Abstract

Room-temperature degenerate four-wave mixing in the forward two-pulse geometry, has been performed on a jet of organic saturable-absorbing laser dye IR140 dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and ethylene glycol. Numerical solutions to the optical Bloch equation were fitted to the experimental data in order to extract a value of T2=50±5  fs for the homogeneous dephasing time; this value is comparable to those measured for similar organic dyes using other techniques.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, "Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffraction in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6643-6649 (1989).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Xu, Y. Ma, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, "Wavelength-dependent resonant homodyne and hetrodyne transient grating spectroscopy with a diffractive optics method: solvent effect of the third-order signal," J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9333-9340 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. S. He, L. Yuan, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, and B. A. Reindardt, "Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079-1087 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Pan, N. Pu, and J. Shieh, "Dynamic pulse buildup in continuous-wave passively mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire/DDI and Ti:sapphire/IR140 lasers," Chin. J. Phys. 37, 361-379 (1999).
  6. R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Weiner, S. De Silvestri, and E. P. Ippen, "Three pulse scattering femtosecond dephasing studies: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 654-661 (1985).
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  12. W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Ultrafast solvation dynamics explored by femtosecond photon echo spectroscopies," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 99-123 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Cong, J. D. Simon, and Y. Yan, "Probing the molecular dynamics of liquids and solutions," in Ultrafast Processes in Chemistry and Photobiology, M.A.El-Sayed, I.Tanaka, and Y.Molin, eds. (Blackwell Science, 1995).
  14. M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori, and K. Kurokawa, "The application of incoherent light for the study of femtosecond-picosecond relaxation in condensed phase," Appl. Phys. B. 47, 107-125 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Misawa, T. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, "Measurement of dephasing time using incoherent light in the Kerr shutter configuration," Opt. Lett. 14, 453-455 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, "Coherent Stokes Raman scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement," Phys. Rev. A. 35, 715-724 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Misawa and T. Kobayashi, "Utrafast dephasing measurement by transient four-wave mixing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 182, 125-137 (1990).
  19. M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Revised ed. (Academic, 1982).
  20. D. J. S. Birch, G. Hungerford, and R. E. Imhof, "Near-infrared spark source excitation for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2405-2408 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Mukamel, Introduction to Nonlinear Spectroscopy (Oxford University Press, 1996).
  23. M. Joffre, "Coherent effects in femtosecond spectroscopy: a simple picture using the Bloch equation," in Femtosecond Laser Pulses Principles and Experiments, 2nd ed., C.Rullière, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Q. Xu, G. D. Scholes, M. Yang, and G. R. Fleming, "Probing solvation and reaction coordinates of ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions using nonlinear spectroscopies: rhodamine 6G in electron-donating solvents," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10348-10358 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, 1991).
  26. J. C. Gumy, O. Nicolet, and E. Vauthey, "Investigation of the solvation dynamics of an organic dye in polar solvents using the femtosecond transient grating technique," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10737-10743 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Diels and I. C. McMichael, "Degenerate four-wave mixing of femtosecond pulses in an absorbing dye jet," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 535-543 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. K. Lawless and R. A. Mathies, "Excited-state structure and electronic dephasing time of Nile blue from absolute resonance Raman intensities," J. Chem. Phys. 96, 8037-8045 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Kummrow, A. Lau, and K. Lenz, "Time resolved study of ultrafast dephasing processes in solution," Phys. Rev. A 55, 2310-2320 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Q. Xu, Y. Ma, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, "Wavelength-dependent resonant homodyne and hetrodyne transient grating spectroscopy with a diffractive optics method: solvent effect of the third-order signal," J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9333-9340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Z. Dai, X. Yue, B. Peng, Q. Yang, X. Liu, and P. Ye, "Third order optical nonlinearities of near infrared dyes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 9-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

C. Pan, N. Pu, and J. Shieh, "Dynamic pulse buildup in continuous-wave passively mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire/DDI and Ti:sapphire/IR140 lasers," Chin. J. Phys. 37, 361-379 (1999).

Q. Xu, G. D. Scholes, M. Yang, and G. R. Fleming, "Probing solvation and reaction coordinates of ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions using nonlinear spectroscopies: rhodamine 6G in electron-donating solvents," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10348-10358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gumy, O. Nicolet, and E. Vauthey, "Investigation of the solvation dynamics of an organic dye in polar solvents using the femtosecond transient grating technique," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10737-10743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Ultrafast solvation dynamics explored by femtosecond photon echo spectroscopies," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 99-123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

M. K. Lawless and R. A. Mathies, "Excited-state structure and electronic dephasing time of Nile blue from absolute resonance Raman intensities," J. Chem. Phys. 96, 8037-8045 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. J. S. Birch, G. Hungerford, and R. E. Imhof, "Near-infrared spark source excitation for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2405-2408 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Misawa and T. Kobayashi, "Utrafast dephasing measurement by transient four-wave mixing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 182, 125-137 (1990).

1989 (3)

M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, "Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffraction in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6643-6649 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Misawa, T. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, "Measurement of dephasing time using incoherent light in the Kerr shutter configuration," Opt. Lett. 14, 453-455 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori, and K. Kurokawa, "The application of incoherent light for the study of femtosecond-picosecond relaxation in condensed phase," Appl. Phys. B. 47, 107-125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, "Coherent Stokes Raman scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement," Phys. Rev. A. 35, 715-724 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

Anni, M.

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. H.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

Bickerton, J.

R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J. Y.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Birch, D. J. S.

D. J. S. Birch, G. Hungerford, and R. E. Imhof, "Near-infrared spark source excitation for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2405-2408 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blyth, R. I. R.

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boa, Z.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brachmann, U.

U. Brachmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik, 1986).

Brito Cruz, C. H.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brott, L. L.

Cingolani, R.

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clarson, S. J.

Cong, P. D.

P. Cong, J. D. Simon, and Y. Yan, "Probing the molecular dynamics of liquids and solutions," in Ultrafast Processes in Chemistry and Photobiology, M.A.El-Sayed, I.Tanaka, and Y.Molin, eds. (Blackwell Science, 1995).

Dao, L. V.

L. V. Dao, C. Lincon, M. Lowe, and P. Hannaford, "Spectrally resolved two-colour femtosecond photon echos," in Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy, P.Hannaford, ed. (Springer-Verlag 2005).

de Boeij, W. P.

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Ultrafast solvation dynamics explored by femtosecond photon echo spectroscopies," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 99-123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S. M

Diels, J. C.

Fleming, G. R.

Q. Xu, Y. Ma, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, "Wavelength-dependent resonant homodyne and hetrodyne transient grating spectroscopy with a diffractive optics method: solvent effect of the third-order signal," J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9333-9340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, G. D. Scholes, M. Yang, and G. R. Fleming, "Probing solvation and reaction coordinates of ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions using nonlinear spectroscopies: rhodamine 6G in electron-donating solvents," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10348-10358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. H.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fragnito, H. L.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. H.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gray, R.

R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gumy, J. C.

J. C. Gumy, O. Nicolet, and E. Vauthey, "Investigation of the solvation dynamics of an organic dye in polar solvents using the femtosecond transient grating technique," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10737-10743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hannaford, P. V.

L. V. Dao, C. Lincon, M. Lowe, and P. Hannaford, "Spectrally resolved two-colour femtosecond photon echos," in Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy, P.Hannaford, ed. (Springer-Verlag 2005).

Hattori, T.

K. Misawa, T. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, "Measurement of dephasing time using incoherent light in the Kerr shutter configuration," Opt. Lett. 14, 453-455 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori, and K. Kurokawa, "The application of incoherent light for the study of femtosecond-picosecond relaxation in condensed phase," Appl. Phys. B. 47, 107-125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, "Coherent Stokes Raman scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement," Phys. Rev. A. 35, 715-724 (1987).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

Hepenstall, J.

R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, B.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hungerford, G.

D. J. S. Birch, G. Hungerford, and R. E. Imhof, "Near-infrared spark source excitation for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2405-2408 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Imhof, R. E.

D. J. S. Birch, G. Hungerford, and R. E. Imhof, "Near-infrared spark source excitation for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2405-2408 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. M

Joffre, M.

M. Joffre, "Coherent effects in femtosecond spectroscopy: a simple picture using the Bloch equation," in Femtosecond Laser Pulses Principles and Experiments, 2nd ed., C.Rullière, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Kano, S. D.

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Revised ed. (Academic, 1982).

Kobayashi, T.

K. Misawa and T. Kobayashi, "Utrafast dephasing measurement by transient four-wave mixing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 182, 125-137 (1990).

K. Misawa, T. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, "Measurement of dephasing time using incoherent light in the Kerr shutter configuration," Opt. Lett. 14, 453-455 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori, and K. Kurokawa, "The application of incoherent light for the study of femtosecond-picosecond relaxation in condensed phase," Appl. Phys. B. 47, 107-125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, "Coherent Stokes Raman scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement," Phys. Rev. A. 35, 715-724 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kummrow, A.

A. Kummrow, A. Lau, and K. Lenz, "Time resolved study of ultrafast dephasing processes in solution," Phys. Rev. A 55, 2310-2320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, K.

T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori, and K. Kurokawa, "The application of incoherent light for the study of femtosecond-picosecond relaxation in condensed phase," Appl. Phys. B. 47, 107-125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lattante, S.

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, A.

A. Kummrow, A. Lau, and K. Lenz, "Time resolved study of ultrafast dephasing processes in solution," Phys. Rev. A 55, 2310-2320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lawless, M. K.

M. K. Lawless and R. A. Mathies, "Excited-state structure and electronic dephasing time of Nile blue from absolute resonance Raman intensities," J. Chem. Phys. 96, 8037-8045 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, K.

A. Kummrow, A. Lau, and K. Lenz, "Time resolved study of ultrafast dephasing processes in solution," Phys. Rev. A 55, 2310-2320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Revised ed. (Academic, 1982).

Lincon, C. V.

L. V. Dao, C. Lincon, M. Lowe, and P. Hannaford, "Spectrally resolved two-colour femtosecond photon echos," in Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy, P.Hannaford, ed. (Springer-Verlag 2005).

Lowe, M. V.

L. V. Dao, C. Lincon, M. Lowe, and P. Hannaford, "Spectrally resolved two-colour femtosecond photon echos," in Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy, P.Hannaford, ed. (Springer-Verlag 2005).

Luther-Davies, B.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Q. Xu, Y. Ma, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, "Wavelength-dependent resonant homodyne and hetrodyne transient grating spectroscopy with a diffractive optics method: solvent effect of the third-order signal," J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9333-9340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mathies, R. K.

M. K. Lawless and R. A. Mathies, "Excited-state structure and electronic dephasing time of Nile blue from absolute resonance Raman intensities," J. Chem. Phys. 96, 8037-8045 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McMichael, I. C.

Miles, P. A.

Misawa, K.

K. Misawa and T. Kobayashi, "Utrafast dephasing measurement by transient four-wave mixing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 182, 125-137 (1990).

K. Misawa, T. Hattori, and T. Kobayashi, "Measurement of dephasing time using incoherent light in the Kerr shutter configuration," Opt. Lett. 14, 453-455 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mukamel, S.

S. Mukamel, Introduction to Nonlinear Spectroscopy (Oxford University Press, 1996).

Nicolet, O. C.

J. C. Gumy, O. Nicolet, and E. Vauthey, "Investigation of the solvation dynamics of an organic dye in polar solvents using the femtosecond transient grating technique," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10737-10743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.

C. Pan, N. Pu, and J. Shieh, "Dynamic pulse buildup in continuous-wave passively mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire/DDI and Ti:sapphire/IR140 lasers," Chin. J. Phys. 37, 361-379 (1999).

Pisigano, D.

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, and B. A. Reindardt, "Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079-1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, "Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffraction in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6643-6649 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, 1991).

Pshenichnikov, M. P.

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Ultrafast solvation dynamics explored by femtosecond photon echo spectroscopies," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 99-123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pu, N.

C. Pan, N. Pu, and J. Shieh, "Dynamic pulse buildup in continuous-wave passively mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire/DDI and Ti:sapphire/IR140 lasers," Chin. J. Phys. 37, 361-379 (1999).

Reindardt, B. A.

Richards, P.

R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, A.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M. N.

M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, "Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffraction in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6643-6649 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scholes, G. D.

Q. Xu, G. D. Scholes, M. Yang, and G. R. Fleming, "Probing solvation and reaction coordinates of ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions using nonlinear spectroscopies: rhodamine 6G in electron-donating solvents," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10348-10358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. H.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, J.

C. Pan, N. Pu, and J. Shieh, "Dynamic pulse buildup in continuous-wave passively mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire/DDI and Ti:sapphire/IR140 lasers," Chin. J. Phys. 37, 361-379 (1999).

Simon, J. D.

P. Cong, J. D. Simon, and Y. Yan, "Probing the molecular dynamics of liquids and solutions," in Ultrafast Processes in Chemistry and Photobiology, M.A.El-Sayed, I.Tanaka, and Y.Molin, eds. (Blackwell Science, 1995).

Stiopkin, I. V.

Q. Xu, Y. Ma, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, "Wavelength-dependent resonant homodyne and hetrodyne transient grating spectroscopy with a diffractive optics method: solvent effect of the third-order signal," J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9333-9340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Terasaki, A.

T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori, and K. Kurokawa, "The application of incoherent light for the study of femtosecond-picosecond relaxation in condensed phase," Appl. Phys. B. 47, 107-125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, "Coherent Stokes Raman scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement," Phys. Rev. A. 35, 715-724 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, J.

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vauthey, E. C.

J. C. Gumy, O. Nicolet, and E. Vauthey, "Investigation of the solvation dynamics of an organic dye in polar solvents using the femtosecond transient grating technique," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10737-10743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walton, D.

R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M

Wiersma, D. P.

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Ultrafast solvation dynamics explored by femtosecond photon echo spectroscopies," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 99-123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. N.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, 1991).

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, Y. Ma, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, "Wavelength-dependent resonant homodyne and hetrodyne transient grating spectroscopy with a diffractive optics method: solvent effect of the third-order signal," J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9333-9340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, G. D. Scholes, M. Yang, and G. R. Fleming, "Probing solvation and reaction coordinates of ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions using nonlinear spectroscopies: rhodamine 6G in electron-donating solvents," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10348-10358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. D.

P. Cong, J. D. Simon, and Y. Yan, "Probing the molecular dynamics of liquids and solutions," in Ultrafast Processes in Chemistry and Photobiology, M.A.El-Sayed, I.Tanaka, and Y.Molin, eds. (Blackwell Science, 1995).

Yang, M.

Q. Xu, G. D. Scholes, M. Yang, and G. R. Fleming, "Probing solvation and reaction coordinates of ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions using nonlinear spectroscopies: rhodamine 6G in electron-donating solvents," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10348-10358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Ultrafast solvation dynamics explored by femtosecond photon echo spectroscopies," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 49, 99-123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

T. Kobayashi, A. Terasaki, T. Hattori, and K. Kurokawa, "The application of incoherent light for the study of femtosecond-picosecond relaxation in condensed phase," Appl. Phys. B. 47, 107-125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Dai, X. Yue, B. Peng, Q. Yang, X. Liu, and P. Ye, "Third order optical nonlinearities of near infrared dyes," Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 9-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Phys. (1)

C. Pan, N. Pu, and J. Shieh, "Dynamic pulse buildup in continuous-wave passively mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire/DDI and Ti:sapphire/IR140 lasers," Chin. J. Phys. 37, 361-379 (1999).

Dyes Pigm. (1)

R. Gray, D. Walton, J. Bickerton, P. Richards, and J. Hepenstall, "Hydrolytic breakdown of meso-diphenylanime dye IR140, and isomerism of merocyanine breakdown product," Dyes Pigm. 38, 97-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Dynamics of spectral hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261-266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

M. K. Lawless and R. A. Mathies, "Excited-state structure and electronic dephasing time of Nile blue from absolute resonance Raman intensities," J. Chem. Phys. 96, 8037-8045 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, Y. Ma, I. V. Stiopkin, and G. R. Fleming, "Wavelength-dependent resonant homodyne and hetrodyne transient grating spectroscopy with a diffractive optics method: solvent effect of the third-order signal," J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9333-9340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, "Dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity in perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride studied by monitoring first- and second-order diffraction in subpicosecond degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6643-6649 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Boa, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, "Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 817-824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

J. C. Gumy, O. Nicolet, and E. Vauthey, "Investigation of the solvation dynamics of an organic dye in polar solvents using the femtosecond transient grating technique," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10737-10743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, G. D. Scholes, M. Yang, and G. R. Fleming, "Probing solvation and reaction coordinates of ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions using nonlinear spectroscopies: rhodamine 6G in electron-donating solvents," J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 10348-10358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A (1)

K. Misawa and T. Kobayashi, "Utrafast dephasing measurement by transient four-wave mixing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. A 182, 125-137 (1990).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Kummrow, A. Lau, and K. Lenz, "Time resolved study of ultrafast dephasing processes in solution," Phys. Rev. A 55, 2310-2320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, "Coherent Stokes Raman scattering with incoherent light for vibrational-dephasing-time measurement," Phys. Rev. A. 35, 715-724 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, J. Y. Bigot, C. H. Brito Cruz, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon echos from molecules in solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 505-507 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. J. S. Birch, G. Hungerford, and R. E. Imhof, "Near-infrared spark source excitation for fluorescence lifetime measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2405-2408 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

J. Thompson, M. Anni, S. Lattante, D. Pisigano, R. I. R. Blyth, G. Gigli, and R. Cingolani, "Amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped polymer thin film," Synth. Met. 143, 305-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

U. Brachmann, Lambdachrome Laser Dyes (Lambda Physik, 1986).

L. V. Dao, C. Lincon, M. Lowe, and P. Hannaford, "Spectrally resolved two-colour femtosecond photon echos," in Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy, P.Hannaford, ed. (Springer-Verlag 2005).

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Revised ed. (Academic, 1982).

P. Cong, J. D. Simon, and Y. Yan, "Probing the molecular dynamics of liquids and solutions," in Ultrafast Processes in Chemistry and Photobiology, M.A.El-Sayed, I.Tanaka, and Y.Molin, eds. (Blackwell Science, 1995).

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, 1991).

S. Mukamel, Introduction to Nonlinear Spectroscopy (Oxford University Press, 1996).

M. Joffre, "Coherent effects in femtosecond spectroscopy: a simple picture using the Bloch equation," in Femtosecond Laser Pulses Principles and Experiments, 2nd ed., C.Rullière, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure of the meso-diphenylamine substituted heptamethine dye IR140 as reported in Ref. 8.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic showing a typical forward degenerate four-wave mixing experiment in the two-pulse geometery. (b) Double-sided Feynman diagrams, which represent the terms in the third order of the density operator that contribute to the DFWM signal measured in the two-beam forward geometry.[23]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated DFWM signals in both the 2 k 1 k 2 (solid curve) and the 2 k 2 k 1 (dashed curve) directions for T 2 values of 10, 50, and 800 fs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DFWM signals in both the 2 k 1 k 2 and the 2 k 2 k 1 directions obtained both experimentally and by solving the optical Bloch equations. A value of 50 ± 5 fs was extracted for the dephasing time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Electronic Dephasing Times for Several Organic Dyes in Both Polar and Nonpolar Solvents

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

iℏ d ρ d t = [ H 0 , ρ ] + [ W ( t ) , ρ ] + iℏ ρ t | relax .
H 0 | n = E n | n ,
ρ n m t | relax = Γ n m ( ρ n m ρ n m ( 0 ) ) .
ρ e g ( 3 ) = | μ e g | 2 μ e g 4 G e g ( t ) [ ε 3 ( t ) { G e e ( t ) ( ε 2 ( t ) [ G e g * ( t ) ε 1 * ( t ) ] ) } ] .
G n m ( t ) = i Θ ( t ) exp ( i ω n m Γ n m t ) ,
P ( t ) = N μ = N   Trμ ρ ( t ) = N n m μ m n ρ n m ,

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