Abstract

We examine the extent to which three physical aerosol parameters—effective radius, composition (sulfate weight percent), and total volume—can be determined from infrared transmission spectra. Using simulated transmission data over the range 8004750cm1 (12.52.1μm) and errors taken from the infrared spectral measurements of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument, we use optimal estimation to recover these aerosol parameters. Uncertainties in these are examined as a function of the size, composition, and loading of stratospheric aerosols and of the spectral range employed. Using the entire spectral range above, we retrieve all three parameters with a precision to within 3% if the size distribution form is known. Additional errors result, however, from an uncertainty in the size distribution width. These are small (only a few percent) for composition and total volume but are substantial (as much as 50%) for effective radius. Errors also increase substantially when the spectral range is reduced. The retrieved effective radius can have an error of 100% or greater for typical stratospheric aerosol sizes when the spectral range is restricted to the lower wavenumber part of the range. For good accuracy in effective radius, the spectral range must extend beyond 3000cm1. Composition and total volume are less sensitive to the spectral range than effective radius. These simulations were carried out with modeled data to test the potential accuracy of stratospheric sulfate aerosol retrievals from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE). Because of the limitations that result from the use of simulated data, we have tested our retrieval algorithm using ATMOS spectra in different filter regions and present here the aerosol parameters obtained.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, and C. E. Randall, "POAM III retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 4575, doi:10.1029/2002JD002137 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. G. K. Yue, "A new approach to retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from SAGE II aerosol extinction spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27,491-27,506 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. K. Yue, "Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719-14,736 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Bauman, P. B. Russell, M. A. Geller, and P. Hamill, "A stratospheric climatology from SAGE II and CLAES measurements. 1. Methodology," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4382, doi:10.1029/2002JD002992 (2003).
  10. C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 1. Methodology and climatological observations," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06201, doi:10.1029/2003JD003518 (2004).
  11. C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 2. Reference data," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06202, doi:10.1029/2003JD003511 (2004).
  12. H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, and S. T. Massie, "Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325-9336 (1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, and M. C. Abrams, "Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241-252 (1994).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, and M. R. Gunson, "Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements," Appl. Opt. 41, 2768-2780 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Y. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, and D. Fernandez, "A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size and density of stratospheric aerosols from high resolution IR satellite measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2071 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M.-A. Soucy, F. Chateauneuf, C. Deutsch, and N. Etienne, "ACE-FTS instrument detailed design," in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4814, 70-81 (2002).
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  25. F. Chateauneuf, M.-A. A. Soucy, C. Deutsch, N. Blanchard, and J. G. Giroux, "Recent developments on the ACE-FTS instrument," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik and B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4486, 393-402 (2002).
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  26. C. D. Boone and P. F. Bernath, "SciSat-1 mission overview and status," in Earth Observing Systems VIII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 5151, 133-142 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Hansen and L. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
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  28. P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. U. K. Krieger, J. C. Mossinger, B. Luo, U. Weers, and T. Peter, "Measurement of the refractive indices of H2SO4-HNO3-H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures," Appl. Opt. 39, 3691-3703 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  34. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. L. Gras and J. E. Laby, "Southern hemisphere stratospheric aerosol measurements. 2. Time variations and the 1974-1975 aerosol events," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 303-307 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  36. R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304-314 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 1. Methodology and climatological observations," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06201, doi:10.1029/2003JD003518 (2004).

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 2. Reference data," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06202, doi:10.1029/2003JD003511 (2004).

2003 (3)

J. J. Bauman, P. B. Russell, M. A. Geller, and P. Hamill, "A stratospheric climatology from SAGE II and CLAES measurements. 1. Methodology," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4382, doi:10.1029/2002JD002992 (2003).

C. D. Boone and P. F. Bernath, "SciSat-1 mission overview and status," in Earth Observing Systems VIII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 5151, 133-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, A. Eldering, B. Sen, G. C. Toon, F. P. Mills, and B. H. Kahn, "Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size and composition information from solar infrared transmission spectra," Appl. Opt. 42, 2140-2154 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, and M. R. Gunson, "Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements," Appl. Opt. 41, 2768-2780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, and D. Fernandez, "A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size and density of stratospheric aerosols from high resolution IR satellite measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Soucy, F. Chateauneuf, C. Deutsch, and N. Etienne, "ACE-FTS instrument detailed design," in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4814, 70-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chateauneuf, M.-A. A. Soucy, C. Deutsch, N. Blanchard, and J. G. Giroux, "Recent developments on the ACE-FTS instrument," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik and B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4486, 393-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, and C. E. Randall, "POAM III retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 4575, doi:10.1029/2002JD002137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

U. K. Krieger, J. C. Mossinger, B. Luo, U. Weers, and T. Peter, "Measurement of the refractive indices of H2SO4-HNO3-H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures," Appl. Opt. 39, 3691-3703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, and T. Peter, "Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures," J. Phys. Chem. A 10, 783-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, "Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719-14,736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. K. Yue, "A new approach to retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from SAGE II aerosol extinction spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27,491-27,506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, and S. T. Massie, "Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325-9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele and R. P. Turco, "Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737-16,748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, and G. K. Yue, "Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 35, 433-440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, and R. Zander, "Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment," Appl. Opt. 35, 2774-2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, and J. H. Park, "Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067-1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, and M. C. Abrams, "Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, and J. T. Szeto, "Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy," in Proceedings from Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 457-467 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. C. Toon, "The MkIV interferometer," Opt. Photon. News 2(x), 19-21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, "Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587-5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, and W. P. Chu, "Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371-380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

J. L. Gras and J. E. Laby, "Southern hemisphere stratospheric aerosol measurements. 2. Time variations and the 1974-1975 aerosol events," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 303-307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu and M. P. McCormick, "Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38-1.0 μm wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 18, 1404-1413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304-314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon and J. Pollack, "A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225-243 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. Hansen and L. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, and R. Zander, "Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment," Appl. Opt. 35, 2774-2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, and M. C. Abrams, "Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, J. J.

J. J. Bauman, P. B. Russell, M. A. Geller, and P. Hamill, "A stratospheric climatology from SAGE II and CLAES measurements. 1. Methodology," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4382, doi:10.1029/2002JD002992 (2003).

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

C. D. Boone and P. F. Bernath, "SciSat-1 mission overview and status," in Earth Observing Systems VIII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 5151, 133-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, R. M.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, and C. E. Randall, "POAM III retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 4575, doi:10.1029/2002JD002137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, and S. T. Massie, "Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325-9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, U. M.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, and T. Peter, "Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures," J. Phys. Chem. A 10, 783-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bingen, C.

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 1. Methodology and climatological observations," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06201, doi:10.1029/2003JD003518 (2004).

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 2. Reference data," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06202, doi:10.1029/2003JD003511 (2004).

Blanchard, N.

F. Chateauneuf, M.-A. A. Soucy, C. Deutsch, N. Blanchard, and J. G. Giroux, "Recent developments on the ACE-FTS instrument," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik and B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4486, 393-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blavier, J.-F.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, and J. T. Szeto, "Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy," in Proceedings from Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 457-467 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boone, C. D.

C. D. Boone and P. F. Bernath, "SciSat-1 mission overview and status," in Earth Observing Systems VIII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 5151, 133-142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, S. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. Y.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, and H. M. Steele, "Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology," Appl. Opt. 40, 3082-3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, and R. Zander, "Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment," Appl. Opt. 35, 2774-2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chateauneuf, F.

M.-A. Soucy, F. Chateauneuf, C. Deutsch, and N. Etienne, "ACE-FTS instrument detailed design," in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4814, 70-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chateauneuf, M.-A. A. Soucy, C. Deutsch, N. Blanchard, and J. G. Giroux, "Recent developments on the ACE-FTS instrument," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik and B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4486, 393-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, and W. P. Chu, "Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371-380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu and M. P. McCormick, "Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38-1.0 μm wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 18, 1404-1413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniels, J.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, and J. H. Park, "Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067-1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Debrestian, D. J.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deepak, A.

Deshler, T.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, C.

M.-A. Soucy, F. Chateauneuf, C. Deutsch, and N. Etienne, "ACE-FTS instrument detailed design," in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4814, 70-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chateauneuf, M.-A. A. Soucy, C. Deutsch, N. Blanchard, and J. G. Giroux, "Recent developments on the ACE-FTS instrument," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik and B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4486, 393-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drayson, S. R.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, and J. H. Park, "Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067-1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eldering, A.

Escribano, R.

A. Y. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, and D. Fernandez, "A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size and density of stratospheric aerosols from high resolution IR satellite measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Etienne, N.

M.-A. Soucy, F. Chateauneuf, C. Deutsch, and N. Etienne, "ACE-FTS instrument detailed design," in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4814, 70-81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, D.

A. Y. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, and D. Fernandez, "A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size and density of stratospheric aerosols from high resolution IR satellite measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fussen, D.

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 2. Reference data," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06202, doi:10.1029/2003JD003511 (2004).

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 1. Methodology and climatological observations," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06201, doi:10.1029/2003JD003518 (2004).

Geller, M. A.

J. J. Bauman, P. B. Russell, M. A. Geller, and P. Hamill, "A stratospheric climatology from SAGE II and CLAES measurements. 1. Methodology," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4382, doi:10.1029/2002JD002992 (2003).

Giroux, J. G.

F. Chateauneuf, M.-A. A. Soucy, C. Deutsch, N. Blanchard, and J. G. Giroux, "Recent developments on the ACE-FTS instrument," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik and B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4486, 393-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, and J. H. Park, "Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067-1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gras, J. L.

J. L. Gras and J. E. Laby, "Southern hemisphere stratospheric aerosol measurements. 2. Time variations and the 1974-1975 aerosol events," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 303-307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M. R.

B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, and M. R. Gunson, "Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements," Appl. Opt. 41, 2768-2780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, and H. M. Steele, "Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology," Appl. Opt. 40, 3082-3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, and R. Zander, "Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment," Appl. Opt. 35, 2774-2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, and M. C. Abrams, "Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

J. J. Bauman, P. B. Russell, M. A. Geller, and P. Hamill, "A stratospheric climatology from SAGE II and CLAES measurements. 1. Methodology," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4382, doi:10.1029/2002JD002992 (2003).

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J.

J. Hansen and L. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hervig, M. E.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, and J. H. Park, "Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067-1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304-314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hoppel, K. W.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, and C. E. Randall, "POAM III retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 4575, doi:10.1029/2002JD002137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Irion, F. W.

B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, and M. R. Gunson, "Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements," Appl. Opt. 41, 2768-2780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, and H. M. Steele, "Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology," Appl. Opt. 40, 3082-3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, B. H.

Kent, G. S.

Kriebel, D. L.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krieger, U. K.

Krigman, S. S.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laby, J. E.

J. L. Gras and J. E. Laby, "Southern hemisphere stratospheric aerosol measurements. 2. Time variations and the 1974-1975 aerosol events," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 303-307 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lowes, L. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lumpe, J. D.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, and C. E. Randall, "POAM III retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 4575, doi:10.1029/2002JD002137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, and S. T. Massie, "Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325-9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

Luo, B. P.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, and T. Peter, "Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures," J. Phys. Chem. A 10, 783-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahieu, E.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, and S. T. Massie, "Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325-9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, and G. K. Yue, "Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 35, 433-440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, and W. P. Chu, "Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371-380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu and M. P. McCormick, "Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38-1.0 μm wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 18, 1404-1413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michelsen, H. A.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mills, F. P.

Mossinger, J. C.

Newchurch, M. J.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olivera, J. J.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, and J. H. Park, "Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067-1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, T. J.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Peter, T.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, and T. Peter, "Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures," J. Phys. Chem. A 10, 783-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Krieger, J. C. Mossinger, B. Luo, U. Weers, and T. Peter, "Measurement of the refractive indices of H2SO4-HNO3-H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures," Appl. Opt. 39, 3691-3703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304-314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J.

O. B. Toon and J. Pollack, "A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225-243 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pruvost, P.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramananahérisoa, R.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. E.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, and C. E. Randall, "POAM III retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 4575, doi:10.1029/2002JD002137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, and R. Zander, "Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment," Appl. Opt. 35, 2774-2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, and M. C. Abrams, "Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, "Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587-5595 (1990).
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C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding. Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetery Physics (World Scientific, 2000).
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R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304-314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, D. W.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, and J. H. Park, "Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067-1079 (1995).
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Russell, P. B.

J. J. Bauman, P. B. Russell, M. A. Geller, and P. Hamill, "A stratospheric climatology from SAGE II and CLAES measurements. 1. Methodology," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4382, doi:10.1029/2002JD002992 (2003).

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Salawich, R. J.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

Shettle, E. P.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, J. J.

A. Y. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, and D. Fernandez, "A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size and density of stratospheric aerosols from high resolution IR satellite measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solario, J. N.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, and J. T. Szeto, "Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy," in Proceedings from Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 457-467 (1992).
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M.-A. Soucy, F. Chateauneuf, C. Deutsch, and N. Etienne, "ACE-FTS instrument detailed design," in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4814, 70-81 (2002).
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F. Chateauneuf, M.-A. A. Soucy, C. Deutsch, N. Blanchard, and J. G. Giroux, "Recent developments on the ACE-FTS instrument," in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing IX, M. Strojnik and B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4486, 393-402 (2002).
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H. M. Steele, A. Eldering, B. Sen, G. C. Toon, F. P. Mills, and B. H. Kahn, "Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size and composition information from solar infrared transmission spectra," Appl. Opt. 42, 2140-2154 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, and H. M. Steele, "Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology," Appl. Opt. 40, 3082-3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, and S. T. Massie, "Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325-9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele and R. P. Turco, "Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737-16,748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, J. T.

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, and J. T. Szeto, "Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy," in Proceedings from Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 457-467 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, and G. K. Yue, "Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 35, 433-440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

H. M. Steele, A. Eldering, B. Sen, G. C. Toon, F. P. Mills, and B. H. Kahn, "Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size and composition information from solar infrared transmission spectra," Appl. Opt. 42, 2140-2154 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, J. N. Solario, and J. T. Szeto, "Airborne observations of the 1992 Arctic winter stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy," in Proceedings from Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff and U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 457-467 (1992).
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G. C. Toon, "The MkIV interferometer," Opt. Photon. News 2(x), 19-21 (1991).
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Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon and J. Pollack, "A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225-243 (1976).
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J. Hansen and L. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
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H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, and S. T. Massie, "Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325-9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele and R. P. Turco, "Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737-16,748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vanhellemont, F.

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 1. Methodology and climatological observations," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06201, doi:10.1029/2003JD003518 (2004).

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 2. Reference data," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06202, doi:10.1029/2003JD003511 (2004).

Wang, P.-H.

Weers, U.

Yue, G. K.

G. K. Yue, "Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719-14,736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, "A new approach to retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from SAGE II aerosol extinction spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27,491-27,506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, and G. K. Yue, "Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 35, 433-440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, and M. C. Abrams, "Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, and W. P. Chu, "Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371-380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue and A. Deepak, "Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size distribution from atmospheric extinction of solar radiation at two wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 22, 1639-1645 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yung, Y. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, and R. Zander, "Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment," Appl. Opt. 35, 2774-2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, and M. C. Abrams, "Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zasetsky, A. Y.

A. Y. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, and D. Fernandez, "A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size and density of stratospheric aerosols from high resolution IR satellite measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

W. P. Chu and M. P. McCormick, "Inversion of stratospheric aerosol and gaseous constituents from spacecraft solar extinction data in the 0.38-1.0 μm wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 18, 1404-1413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Yue and A. Deepak, "Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size distribution from atmospheric extinction of solar radiation at two wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 22, 1639-1645 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-H. Wang, G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, L. W. Thomason, and G. K. Yue, "Retrieval analysis of aerosol-size distribution with simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 35, 433-440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Y. Chang, C. P. Rinsland, and R. Zander, "Remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment," Appl. Opt. 35, 2774-2786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Krieger, J. C. Mossinger, B. Luo, U. Weers, and T. Peter, "Measurement of the refractive indices of H2SO4-HNO3-H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures," Appl. Opt. 39, 3691-3703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, and H. M. Steele, "Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology," Appl. Opt. 40, 3082-3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kahn, A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, F. P. Mills, B. Sen, and M. R. Gunson, "Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements," Appl. Opt. 41, 2768-2780 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Steele, A. Eldering, B. Sen, G. C. Toon, F. P. Mills, and B. H. Kahn, "Retrieval of stratospheric aerosol size and composition information from solar infrared transmission spectra," Appl. Opt. 42, 2140-2154 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

A. Y. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, and D. Fernandez, "A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size and density of stratospheric aerosols from high resolution IR satellite measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, and R. Zander, "The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333-2339 (1996).
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J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

O. B. Toon and J. Pollack, "A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations," J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225-243 (1976).
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J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, and W. P. Chu, "Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371-380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, and D. J. Hofmann, "Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations," J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304-314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin, "Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversions," J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 (1981).
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M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. Daniels, S. R. Drayson, and J. H. Park, "Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1067-1079 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, "Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587-5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele and R. P. Turco, "Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737-16,748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, "A new approach to retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from SAGE II aerosol extinction spectra," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 27,491-27,506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, "Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719-14,736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bauman, P. B. Russell, M. A. Geller, and P. Hamill, "A stratospheric climatology from SAGE II and CLAES measurements. 1. Methodology," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4382, doi:10.1029/2002JD002992 (2003).

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 1. Methodology and climatological observations," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06201, doi:10.1029/2003JD003518 (2004).

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, and F. Vanhellemont, "A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol size distribution parameters derived from SAGE II data over the period 1984-2000. 2. Reference data," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D06202, doi:10.1029/2003JD003511 (2004).

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, and S. T. Massie, "Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325-9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Pruvost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, D. J. Debrestian, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananahérisoa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivera, J. Lenoble, and P. Pruvost, "POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593-23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, and C. E. Randall, "POAM III retrieval algorithm and error analysis," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 4575, doi:10.1029/2002JD002137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Hughes, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, "Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745-18,764 (1996).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Calculated transmission as a function of wavenumber for three aerosol size distributions. Each has a composition of 75% sulfuric acid and a total volume loading of 500 μm3 cm−3 km. The spectral regions sampled by each of the ATMOS filters are marked by the lines f1, f3, f4 and f9. (e) Typical residual (after gas fitting) transmission errors derived from an analysis of ATMOS data. Large errors occur in regions of gaseous absorption bands and limit the retrieval of aerosol information in these regions. (b)–(d) Partial derivative of the transmission with respect to each of the three retrieval parameters—W, Reff , and V.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index as a function of wavenumber for a range of aerosol compositions. Data are from Biermann et al.[29] and Krieger et al.[30]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contours show the rms relative error in each retrieved parameter as given by the (square root of the) diagonal elements of the covariance matrix, S x ´ . Errors are given as a percent of the actual (true) value: (a) errors in W, (b) errors in R eff, (c) errors in V. Filled circles mark the (R eff, W) pairs used in the simulations. The column volume is 100 μm3 cm−3 km.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 but for a column volume of 500 μm3 cm−3 km.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 3 but for a fixed transmission error of 0.01 at all wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of Monte Carlo simulations for W = 70%, R eff = 0.19 μm, and V = 100 μm3 cm−3 km. Shown are the retrieved values of the three parameters for 100 simulations with a rms error of 0.01 added to transmission data. Note the (negative) correlation between volume and effective radius and the absence of a correlation of either of these with composition.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Percent error in the retrieved composition as a function of true composition (R eff = 0.19 μm, V = 100 μm3 cm−3 km). (b) The same but for effective radius (W = 70%, V = 100 μm3 cm−3 km). Each curve shows the retrieval by use of a different filter region. (c) Percent error in the retrieved volume for low and high loadings for the four filter regions (W = 70%, R eff = 0.19 μm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative error in retrieved effective radius resulting from an incorrect distribution width. (All R eff retrievals employ a width of 1.8. The forward model distribution width, σ, is shown on the x axis.) Filled circles show simulations performed with a range of R eff values from 0.14 to 0.95 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative error in (a) composition, (b) effective radius, and (c) volume resulting from an incorrect distribution width. (All retrievals employ a width of 1.8. The forward model distribution width, σ, is on the x axis.) Retrievals are for W = 70%, R eff = 0.19 μm, and V = 100 μm3 cm−3 km. Each curve shows a retrievals by use of a different filter region.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as Fig. 3 but for a column volume of 500 μm3 cm−3 km and with coarse resolution employed in the transmission data (150 cm−1).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Three sample ATMOS (residual) transmission spectra with model fits to the data. Each figure shows the retrieval by use of a different filter region: (a) Filter 1 region, (b) filter 4, (c) filter 3. Two retrievals were performed for each spectrum—with and without a fourth (offset) parameter. Best-fit model parameters are as follows: (a) W = 79.6%, R eff = 0.083 μm, and V = 418 μm3 cm−3 km (fixed offset) and W = 77.7%, R eff = 0.047 μm, and V = 430 μm3 cm−3 km (variable offset); (b) W = 75.6%, R eff = 0.29 μm, and V = 231 μm3 cm−3 km (fixed offset) and W = 76.6%, R eff = 0.24 μm, and V = 189 μm3 cm−3 km (variable offset); (c) W = 73.3%, R eff = 0.25 μm, and V = 846 μm3 cm−3 km (fixed offset) and W = 75.5%, R eff = 0.40 μm, and V = 564 μm3 cm−3 km (variable offset).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 True and Retrieved Parameter Values, Their Standard Deviations from Covariance Matrix Ŝ x , [Eq. (6)] and Their Standard Deviations Produced from Monte Carlo Simulations

Equations (7)

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d N ( r ) d r = N 0 r ln σ 2 π exp [ ln 2 ( r / r g ) 2 ln 2 σ ] ,
R eff = r g exp ( 5 2 ln 2 σ ) .
β ( λ ) = π r 2 Q ( r , λ ) d N ( r ) d r d r 4 π r 3 3 d N ( r ) d r d r ,
T simulated ( λ ) = exp [ β ( λ ) V ] ,
x ^ n + 1 = x a + ( S a - 1 + K n      T     S y - 1 K n ) 1 K n      T     S y - 1 × [ y y n + K n ( x ^ n x a ) ] ,
K n = T simulated x ) x = x n .
S ^ x = ( S a - 1 + K T S y - 1 K ) - 1 .

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