Abstract

A forward-illumination light-extinction (FILE) soot volume fraction measurement technique was developed and tested. By using a camera and a point light source in front of the flame and a diffuser behind the flame, with this technique one can achieve a two-dimensional soot concentration measurement with only one window when one is studying confined combustion. The line-of-sight quantitative soot volume fraction is obtained by calculation of the reflected light intensity with or without the presence of soot cloud. Verification of this technique was accomplished by measurement of an axisymmetric ethylene diffusion flame. The field distribution obtained by Abel inversion is presented and matched well with previous point measurements. The FILE technique has high time resolution when a high-speed camera and a copper vapor laser are adopted. All these advantages of FILE make it suitable for line-of-sight integrated, two-dimensional soot distribution of transient combustion, e.g., in the case of in-cylinder Diesel combustion.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, "Optical diagnostic for soot and temperature measurement in diesel engine," Progr. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 221-255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Dec and C. Espey, "Ignition and early soot formation in a DI diesel engine using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics," in 1995 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 27 February-2 March, 1995 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 950456.
  3. R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, "Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 51, 203-218 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel jets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute (The Combustion Institute, 2003).
  6. Y. J. Chang, H. Kobayashi, K. Matsuzawa, and T. Kamimoto, "Photographic study of soot formation and combustion in a diesel flame with a rapid compression machine," presented at the First International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, The Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, July 1985.
  7. K. Nakakita, M. Nagaoka, T. Fujikawa, K. Ohsawa, and S. Yamaguchi, "Photographic and three-dimensional numerical studies of diesel soot formation process," in 1990 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 26 February-1 March, 1990 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 902081.
  8. H. Backer and A. Wiartalla, "Application of light extinction methods for the investigation of soot formation during combustion in a model chamber," presented at the Third International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, July 1994.
  9. P. S. Greenberg and J. C. Ku, "Soot volume fraction imaging," Appl. Opt. 36, 5514-5522 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. R. Snelling, K. A. Thomson, G. J. Smallwood, and M. L. Glder, "Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in laminar diffusion flames," Appl. Opt. 38, 2478-2485 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. T. Walsh, J. Fielding, and M. B. Long, "Effect of light-collection geometry on reconstruction errors in Abel," Opt. Lett. 25, 457-459 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Investigation of soot formation in Diesel combustion using forward illumination light extinction (FILE) technique," in 2004 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 8-11 March 2004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 2004-01-1411.
  13. Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on soot evolution in diesel spray combustion," presented at the 2004 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference, Charlotte, N. C., 11-15 July 2004.
  14. Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Investigation of fuel effects on soot formation using forward illumination light extinction (FILE) technique," in 2005 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 11-14 April 2005 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 2005-01-0365.

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, "Optical diagnostic for soot and temperature measurement in diesel engine," Progr. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 221-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, "Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 51, 203-218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Backer, H.

H. Backer and A. Wiartalla, "Application of light extinction methods for the investigation of soot formation during combustion in a model chamber," presented at the Third International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, July 1994.

Chang, Y. J.

Y. J. Chang, H. Kobayashi, K. Matsuzawa, and T. Kamimoto, "Photographic study of soot formation and combustion in a diesel flame with a rapid compression machine," presented at the First International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, The Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, July 1985.

Dec, J. E.

J. E. Dec and C. Espey, "Ignition and early soot formation in a DI diesel engine using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics," in 1995 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 27 February-2 March, 1995 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 950456.

Dobbins, R. A.

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, "Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 51, 203-218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Espey, C.

J. E. Dec and C. Espey, "Ignition and early soot formation in a DI diesel engine using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics," in 1995 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 27 February-2 March, 1995 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 950456.

Fielding, J.

Fujikawa, T.

K. Nakakita, M. Nagaoka, T. Fujikawa, K. Ohsawa, and S. Yamaguchi, "Photographic and three-dimensional numerical studies of diesel soot formation process," in 1990 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 26 February-1 March, 1990 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 902081.

Glder, M. L.

Greenberg, P. S.

Kamimoto, T.

Y. J. Chang, H. Kobayashi, K. Matsuzawa, and T. Kamimoto, "Photographic study of soot formation and combustion in a diesel flame with a rapid compression machine," presented at the First International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, The Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, July 1985.

Kobayashi, H.

Y. J. Chang, H. Kobayashi, K. Matsuzawa, and T. Kamimoto, "Photographic study of soot formation and combustion in a diesel flame with a rapid compression machine," presented at the First International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, The Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, July 1985.

Ku, J. C.

Ladommatos, N.

H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, "Optical diagnostic for soot and temperature measurement in diesel engine," Progr. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 221-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. F.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Investigation of soot formation in Diesel combustion using forward illumination light extinction (FILE) technique," in 2004 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 8-11 March 2004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 2004-01-1411.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on soot evolution in diesel spray combustion," presented at the 2004 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference, Charlotte, N. C., 11-15 July 2004.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Investigation of fuel effects on soot formation using forward illumination light extinction (FILE) technique," in 2005 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 11-14 April 2005 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 2005-01-0365.

Long, M. B.

Matsuzawa, K.

Y. J. Chang, H. Kobayashi, K. Matsuzawa, and T. Kamimoto, "Photographic study of soot formation and combustion in a diesel flame with a rapid compression machine," presented at the First International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, The Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, July 1985.

Nagaoka, M.

K. Nakakita, M. Nagaoka, T. Fujikawa, K. Ohsawa, and S. Yamaguchi, "Photographic and three-dimensional numerical studies of diesel soot formation process," in 1990 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 26 February-1 March, 1990 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 902081.

Nakakita, K.

K. Nakakita, M. Nagaoka, T. Fujikawa, K. Ohsawa, and S. Yamaguchi, "Photographic and three-dimensional numerical studies of diesel soot formation process," in 1990 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 26 February-1 March, 1990 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 902081.

Ohsawa, K.

K. Nakakita, M. Nagaoka, T. Fujikawa, K. Ohsawa, and S. Yamaguchi, "Photographic and three-dimensional numerical studies of diesel soot formation process," in 1990 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 26 February-1 March, 1990 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 902081.

Pickett, L. M.

L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel jets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute (The Combustion Institute, 2003).

Santoro, R. J.

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, "Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 51, 203-218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Semerjian, H. G.

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, "Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 51, 203-218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shaddix, C. R.

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siebers, D. L.

L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel jets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute (The Combustion Institute, 2003).

Smallwood, G. J.

Smyth, K. C.

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snelling, D. R.

Thomson, K. A.

Walsh, K. T.

Wiartalla, A.

H. Backer and A. Wiartalla, "Application of light extinction methods for the investigation of soot formation during combustion in a model chamber," presented at the Third International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, July 1994.

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Investigation of soot formation in Diesel combustion using forward illumination light extinction (FILE) technique," in 2004 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 8-11 March 2004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 2004-01-1411.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on soot evolution in diesel spray combustion," presented at the 2004 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference, Charlotte, N. C., 11-15 July 2004.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Investigation of fuel effects on soot formation using forward illumination light extinction (FILE) technique," in 2005 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 11-14 April 2005 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 2005-01-0365.

Yamaguchi, S.

K. Nakakita, M. Nagaoka, T. Fujikawa, K. Ohsawa, and S. Yamaguchi, "Photographic and three-dimensional numerical studies of diesel soot formation process," in 1990 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 26 February-1 March, 1990 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 902081.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, "Optical diagnostic for soot and temperature measurement in diesel engine," Progr. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 221-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Combust. Flame (2)

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, and R. A. Dobbins, "Soot particle measurements in diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 51, 203-218 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Progr. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, "Optical diagnostic for soot and temperature measurement in diesel engine," Progr. Energy Combust. Sci. 24, 221-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. E. Dec and C. Espey, "Ignition and early soot formation in a DI diesel engine using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics," in 1995 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 27 February-2 March, 1995 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 950456.

L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel jets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," in Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute (The Combustion Institute, 2003).

Y. J. Chang, H. Kobayashi, K. Matsuzawa, and T. Kamimoto, "Photographic study of soot formation and combustion in a diesel flame with a rapid compression machine," presented at the First International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, The Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, July 1985.

K. Nakakita, M. Nagaoka, T. Fujikawa, K. Ohsawa, and S. Yamaguchi, "Photographic and three-dimensional numerical studies of diesel soot formation process," in 1990 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 26 February-1 March, 1990 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 902081.

H. Backer and A. Wiartalla, "Application of light extinction methods for the investigation of soot formation during combustion in a model chamber," presented at the Third International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Yokohama, Japan, July 1994.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Investigation of soot formation in Diesel combustion using forward illumination light extinction (FILE) technique," in 2004 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 8-11 March 2004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 2004-01-1411.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on soot evolution in diesel spray combustion," presented at the 2004 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference, Charlotte, N. C., 11-15 July 2004.

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, "Investigation of fuel effects on soot formation using forward illumination light extinction (FILE) technique," in 2005 SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, 11-14 April 2005 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 2005-01-0365.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of forward-illumination light extinction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light extinction by the soot cloud.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ray trace of 1 pixel on the image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ray trace for orientation difference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ray trace of light collection with a camera.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ray trace of incident laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change of reflected light beam cross-section area on the soot surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Soot measurement of an ethylene axisymmetric diffusion flame in a nonsmoking situation by the FILE technique: (a) natural flame emission from a diffusion flame, (b) soot absorption image with an alumina diffuser as background, (c) flame emission with a bandpass filter, (d) alumina diffuser without a flame, (e) light-intensity ratio with and without the presence of soot, (f) transmittance of the soot cloud distribution, (g) line-of-sight soot volume fraction distribution.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Line-of-sight soot measurement results with different diffuser locations and camera f-stop numbers (f#): (a) h = 14 mm, f# = 4.5; (b) h = 16 mm, f# = 4.5; (c) h = 18 mm, f# = 4.5; (d) h = 20 mm, f# = 4.5; (e) h = 30 mm, f# = 4.5; (f) h = 44 mm, f# = 4.5; (g) h = 20 mm, f# = 11.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transmittance of flame at heights of 30 and 40 mm of the diffusion flame compared with the 1D extinction result of Santoro et al.[3]

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Soot volume fraction field distributions of a diffusion flame at a height of 40 mm for several distances of the diffuser from the flame, compared with LII results.[4]

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Soot field distributions at several heights with diffuser location h = 18 mm and f# = 4.5, compared with LII results.[4]

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Soot volume fraction at h = 50 mm for a closer camera setup; compared with the LII result.[4]

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Transmittance of averages of 50 frames and single frames at a height of 40 mm, compared with the 1D extinction results of Santoro et al.[3]

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Parameters for Whole-Flame Measurement

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Parameters of Close-Up Measurement

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 0 = α I i ,
I 1 = I i exp ( 0 L K ext d x ) ,
I 2 = α I 1 .
I = I 2 exp ( 0 L K ext d x ) .
I = I 0 exp ( 0 2 L K ext d x ) .
C v = λ ( 2 L ) K a ( 1 + α sa ) ln ( I 0 I ) = λ ( 2 L ) K e ln ( I 0 I ) ,
K a = 6 π Im ( m 2 1 m 2 + 2 ) = 36 π n k ( n 2 k 2 + 2 ) 2 + 4 n 2 k 2 .
C v L = λ 2 K e ln ( I 0 I ) .
m i = ρ s C v L ( Δ r ) 2 .
y = f r x + f .
( h f r + r , h )
y = f r h + L D h + f x + L D .
( h + f h + L D L D f r , 0 )
Δ s = d + Δ r f R 2 r 2 + Δ r Δ r + d f R 2 r 2 .
Δ t = h d + Δ r f + Δ r .
Δ l = L D L D + h [ Δ r + h f ( d + Δ r ) ] L D L D + h ( Δ r + d f h ) .

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