spectral radiance for the region of 0.25 to 2.6 microns," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 64A, 291-296 (1960).

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

A. Thompson, E. A. Early, and T. R. O'Brian, "Ultraviolet spectral irradiance scale comparison: 210 nm to 300 nm," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 1-13 (1998).

Metrologia

U. Arp, R. Friedman, M. L. Furst, S. Makar, and P.-S. Shaw, "SURF III--an improved storage ring for radiometry," Metrologia 37, 357-360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "A SURF beamline for synchrotron source-based absolute radiometry," Metrologia 40, S124-S127 (2003).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003).

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, and K. R. Lykke, "NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources," Metrologia 37, 579-582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, K. D. Stock, K.-H. Raatz, B. Nawo, and J. Metzdorf, "Characterization and use of deuterium lamps as transfer standards of spectral irradiance," Metrologia 40, S111-S114 (2003).

P. J. Key and T. H. Ward, "The establishment of ultraviolet spectral emission scales using synchrotron radiation," Metrologia 14, 17-29 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Schaefer, L. R. Hughey, and J. B. Fowler, "Direct determination of the stored electron beam current at the NBS electron storage ring, SURF-II," Metrologia 19, 131-136 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Stock, J. Fischer, R. Freidrich, H. J. Jung, R. Thornagel, G. Ulm, and B. Wende, "Present state of the comparison between radiometric scales based on three primary standards," Metrologia 30, 439-449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Lei, W. Paustian, and E. Tegeler, "Determination of the spectral radiance of transfer standards in the spectral range 110 nm to 400 nm using BESSY as a primary source standard," Metrologia 32, 589-592 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Richter, J. Hollandt, U. Kroth, W. Paustian, H. Rabus, R. Thornagel, and G. Ulm, "Source and detector calibration in the UV and VUV at Bessy II," Metrologia 40, S107-S110 (2003).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res.

L. R. Hughey and A. R. Schaefer, "Reduced absolute uncertainty in the irradiance of SURF-II and instrumentation for measuring linearity of x-ray, XUV and UV detectors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 367-370 (1982).

Opt. Eng.

A. R. Schaefer, R. D. Saunders, and L. R. Hughey, "Intercomparison between independent irradiance scales based on silicon photodiode physics, gold-point blackbody radiation, and synchrotron radiation," Opt. Eng. 25, 892-896 (1986).

Phys. Rev.

D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, "Spectral and angular distribution of ultraviolet radiation from the 300 MeV Cornell synchrotron," Phys. Rev. 102, 1423-1447 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwinger, "On the classical radiation of accelerated electrons," Phys. Rev. 75, 1912-1925 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams

P.-S. Shaw, U. Arp, and K. R. Lykke, "Absolute radiant flux measurement of the angular distribution of synchrotron radiation," Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 070701 (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P.-S. Shaw, D. Shear, R. J. Stamilio, U. Arp, H. W. Yoon, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, and K. R. Lykke, "The new beamline 3 at SURF III for source-based radiometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1576-1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1975), Chap. 14.

H. J. Kostkowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, 1997), Chap. 4.

A. C. Parr, R. U. Datla, J. L. Gardener, eds., Optical Radiometry, Vol. 41 of Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences (Elsevier, 2005).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, and A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-1 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, and D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibration, NBS Special Publication 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, 1987).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the FICUS for synchrotron-radiation-based irradiance calibration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning of the 0.25   m spectrometer across the 253.7   nm mercury line from a calibration mercury lamp.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic for measuring the distance d from the aperture to the tangent point using (top) the triangulation technique where d = d 1 + d 2 and (bottom) a fiducial ring (radius R f ) concentric with the electron orbit (radius ρ). The distance D was measured to the shortest distance on the fiducial ring by using a laser range finder.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal of vertical scan of the 334   nm filter radiometer for distance measurement. The six scans (in diamonds, from left to right) correspond to measurements with the vertical position of the 1 mm aperture set at 13.10, 18.18, 23.26, 28.34, 33.42, and 38.50   mm . The solid curves are Gaussian fits to measured data to find the centroid of each curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical result of a transmittance measurement of the fused silica window at the FICUS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured slit-scattering function of the integrating sphere and spectrometer system with laser wavelengths at (a) 210   nm and (b) 284   nm . Note the fluorescence peak near 300   nm with 210   nm laser light originated from the integrating sphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured slit-scattering function of the integrating sphere and spectrometer system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertical scan with polarizer at 350   nm to determine on-orbit position. The solid curve is the fitted curve calculated from the Schwinger equation with only a vertical polarization component.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as in Fig. 8 but without the polarizer. The fitted curve is calculated from the Schwinger equation with contribution from both polarization states. The sharp decrease in measurement at the large angle is from the shadowing of the baffle system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of spectral irradiance from a typical deuterium lamp at 30   cm from the source and from SURF III, which is calculated with 380   MeV electron energy and 15   mA of electron beam current. The calculated and measured data points are connected by lines to guide the eye.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral irradiance of three deuterium lamps calibrated at the FICUS. Data points are connected by lines to guide the eye.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Percentage differences between the spectral irradiance measured at SURF and at FASCAL for three deuterium lamps.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Components of the Relative Uncertainty ( k = 2) of Spectral Irradiance of Synchrotron Radiation at the FICUS

Tables Icon

Table 2 Components of the Relative Uncertainty ( k = 2) of Spectral Irradiance of Deuterium Lamp Calibration at the FICUS

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d 2 Φ λ , SR d λ d Ω = 27 e 2 32 π 3 ρ 2 ( λ c λ ) 4 γ 8 ( 1 + γ 2 ψ 2 ) 2 × [ K 2 / 3 2 ( z ) + γ 2 ψ 2 1 + γ 2 ψ 2 K 1 / 3 2 ( z ) ] ,
z = 1 2 λ c λ ( 1 + γ 2 ψ 2 ) 3 / 2 ,
λ c = 4 π ρ 3 γ 3 , γ = E e m e c 2 ,
E λ , SR ( λ ) = 1 A ( I SR d 2 A d 2 Φ λ , SR d Ω d x d y ) ,
E λ , SR ( λ ) = T ( λ ) A ( I SR d 2 A d 2 Φ λ , SR d Ω d x d y ) ,
S ( λ 0 ) = R ( λ 0 , λ ) E λ ( λ ) d λ ,
S ( λ 0 ) = r ( λ 0 ) z ( λ 0 , λ ) E λ ( λ ) d λ .
E λ ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) = 1 r ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) z ( λ 0 , λ ) d λ ,
S ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) = z ( λ 0 , λ ) [ r ( λ 0 ) E λ ( λ ) ( 0 ) ] d λ .
S ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) = z ( λ 0 , λ ) [ r ( λ 0 ) Δ E λ ( λ ) ( 0 ) ] d λ .
Δ E λ ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) = 1 r ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) z ( λ 0 , λ ) d λ .
E λ ( λ 0 ) ( 1 ) = 1 r ( λ 0 ) 2 S ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) z ( λ 0 , λ ) d λ .
S ( 1 ) ( λ 0 ) = z ( λ 0 , λ ) [ r ( λ ) E λ ( λ ) ( 1 ) ] d λ ,
Δ E λ ( λ 0 ) ( 1 ) = 1 r ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) ( 1 ) z ( λ 0 , λ ) d λ .
E λ ( λ 0 ) ( 2 ) = 1 r ( λ 0 ) 3 S ( λ 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) S ( λ 0 ) ( 1 ) z ( λ 0 , λ ) d λ ,
E λ , DUT ( λ 0 ) = 3 S DUT ( λ 0 ) S DUT ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) S DUT ( λ 0 ) ( 1 ) 3 S SR ( λ 0 ) S SR ( λ 0 ) ( 0 ) S SR ( λ 0 ) ( 1 ) × ( T ( λ 0 ) A I SR d 2 A d 2 Φ λ ,SR d Ω d λ d x d y ) ,
d = ( a a b ) d 2 ,
d = ( R f + D ) 2 ρ 2 .
T ( λ ) = S 1 i ( λ ) S 1 o ( λ ) .

Metrics