Abstract

The numerical modeling of actively Q-switched fiber lasers is systematically presented. On the basis of typical Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber lasers under forward and backward pump, the dynamic characteristics of pulse energy, pulse width, population inversion, and stored energy at tens-of-kilohertz repetition rates are studied by using the traveling-wave method. The laser performance is further investigated for different fiber core diameters, doping rates, cavity lengths, fiber losses, signal and pump wavelengths, reflectivities of output coupler, and switching speed of an acousto-optic modulator; the laser optimization is also quantitatively discussed. Some simulation results are also compared with previous experimental results.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, "Modeling and experiments of actively Q-switched Er3+-Yb3+ codoped clad-pumped fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 573-580 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, "Optimization of pulse amplification in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2139-2147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Huo, R. T. Brown, G. G. King, and P. K. Cheo "Kinetic modeling of Q-switched high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers," Appl. Opt. 43, 1404-1411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Understanding multipeak phenomena in actively Q-switched fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1060-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Swiderski, A. Zajac, P. Konieczny, and M. Skorczakowski, "Numerical model of a Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Express 12, 3554-3559 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Switching-induced perturbation and influence on actively Q-switched fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1583-1596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Experimental study of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scatterings in a Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 201-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Piper, A. Malinowski, K. Furusawa, and D. J. Richardson, "High-power, high-brightness, mJ Q-switched ytterbium-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 928-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Pulse evolution of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Eng. 42, 2521-2526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Lu, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "Influence of cross-sectional shape on absorption characteristics of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 42, 2527-2533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Analysis of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with simultaneous mode locking," Opt. Commun. 224, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, "High-peak-power operation of a Q-switched Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser operating near 2 μm," Opt. Lett. 28, 22-24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez-Rios, A. N. Starodumov, H. Po, Y. Wang, A. A. Demidov, and X. Li, "Efficient operation of double-clad Yb3+-doped fiber lasers with a novel circular cladding geometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 1642-1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, T. M. Pollak, P. A. Budni, Y. E. Young, and E. P. Chicklis, "5-W repetitively Q-switched Er:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by an erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1787-1789 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and H. Po, "Dynamic characteristics of double-clad fiber amplifiers for high-power pulse amplification," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2262-2270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. Price, T. Monro, J. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. Richardson, "Cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding," Opt. Express 9, 714-720 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron and A. A. Hardy, "Rayleigh backscattering and amplified spontaneous emission in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 695-701 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, "Q-switched erbium doped fibre laser utilising a novel large mode area fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 393-394 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53 μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, P. Britton, and D. Taverner, "Diode-pumped, high-energy, single transverse mode Q-switch fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1955-1956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Diode pumped high power simultaneously Q-switched and self mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 332-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ripin and L. Goldberg, "High efficiency side-coupling of light into optical fibers using imbedded v-grooves," Electron. Lett. 31, 2204-2205 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. R. Salcedo, "Emission buildup in Q-switched fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 887-889 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, "Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 706-707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. Zenteno, "High-power double-clad fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435-1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, J. P. Ragey, and O. Poulsen, "Dye laser pumped Pr3+-doped fiber lasers: basic parameter investigation, CW operation, and Q-switched operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1402-1406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, and E. R. Taylor, "Q-switched neodymium-doped phosphate glass fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2178-2188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, and J. R. Simpson, "High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371-377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, E. R. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, "Short-pulse, high-power Q-switched fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 545-547 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. J. Gaeta, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, "Pulse characteristics of Q-switched fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1645-1651 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995.)

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. R.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, C.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Britton, P.

D. J. Richardson, P. Britton, and D. Taverner, "Diode-pumped, high-energy, single transverse mode Q-switch fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1955-1956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G.

Brown, R. T.

Budni, P. A.

Caplen, J.

Carman, R. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. J.

Cheo, P. K.

Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, "Modeling and experiments of actively Q-switched Er3+-Yb3+ codoped clad-pumped fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 573-580 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huo, R. T. Brown, G. G. King, and P. K. Cheo "Kinetic modeling of Q-switched high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers," Appl. Opt. 43, 1404-1411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chicklis, E. P.

Chrostowski, J.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, and J. R. Simpson, "High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371-377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214-220 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Demidov, A. A.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

C. J. Gaeta, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, "Pulse characteristics of Q-switched fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1645-1651 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2001.)
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

H. L. Offerhaus, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, R. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, "High-energy single-transverse-mode Q-switched fiber laser based on a multimode large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber," Opt. Lett. 23, 1683-1685 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, "Q-switched erbium doped fibre laser utilising a novel large mode area fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 393-394 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.-Y.

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

El-Sherif, A. F.

Fan, Y.-X.

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frerichs, C.

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, "Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 706-707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

A. Piper, A. Malinowski, K. Furusawa, and D. J. Richardson, "High-power, high-brightness, mJ Q-switched ytterbium-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 928-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. Price, T. Monro, J. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. Richardson, "Cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding," Opt. Express 9, 714-720 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, C. J.

C. J. Gaeta, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, "Pulse characteristics of Q-switched fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1645-1651 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

D. J. Ripin and L. Goldberg, "High efficiency side-coupling of light into optical fibers using imbedded v-grooves," Electron. Lett. 31, 2204-2205 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A. B.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Chen, A. B. Grudinin, J. Porta, and J. D. Minelly, "Enhanced Q switching in double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 454-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

J. Nilsson, J. D. Minelly, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ring-doped cladding-pumped single-mode three-level fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 355-357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A. A.

He, J.-L.

Hu, S.-L.

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, "Modeling and experiments of actively Q-switched Er3+-Yb3+ codoped clad-pumped fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 573-580 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huo, R. T. Brown, G. G. King, and P. K. Cheo "Kinetic modeling of Q-switched high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers," Appl. Opt. 43, 1404-1411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jedrzejewski, K. P.

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, and E. R. Taylor, "Q-switched neodymium-doped phosphate glass fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2178-2188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, E. R. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, "Short-pulse, high-power Q-switched fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 545-547 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

King, G. G.

Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, "Modeling and experiments of actively Q-switched Er3+-Yb3+ codoped clad-pumped fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 573-580 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huo, R. T. Brown, G. G. King, and P. K. Cheo "Kinetic modeling of Q-switched high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers," Appl. Opt. 43, 1404-1411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, T. A.

Kliner, D. A. V.

F. D. Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW-peak-power pulses from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 592-593.

Knoke, S.

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "High-average-power millijoule fiber amplifier system," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 591-592.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

Konieczny, P.

Koningstein, J. A.

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, and J. R. Simpson, "High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371-377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koplow, J. P.

F. D. Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW-peak-power pulses from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 592-593.

Koyamada, Y.

Lees, G. P.

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, "Q-switched erbium doped fibre laser utilising a novel large mode area fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 393-394 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Diode pumped high power simultaneously Q-switched and self mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 332-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liem, A.

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "High-average-power millijoule fiber amplifier system," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 591-592.

Limpert, J.

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "High-average-power millijoule fiber amplifier system," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 591-592.

Lu, F.-Y.

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Xu, J. Lu, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "Influence of cross-sectional shape on absorption characteristics of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 42, 2527-2533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Lu, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "Influence of cross-sectional shape on absorption characteristics of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 42, 2527-2533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K.-C.

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mackechnie, C. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, A.

A. Piper, A. Malinowski, K. Furusawa, and D. J. Richardson, "High-power, high-brightness, mJ Q-switched ytterbium-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 928-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. Price, T. Monro, J. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. Richardson, "Cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding," Opt. Express 9, 714-720 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez-Rios, A.

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Experimental study of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scatterings in a Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 201-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Pulse evolution of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Eng. 42, 2521-2526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Analysis of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with simultaneous mode locking," Opt. Commun. 224, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez-Rios, A. N. Starodumov, H. Po, Y. Wang, A. A. Demidov, and X. Li, "Efficient operation of double-clad Yb3+-doped fiber lasers with a novel circular cladding geometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 1642-1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midavaine, T.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53 μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minelly, J. D.

Monro, T.

Moore, S. W.

F. D. Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW-peak-power pulses from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 592-593.

Morkel, P. R.

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, and E. R. Taylor, "Q-switched neodymium-doped phosphate glass fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2178-2188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, E. R. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, "Short-pulse, high-power Q-switched fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 545-547 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mouneu, L.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53 μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myslinski, P.

C. Barnard, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and M. Kavehrad, "Analytical model for rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1817-1830 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, and J. R. Simpson, "High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371-377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, "Q-switched erbium doped fibre laser utilising a novel large mode area fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 393-394 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Diode pumped high power simultaneously Q-switched and self mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 332-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. Price, T. Monro, J. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. Richardson, "Cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding," Opt. Express 9, 714-720 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, J. D. Minelly, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ring-doped cladding-pumped single-mode three-level fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 355-357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Offerhaus, H. L.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Offerhaus, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, R. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, "High-energy single-transverse-mode Q-switched fiber laser based on a multimode large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber," Opt. Lett. 23, 1683-1685 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Oron, R.

Pagnoux, D.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53 μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, E. R. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, "Short-pulse, high-power Q-switched fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 545-547 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piper, A.

A. Piper, A. Malinowski, K. Furusawa, and D. J. Richardson, "High-power, high-brightness, mJ Q-switched ytterbium-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 928-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Po, H.

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Experimental study of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scatterings in a Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 201-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and H. Po, "Dynamic characteristics of double-clad fiber amplifiers for high-power pulse amplification," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2262-2270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Pulse evolution of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Eng. 42, 2521-2526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez-Rios, A. N. Starodumov, H. Po, Y. Wang, A. A. Demidov, and X. Li, "Efficient operation of double-clad Yb3+-doped fiber lasers with a novel circular cladding geometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 1642-1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Analysis of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with simultaneous mode locking," Opt. Commun. 224, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, T. M.

Porta, J.

Poulsen, O.

Y. Shi, J. P. Ragey, and O. Poulsen, "Dye laser pumped Pr3+-doped fiber lasers: basic parameter investigation, CW operation, and Q-switched operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1402-1406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Price, J.

Ragey, J. P.

Y. Shi, J. P. Ragey, and O. Poulsen, "Dye laser pumped Pr3+-doped fiber lasers: basic parameter investigation, CW operation, and Q-switched operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1402-1406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C. C.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.

Richardson, D. J.

A. Piper, A. Malinowski, K. Furusawa, and D. J. Richardson, "High-power, high-brightness, mJ Q-switched ytterbium-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 928-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Offerhaus, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, R. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, "High-energy single-transverse-mode Q-switched fiber laser based on a multimode large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber," Opt. Lett. 23, 1683-1685 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, "Q-switched erbium doped fibre laser utilising a novel large mode area fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 393-394 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, P. Britton, and D. Taverner, "Diode-pumped, high-energy, single transverse mode Q-switch fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1955-1956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

D. J. Ripin and L. Goldberg, "High efficiency side-coupling of light into optical fibers using imbedded v-grooves," Electron. Lett. 31, 2204-2205 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53 μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J.

Salcedo, J. R.

Sammut, R.

Selvas-Aguilar, R. J.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Setzler, S. D.

Shaw, H. J.

C. J. Gaeta, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, "Pulse characteristics of Q-switched fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1645-1651 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, J. P. Ragey, and O. Poulsen, "Dye laser pumped Pr3+-doped fiber lasers: basic parameter investigation, CW operation, and Q-switched operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1402-1406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, and J. R. Simpson, "High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371-377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Skorczakowski, M.

Snell, K. J.

Starodumov, A. N.

Stone, D. H.

D. H. Stone, "Effects of axial nonuniformity in modeling Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1970-1973 (1992).

Swiderski, J.

Tauermann, T.

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, "Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 706-707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taverner, D.

D. J. Richardson, P. Britton, and D. Taverner, "Diode-pumped, high-energy, single transverse mode Q-switch fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1955-1956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, "Q-switched erbium doped fibre laser utilising a novel large mode area fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 393-394 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, E. R.

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, and E. R. Taylor, "Q-switched neodymium-doped phosphate glass fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2178-2188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, E. R. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, "Short-pulse, high-power Q-switched fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 545-547 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Teodoro, F. D.

F. D. Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW-peak-power pulses from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 592-593.

Thomas, J. W.

J. W. Thomas, Numerical Partial Differential Equations: Finite Difference Methods (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

Tropper, A. C.

J. Nilsson, J. D. Minelly, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ring-doped cladding-pumped single-mode three-level fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 355-357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "High-average-power millijoule fiber amplifier system," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 591-592.

Turner, P. W.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

J. Xu, J. Lu, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "Influence of cross-sectional shape on absorption characteristics of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 42, 2527-2533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Voelckel, H.

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "High-average-power millijoule fiber amplifier system," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 591-592.

Wang, H.-J.

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-T.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, "Optimization of pulse amplification in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2139-2147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Experimental study of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scatterings in a Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 201-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Understanding multipeak phenomena in actively Q-switched fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1060-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Switching-induced perturbation and influence on actively Q-switched fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1583-1596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Pulse evolution of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Eng. 42, 2521-2526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Analysis of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with simultaneous mode locking," Opt. Commun. 224, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez-Rios, A. N. Starodumov, H. Po, Y. Wang, A. A. Demidov, and X. Li, "Efficient operation of double-clad Yb3+-doped fiber lasers with a novel circular cladding geometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 1642-1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and H. Po, "Dynamic characteristics of double-clad fiber amplifiers for high-power pulse amplification," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2262-2270 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.-Q.

Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Switching-induced perturbation and influence on actively Q-switched fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1583-1596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Understanding multipeak phenomena in actively Q-switched fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1060-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. Lu, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "Influence of cross-sectional shape on absorption characteristics of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 42, 2527-2533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, Y. E.

Zajac, A.

Zellmer, H.

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "High-average-power millijoule fiber amplifier system," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 591-592.

Zenteno, L.

L. Zenteno, "High-power double-clad fiber lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435-1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.-Y.

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

C. Frerichs and T. Tauermann, "Q-switched operation of laser diode pumped erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser operating at 2.7 μm," Electron. Lett. 30, 706-707 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees and T. P. Newson, "Diode pumped high power simultaneously Q-switched and self mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 332-333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lees, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, and T. P. Newson, "Q-switched erbium doped fibre laser utilising a novel large mode area fibre," Electron. Lett. 33, 393-394 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, "High efficiency 1.53 μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1317-1318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, P. Britton, and D. Taverner, "Diode-pumped, high-energy, single transverse mode Q-switch fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 1955-1956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Piper, A. Malinowski, K. Furusawa, and D. J. Richardson, "High-power, high-brightness, mJ Q-switched ytterbium-doped fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 928-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Quantum Electron.

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. A. Koningstein, and J. R. Simpson, "High power Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 371-377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Analysis of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with simultaneous mode locking," Opt. Commun. 224, 113-123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Pulse evolution of a Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Eng. 42, 2521-2526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Lu, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, "Influence of cross-sectional shape on absorption characteristics of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 42, 2527-2533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Analysis and optimization of a Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser working with a short rise time modulator," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 235-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Martinez-Rios, and H. Po, "Experimental study of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scatterings in a Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 201-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

J. Nilsson, J. D. Minelly, R. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ring-doped cladding-pumped single-mode three-level fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 355-357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Chen, A. B. Grudinin, J. Porta, and J. D. Minelly, "Enhanced Q switching in double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 454-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Offerhaus, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, R. Sammut, J. Caplen, and L. Dong, "High-energy single-transverse-mode Q-switched fiber laser based on a multimode large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber," Opt. Lett. 23, 1683-1685 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. R. Salcedo, "Emission buildup in Q-switched fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 887-889 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang "Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Understanding multipeak phenomena in actively Q-switched fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1060-1062 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, "High-peak-power operation of a Q-switched Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser operating near 2 μm," Opt. Lett. 28, 22-24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez-Rios, A. N. Starodumov, H. Po, Y. Wang, A. A. Demidov, and X. Li, "Efficient operation of double-clad Yb3+-doped fiber lasers with a novel circular cladding geometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 1642-1644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, T. M. Pollak, P. A. Budni, Y. E. Young, and E. P. Chicklis, "5-W repetitively Q-switched Er:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by an erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1787-1789 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron.

Y. Wang and C.-Q. Xu, "Switching-induced perturbation and influence on actively Q-switched fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1583-1596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Technol. Lett.

P. R. Morkel, K. P. Jedrzejewski, E. R. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, "Short-pulse, high-power Q-switched fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 545-547 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, and G.-Y. Zhang, "105-kW peak-power double-clad fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 652-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, "High-average-power millijoule fiber amplifier system," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 591-592.

F. D. Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW-peak-power pulses from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 592-593.

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[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configurations of Q-switched YDDC fiber lasers under (a) FWP and (b) BWP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simplified model of the laser cavity. (b) Transmittances of the AOM at the zeroth and first orders. (c) Typical absorption and emission cross sections of YDDC fibers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Initial evolutions of pulse energies at the forward and backward zeroth- and first-order output ports for different repetition rates and fiber core diameters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse shapes of stable Q-switched outputs under FWP and BWP and for different repetition rates and core diameters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolutions of stored energy during Q-switches under FWP and BWP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Upper-level population distributions before (solid curve) and after (dashed curve) Q-switching.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output pulse energy, average power, and peak power versus repetition rate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pulse width, time of pulse peak, and stored energy versus repetition rate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pulse energy and pulse width versus fiber length for different pump absorption coefficients.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Output energy, average power, stored energy, and pulse width versus pump absorption coefficient.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Influence of OC reflectivity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Influences of the AOM efficiency and fiber attenuation coefficient.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Average output power, pulse width, and stored energy versus signal wavelength under 915 and 976 nm pump.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Influence of the pump coupler loss on the signal under FWP and BWP.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Output energy, stored energy, and pulse width versus pump power.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

For a 10 μm fiber core, influence of rise time of AOM switching.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Influence of AOM switching time for a 6 μm fiber core.

Equations (531)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1.15   W
25   W
4.6 %
λ s
4 %
( z = 0   or   L )
P p 1
P p 2
P p     + ( P p     )
λ k
Δ λ k , k = 1 , , K
P k     + ( z , t )
P k     ( z , t )
P s     + ( z , t )
P s     ( z , t )
P F     o u t ( t )
P B 0         o u t ( t )
P B 1         o u t ( t )
T 0 ( t )
T 1 ( t )
t r ( t f )
N = N 1 + N 2 ,
N 2 t + N 2 τ = Γ p λ p h c A [ σ a ( λ p ) N 1 σ e ( λ p ) N 2 ] × ( P p     + + P p     ) + k Γ k λ k h c A [ σ a ( λ k ) N 1 σ e ( λ k ) N 2 ] ( P k     + + P k     ) ,
± P p     ± z + 1 v p P p     ± t = Γ p [ σ e ( λ p ) N 2 σ a ( λ p ) N 1 ] P p     ± α ( λ p ) P p     ± ,
± P k     ± z + 1 v k P k     ± t = Γ k [ σ e ( λ k ) N 2 σ a ( λ k ) N 1 ] P k     ± + S α RS P k     α ( λ k ) P k     ± + 2 σ e ( λ k ) N 2 h c 2 λ k     3 Δ λ k , k = 1 , K ,
N 1
N 2
v p
v k
v k
σ a ( λ )
σ e ( λ )
λ p
( σ a )
Γ p ( Γ k )
α RS
α ( λ )
P p     + ( 0 ) = η p P p 1 ,
P k     + ( 0 , t ) = P k     ( 0 , t ) [ R HR ( λ k ) T 1     2 ( t ) η 1     2 η cpl         2 + R res ] ,
P k     ( L , t ) = P k     + ( L , t ) R OC ( λ k ) η 2     2 , k = 1 , K
P p     ( L ) = η p P p 2 ,
P k     + ( 0 , t ) = P k     ( 0 , t ) [ R HR ( λ k ) T 1     2 ( t ) η 1     2 + R res ]
P k     ( L , t ) = P k     + ( L , t ) R OC ( λ k ) η 2     2 , k = 1 , K
R H R
R O C
η p
η c p l
η 1
η 2
R r e s
η p = 0.85
η 1 = 0.80
η 2 = 0.98
R r e s = 10 5
R H R = 0.995
E F     o u t
E B 0         o u t
E B 1         o u t
E str ( t ) = h ν s A 0 L N 2 ( z , t ) d z ,
h ν s
E s t r
T 1 ( t )
7.5   m
λ p = 915   nm
λ s = 1080   nm
R O C ( λ s ) = 0.04
R O C ( λ k ) = 10 4 , k s
( τ r )
75   ns
( η AOM )
( D c )
15   μm
125   μm
5.0   W
t r = 2.0 τ r
( t f )
t f = 50   ns
3.35 × 10 26
1.22 × 10 26
5.49 × 10 25 m - 3
15   μm
20   dB
3.0   W
40   kHz
15   μm
6   μm
D c = 6   μm
f rep = 10   kHz
0.5 × 10 3
D c = 6   μm
f rep = 10   kHz
( t r )
t r = 2.0 τ r
6   μm
10   kHz
3   W
t r
E s t r
E s t r
E s t r
E s t r
1.9   J∕s
P p    abs
( λ p / λ s )
E s t r
P p    abs λ p / λ s
E s t r
E s t r
f rep = 10   kHz
D c = 6   μm
E s t r
10   μm
E F    out
P F     ave
P F     peak
D c = 6   μm
f rep < 10   kHz
E F    out
f rep
f rep > 10   kHz
( < 10   kHz )
6   μm
20   kHz
E F    out
f rep > 40   kHz
P F ave
6   μm
P F    ave
20   kHz
( < 10   kHz )
f rep > 1 0   kHz
P F    ave
f rep > 40   kHz
P F    ave
f rep < 2 0   kHz
3.0   W
70   kHz
D c = 15   μm
85   kHz
D c = 10   μm
75   kHz
D c = 15   μm
90   kHz
D c = 10   μm
Δ t
t peak
f rep
D c , Δ t
f rep
t peak
t peak
E str
6   μm
f rep < 1 0   kHz
15   μm
( 125   μm )
( 3.35 × 10 26
1.22 × 10 26
5.49 × 10 25 m - 3
α p
6   μm
α p
15   μm
1.22 × 10 26
3.35 × 10 26 m - 3
10   μm
5.49 × 10 25
3.35 × 10 26 m - 3
15   μm
40   kHz
10   μm
10 %
8 %
15   μm
30 %
40 %
0.51   W
15   μm
( E F    out )
( Δ t )
( α )
( t r )
( η AOM )
( f rep )
( η cpl )
( λ p   and   λ s )
( P p )
E F    out
Δ t
E F    out
Δ t
10   μm
3   W
40   kHz
t r
( α p )
3.0   dB∕m
λ p = 915   nm
λ s = 1080   nm
R OC ( λ s ) = 0.04
t r = 2.0 τ r
α p
E F    out
f rep = 1 0   kHz
15   m
α p = 1.0   dB∕m
8.5   m
α p = 2.0 dB∕m
5.9   m
α p = 3.0   dB∕m
E F    out
Δ t
α p , Δ t
f rep
α p
α p = 1.0 , 2.0
3.0   dB∕m
f rep = 10   kHz
α p = 1.0 , 2.0
3.0   dB∕m
f rep = 40   kHz
Δ t
( 18   dB )
E F    out
P F    ave
E str
α p
E F    out
P F    ave
3.0 < α p < 3.5   dB∕m
α p
α p
α p
α p
2.0 3.5   dB∕m
α p
R OC = 4 %
R OC
R OC
> 1 % , E F    out
R OC
R OC
E F    out
42.1 %
f rep = 10 , 20 ,
40  kHz
R OC
4 %
R OC
R OC
R OC
Δt
f rep = 10 , 20 ,
40  kHz
R OC
E B 0        out
Δ t
E str
R OC
R OC
E str
η AOM
E F    out
20 %
21.9 %
23.0 %
f rep = 10 , 20 ,
40  kHz
E F    out
E str
η AOM
η AOM
E str
12.1 %
17.0 %
20.1 %
f rep = 10 , 20 ,
η AOM
E B 0        out
E F     out
E F     out
α ( λ s )
100   dB∕km
E F    out
f rep = 10 , 20 ,
E str
100   dB∕km
E str
3 %
E s t r
λ s = 1080   nm
λ p = 915   nm
976   nm
915   nm
D c ( 10   μm )
L ( 7.5   m )
α p ( 2.4   dB∕m )
976   nm
915   nm
λ s
P F    ave ,
Δ t ,
E str
λ p
f rep
λ s
f rep
976   nm
915   nm
915   nm
1070 1080   nm
3.0 %
λ s
1060 1100   nm
1100   nm
5.9 %
976   nm
1040   nm
976   nm
λ s = 1080   nm
f rep = 10   kHz
λ p
976   nm
11.3 %
5.7 %
λ s
1100   nm
50 %
f rep = 10   kHz
90 %
f rep = 40   kHz
Δ t
915   nm
976   nm
10 %
915   nm
E str
976   nm
E str
1060   nm
975   nm
915   nm
976   nm
( 5   nm )
3.0   W
915   nm
1080   nm
η cpl
η cpl
E F    out
11.6 %
12.6 %
12.9 %
40.0 %
40 %
12 %
( > 2 0   kHz )
2 %
( < 10   kHz )
4 %
( < 10   kHz )
10 %
Δ t
η cpl
( 1 %
Δ t
40 %
η cpl )
Δ t
η cpl
3.0   W
λ s = 1080   nm
λ p = 915   nm
η cpl = 0.85
R OC = 4 %
D c = 10   μm,
L = 7.5   m ,
α p = 2.4   dB∕m ,
α ( λ s ) = 13   dB∕km ,
t r = 150 ns
P p > 3.0   W
f rep = 10   kHz
5.0   W
40   kHz
40   kHz
Δ t
( t r = 2.0 τ r )
D c = 6   μm
f rep = 10   kHz
t r
E F    out
E B 0        out
Δ t
5.0   W
20   kHz
3.0   W
f rep = 10   kHz
t r = 600   ns
( 8.0 τ r )
t r > 600   ns,
E F    out
E B 0        out
f rep = 20   kHz
E F    out
E B 0        out
0 900   ns
Δ t
t r
f rep = 10   kHz
t r < 150   ns
Δ t
t r
150 < t r < 600   ns
Δ t
115   ns
t r
t r > 600   ns,
Δ t
t r < 60   ns
Δ t
f rep = 20   kHz
t r > 1 5 0   ns
t r ;
t r < 60   ns
Δ t
5.0   W
E F    out
E B 0        out
t r = 225   ns  
( 3 .0 τ r )
f rep = 10   kHz
t r = 750   ns ( 10 .0 τ r )
f rep = 20   kHz
f rep = 10   kHz
f rep = 20   kHz
t r < 60   ns
60 < t r < 450   ns
t r > 4 5 0   ns
t r > 4 5 0   ns
f rep = 10   kHz
t r > 7 0   ns
f rep = 20   kHz
t r
t r
t r
E F    out
E B 0        out
6   μm
3.0   W
E B 0        out
E F    out
t r = 1 5 0   ns
f rep = 10   kHz
t r = 350 ns
f rep = 20   kHz
Δ t
t r
f rep = 10   kHz
0 450   ns
f rep = 20   kHz
t r > 1 5 0   ns
5.0   W
10   kHz
t r
E F    out
t r = 7 5   ns
E B 0        out
t r = 7 5   ns
f rep = 20   kHz
f rep = 10   kHz
3.0   W
0 450   ns
λ s = 1080   nm,
λ p = 915   nm ,
η c p l = 0.85 ,
R O C = 4 % ,
D c = 10   μm ,
L = 7.5   m ,
α p = 2.4   dB∕m ,
α ( λ s ) = 13   dB∕km
E F    out
2 %
f rep = 10   kHz
η cpl = 0.6
5.6 %
E F    out
13 %
Δ t
f rep = 10   kHz
( > 4 0   kHz )
E F    out
Δ t
6   μm
3.2   W
f rep = 15   kHz
31.4 %
f rep = 80   kHz
6   μm
80 kHz
8 %
3.2   W
f rep = 20   kHz
25.7 %
f rep = 100   kHz
20   kHz
10 %
100   kHz
0.5   nm
25 %
0 .17   to   0 .97   nm
f rep
15   kHz
1.2   nm
f rep
20   kHz
R OC
25 %
R OC = 10 %
7 %
f rep = 15   kHz
20   kHz
31 %
24 %
R OC
20 %
6   μm
10   μm
10   kHz
15 18   dB
915   nm
976   nm

Metrics