Abstract

A two-photon nitric oxide (NO) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique was developed and applied to study in-cylinder diesel combustion. The technique prevents many problems associated with in-cylinder, single-photon NO planar-laser-induced fluorescence measurements, including fluorescence interference from the Schumann–Runge bands of hot O2, absorption of a UV excitation beam by in-cylinder gases, and difficulty in rejecting scattered laser light while simultaneously attempting to maximize fluorescence signal collection. Verification that the signal resulted from NO was provided by tuning of the laser to a vibrational off-resonance wavelength that showed near-zero signal levels, which resulted from either fluorescence or interference at in-cylinder pressures of as much as 20 bar. The two-photon NO LIF signal showed good qualitative agreement with NO exhaust-gas measurements obtained over a wide range of engine loads.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, 1996).
  2. C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, 1988).
  4. W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. I. A-X(0,0) excitation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3547-3557 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. W. P. Cann, J. B. Shin, and R. W. Nicholls, "Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180-300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm," Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738-1751 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. III. Comparison of A-X excitation schemes," Appl. Opt. 42, 4922-4936 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, 1982).
  8. P. H. Krupenie, "The spectrum of molecular oxygen," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423-519 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Schulz, J. D. Koch, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 82-88 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. Hildenbrand and C. Schulz, "Measurements and simulation of in-cylinder UV-absorption in spark ignition and diesel engines," Appl. Phys. B 73, 173-180 (2001).
  11. W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 344-349 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. H. Frank, X. Chen, B. D. Patterson, and T. B. Settersten, "Comparison of nanosecond and picosecond excitation for two-photon laser-induced fluorescence imaging of atomic oxygen in flames," Appl. Opt. 43, 2588-2597 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. E. Dec and R. E. Canaan, "PLIF imaging of NO formation in a DI diesel engine," SAE 980147 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).
  14. A. Ciajolo, R. Barbella, A. Tregrossi, and L. Bonfanti, "Spectroscopic and compositional signatures of PAH-loaded mixtures in the soot inception region of a premixed ethylene flame," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1481-1487 (1998).
  15. J. A. Gray, Department of Chemistry, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio 45810, "'NOlowbartwophoton.xls' & "NOlowbartwophotonlowbarpops.xls"' (personal communication, 2004).
  16. W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, V. Sick, and J. W. Daily, "A versatile modeling tool for nitric oxide LIF spectra," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of The Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003); http://www.lifsim.com.
  17. G. C. Martin and C. J. Mueller, "Progress in NO detection by planar laser induced fluorescence in a direct injection diesel engine," presented at ILASS Americas 16th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Monterey, Calif., 18-21 May 2003.
  18. G. C. Martin, "Single- and two-photon fluorescence for the detection of nitric oxide in an optically-accessible direct-injection diesel engine," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Illinois at Urbana--Champaign, 2004).
  19. C. J. Mueller, G. C. Martin, T. E. Briggs, and K. P. Duffy, "An experimental investigation of in-cylinder processes under dual-injection conditions in a DI diesel engine," SAE 2004-01-1843 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).
  20. F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, F. Keller, G. König, and E. Wagner, "Quantitative laser diagnostic studies of the NO distribution in a DI diesel engine with PLN and CR injection systems," SAE 2001-01-3550 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).
  21. C. J. Mueller and G. C. Martin, "Effects of oxygenated compounds on combustion and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine: broadband natural luminosity imaging," SAE 2002-01-1631 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).
  22. C. K. Westbrook, W. J. Pitz, C. J. Mueller, L. M. Pickett, and G. C. Martin, "The effect of molecular structure of oxygenates on soot emissions," in Proceedings of Third Joint Meeting of U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003), paper F09.
  23. A. Upatnieks and C. J. Mueller, "Clean, controlled DI diesel combustion using dilute, cool charge gas and a short-ignition-delay, oxygenated fuel," SAE 2005-01-0363 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).
  24. K. T. Rhee, P. S. Myers, and O. A. Uyehara, "Time- and space- resolved species determination in diesel combustion using continuous flow gas sampling," SAE 780226 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).
  25. I. A. Voiculescu and G. L. Borman, "An experimental study of diesel engine cylinder-averaged NOx histories," SAE 780228 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 344-349 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. III. Comparison of A-X excitation schemes," Appl. Opt. 42, 4922-4936 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. I. A-X(0,0) excitation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3547-3557 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schulz, J. D. Koch, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 82-88 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. Hildenbrand and C. Schulz, "Measurements and simulation of in-cylinder UV-absorption in spark ignition and diesel engines," Appl. Phys. B 73, 173-180 (2001).

1984 (1)

M. W. P. Cann, J. B. Shin, and R. W. Nicholls, "Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180-300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm," Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738-1751 (1984).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. H. Krupenie, "The spectrum of molecular oxygen," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423-519 (1972).
[Crossref]

Barbella, R.

A. Ciajolo, R. Barbella, A. Tregrossi, and L. Bonfanti, "Spectroscopic and compositional signatures of PAH-loaded mixtures in the soot inception region of a premixed ethylene flame," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1481-1487 (1998).

Bessler, W. G.

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 344-349 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. III. Comparison of A-X excitation schemes," Appl. Opt. 42, 4922-4936 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. I. A-X(0,0) excitation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3547-3557 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, V. Sick, and J. W. Daily, "A versatile modeling tool for nitric oxide LIF spectra," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of The Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003); http://www.lifsim.com.

Bonfanti, L.

A. Ciajolo, R. Barbella, A. Tregrossi, and L. Bonfanti, "Spectroscopic and compositional signatures of PAH-loaded mixtures in the soot inception region of a premixed ethylene flame," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1481-1487 (1998).

Borman, G. L.

I. A. Voiculescu and G. L. Borman, "An experimental study of diesel engine cylinder-averaged NOx histories," SAE 780228 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Briggs, T. E.

C. J. Mueller, G. C. Martin, T. E. Briggs, and K. P. Duffy, "An experimental investigation of in-cylinder processes under dual-injection conditions in a DI diesel engine," SAE 2004-01-1843 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Canaan, R. E.

J. E. Dec and R. E. Canaan, "PLIF imaging of NO formation in a DI diesel engine," SAE 980147 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Cann, M. W. P.

M. W. P. Cann, J. B. Shin, and R. W. Nicholls, "Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180-300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm," Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738-1751 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Ciajolo, A.

A. Ciajolo, R. Barbella, A. Tregrossi, and L. Bonfanti, "Spectroscopic and compositional signatures of PAH-loaded mixtures in the soot inception region of a premixed ethylene flame," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1481-1487 (1998).

Daily, J. W.

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, V. Sick, and J. W. Daily, "A versatile modeling tool for nitric oxide LIF spectra," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of The Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003); http://www.lifsim.com.

Davidson, D. F.

C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Schulz, J. D. Koch, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 82-88 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dec, J. E.

J. E. Dec and R. E. Canaan, "PLIF imaging of NO formation in a DI diesel engine," SAE 980147 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Duffy, K. P.

C. J. Mueller, G. C. Martin, T. E. Briggs, and K. P. Duffy, "An experimental investigation of in-cylinder processes under dual-injection conditions in a DI diesel engine," SAE 2004-01-1843 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

Frank, J. H.

Gray, J. A.

J. A. Gray, Department of Chemistry, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio 45810, "'NOlowbartwophoton.xls' & "NOlowbartwophotonlowbarpops.xls"' (personal communication, 2004).

Hanson, R. K.

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 344-349 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. III. Comparison of A-X excitation schemes," Appl. Opt. 42, 4922-4936 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. I. A-X(0,0) excitation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3547-3557 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schulz, J. D. Koch, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 82-88 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heywood, J. B.

J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, 1988).

Hildenbrand, F.

F. Hildenbrand and C. Schulz, "Measurements and simulation of in-cylinder UV-absorption in spark ignition and diesel engines," Appl. Phys. B 73, 173-180 (2001).

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, F. Keller, G. König, and E. Wagner, "Quantitative laser diagnostic studies of the NO distribution in a DI diesel engine with PLN and CR injection systems," SAE 2001-01-3550 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Jeffries, J. B.

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. III. Comparison of A-X excitation schemes," Appl. Opt. 42, 4922-4936 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 344-349 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Schulz, J. D. Koch, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 82-88 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. I. A-X(0,0) excitation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3547-3557 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, F.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, F. Keller, G. König, and E. Wagner, "Quantitative laser diagnostic studies of the NO distribution in a DI diesel engine with PLN and CR injection systems," SAE 2001-01-3550 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Koch, J. D.

C. Schulz, J. D. Koch, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 82-88 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
[Crossref]

König, G.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, F. Keller, G. König, and E. Wagner, "Quantitative laser diagnostic studies of the NO distribution in a DI diesel engine with PLN and CR injection systems," SAE 2001-01-3550 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Krupenie, P. H.

P. H. Krupenie, "The spectrum of molecular oxygen," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423-519 (1972).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, 1982).

Martin, G. C.

C. J. Mueller, G. C. Martin, T. E. Briggs, and K. P. Duffy, "An experimental investigation of in-cylinder processes under dual-injection conditions in a DI diesel engine," SAE 2004-01-1843 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

C. J. Mueller and G. C. Martin, "Effects of oxygenated compounds on combustion and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine: broadband natural luminosity imaging," SAE 2002-01-1631 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

G. C. Martin and C. J. Mueller, "Progress in NO detection by planar laser induced fluorescence in a direct injection diesel engine," presented at ILASS Americas 16th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Monterey, Calif., 18-21 May 2003.

G. C. Martin, "Single- and two-photon fluorescence for the detection of nitric oxide in an optically-accessible direct-injection diesel engine," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Illinois at Urbana--Champaign, 2004).

Mueller, C. J.

C. J. Mueller, G. C. Martin, T. E. Briggs, and K. P. Duffy, "An experimental investigation of in-cylinder processes under dual-injection conditions in a DI diesel engine," SAE 2004-01-1843 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

G. C. Martin and C. J. Mueller, "Progress in NO detection by planar laser induced fluorescence in a direct injection diesel engine," presented at ILASS Americas 16th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Monterey, Calif., 18-21 May 2003.

C. J. Mueller and G. C. Martin, "Effects of oxygenated compounds on combustion and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine: broadband natural luminosity imaging," SAE 2002-01-1631 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Myers, P. S.

K. T. Rhee, P. S. Myers, and O. A. Uyehara, "Time- and space- resolved species determination in diesel combustion using continuous flow gas sampling," SAE 780226 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Nicholls, R. W.

M. W. P. Cann, J. B. Shin, and R. W. Nicholls, "Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180-300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm," Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738-1751 (1984).
[Crossref]

Patterson, B. D.

Rhee, K. T.

K. T. Rhee, P. S. Myers, and O. A. Uyehara, "Time- and space- resolved species determination in diesel combustion using continuous flow gas sampling," SAE 780226 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Schulz, C.

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. III. Comparison of A-X excitation schemes," Appl. Opt. 42, 4922-4936 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 344-349 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Schulz, J. D. Koch, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 82-88 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. I. A-X(0,0) excitation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3547-3557 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hildenbrand and C. Schulz, "Measurements and simulation of in-cylinder UV-absorption in spark ignition and diesel engines," Appl. Phys. B 73, 173-180 (2001).

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, V. Sick, and J. W. Daily, "A versatile modeling tool for nitric oxide LIF spectra," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of The Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003); http://www.lifsim.com.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, F. Keller, G. König, and E. Wagner, "Quantitative laser diagnostic studies of the NO distribution in a DI diesel engine with PLN and CR injection systems," SAE 2001-01-3550 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Settersten, T. B.

Shin, J. B.

M. W. P. Cann, J. B. Shin, and R. W. Nicholls, "Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180-300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm," Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738-1751 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sick, V.

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, V. Sick, and J. W. Daily, "A versatile modeling tool for nitric oxide LIF spectra," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of The Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003); http://www.lifsim.com.

Tregrossi, A.

A. Ciajolo, R. Barbella, A. Tregrossi, and L. Bonfanti, "Spectroscopic and compositional signatures of PAH-loaded mixtures in the soot inception region of a premixed ethylene flame," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1481-1487 (1998).

Upatnieks, A.

A. Upatnieks and C. J. Mueller, "Clean, controlled DI diesel combustion using dilute, cool charge gas and a short-ignition-delay, oxygenated fuel," SAE 2005-01-0363 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Uyehara, O. A.

K. T. Rhee, P. S. Myers, and O. A. Uyehara, "Time- and space- resolved species determination in diesel combustion using continuous flow gas sampling," SAE 780226 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Voiculescu, I. A.

I. A. Voiculescu and G. L. Borman, "An experimental study of diesel engine cylinder-averaged NOx histories," SAE 780228 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Wagner, E.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, F. Keller, G. König, and E. Wagner, "Quantitative laser diagnostic studies of the NO distribution in a DI diesel engine with PLN and CR injection systems," SAE 2001-01-3550 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

Westbrook, C. K.

C. K. Westbrook, W. J. Pitz, C. J. Mueller, L. M. Pickett, and G. C. Martin, "The effect of molecular structure of oxygenates on soot emissions," in Proceedings of Third Joint Meeting of U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003), paper F09.

Wolfrum, J.

C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Hildenbrand and C. Schulz, "Measurements and simulation of in-cylinder UV-absorption in spark ignition and diesel engines," Appl. Phys. B 73, 173-180 (2001).

Can. J. Phys. (1)

M. W. P. Cann, J. B. Shin, and R. W. Nicholls, "Oxygen absorption in the spectral range 180-300 nm for temperatures to 3000 K and pressures to 50 atm," Can. J. Phys. 62, 1738-1751 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, T. Lee, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 344-349 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Schulz, J. D. Koch, D. F. Davidson, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 355, 82-88 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

P. H. Krupenie, "The spectrum of molecular oxygen," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423-519 (1972).
[Crossref]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

C. Schulz, J. B. Jeffries, D. F. Davidson, J. D. Koch, J. Wolfrum, and R. K. Hanson, "Impact of UV absorption by CO2 and H2O on NO LIF in high-pressure combustion applications," in Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2735-2742 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (16)

J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, 1988).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

M. D. Levenson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, 1982).

J. E. Dec and R. E. Canaan, "PLIF imaging of NO formation in a DI diesel engine," SAE 980147 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

A. Ciajolo, R. Barbella, A. Tregrossi, and L. Bonfanti, "Spectroscopic and compositional signatures of PAH-loaded mixtures in the soot inception region of a premixed ethylene flame," Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1481-1487 (1998).

J. A. Gray, Department of Chemistry, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio 45810, "'NOlowbartwophoton.xls' & "NOlowbartwophotonlowbarpops.xls"' (personal communication, 2004).

W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, V. Sick, and J. W. Daily, "A versatile modeling tool for nitric oxide LIF spectra," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of The Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003); http://www.lifsim.com.

G. C. Martin and C. J. Mueller, "Progress in NO detection by planar laser induced fluorescence in a direct injection diesel engine," presented at ILASS Americas 16th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Monterey, Calif., 18-21 May 2003.

G. C. Martin, "Single- and two-photon fluorescence for the detection of nitric oxide in an optically-accessible direct-injection diesel engine," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Illinois at Urbana--Champaign, 2004).

C. J. Mueller, G. C. Martin, T. E. Briggs, and K. P. Duffy, "An experimental investigation of in-cylinder processes under dual-injection conditions in a DI diesel engine," SAE 2004-01-1843 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, F. Keller, G. König, and E. Wagner, "Quantitative laser diagnostic studies of the NO distribution in a DI diesel engine with PLN and CR injection systems," SAE 2001-01-3550 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

C. J. Mueller and G. C. Martin, "Effects of oxygenated compounds on combustion and soot evolution in a DI diesel engine: broadband natural luminosity imaging," SAE 2002-01-1631 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

C. K. Westbrook, W. J. Pitz, C. J. Mueller, L. M. Pickett, and G. C. Martin, "The effect of molecular structure of oxygenates on soot emissions," in Proceedings of Third Joint Meeting of U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, 2003), paper F09.

A. Upatnieks and C. J. Mueller, "Clean, controlled DI diesel combustion using dilute, cool charge gas and a short-ignition-delay, oxygenated fuel," SAE 2005-01-0363 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

K. T. Rhee, P. S. Myers, and O. A. Uyehara, "Time- and space- resolved species determination in diesel combustion using continuous flow gas sampling," SAE 780226 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

I. A. Voiculescu and G. L. Borman, "An experimental study of diesel engine cylinder-averaged NOx histories," SAE 780228 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 15096).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-photon NO excitation scan over a flat-flame burner at ϕ = 0.9 with 625 ppm NO seeded in reactants. Single-photon O2 excitation simulation plotted against the scale at the top of the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of mirror-only and mirror-plus Schott UG-5 filter glass optical fluorescence filter packs. Inset, UG-5 filter-glass-increased blocking of scattered laser light by nearly 3 orders of magnitude.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Engine setup for two-photon NO LIF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cylinder pressure and AHRR traces for 1.4, 5.1, 10, and 16 bar IMEP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sequence of averaged on-resonance two-photon NO LIF images for a 10 bar IMEP load.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sequence of averaged off-resonance two-photon NO LIF images for a 10 bar IMEP load.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Integrated two-photon NO LIF signal versus image crank angle at 10 bar IMEP.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of integrated two-photon (TP) NO LIF signal and, NO exhaust-gas measurements for engine loads from 1.4 to 16 bar IMEP.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Engine Operating Parameters a

Equations (1)

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IIFoV ¯ ( x , y ) = 1 n n [ IIFoV n ( x , y ) Z I n     P ] .

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