Abstract

A Mo–Si multilayer mirror has been used for determination of the ellipticity and higher-order content of a synchrotron beam. The method is based on the angular measure of multilayer reflectivity in the region of Bragg first- and second-order reflections. Beam parameters were derived by a fitting procedure.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Press, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  3. M. Yamamoto and T. Namioka, "Layer-by-layer design method for soft x-ray multilayers," Appl. Opt. 31, 1622-1630 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Larruquert, "New layer-by-layer method multilayer design method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 385-390 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, and J. H. Underwood, "Phase retardation and full-polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter," Appl. Opt. 33, 2624-2632 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, and T. Namioka, "Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379-1382, (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullié, W. Jark, R. Walker, X. Le Cann, R. Nyholm, and M. Eriksson, "Soft-x-ray polarimeter with multilayer optics: complete analysis of the polarization state of light," Appl. Opt. 38, 4074-4088 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, "The monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA," in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich eds.; SPIE Proc. Vol. 4145, 105-109, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.
  11. L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 1142.
  12. V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. G. Pelizzo, D. Garoli, P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, and V. Rigato, "Design, deposition and characterization of multilayer coatings for the ultraviolet and visible-light coronagraphic imager," Appl. Opt. 43, 2661-2669 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. L. Windt, "IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Absolute XUV silicon photodiode, AXUV series (International Radiation Detectors, Torrance, Calif. http://www.ird-inc.com).
  16. C. N. Berglund and W. E. Spicer, "Photoemission studies of copper and silver: theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. 136, A 1030 (1964).

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, "The monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA," in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich eds.; SPIE Proc. Vol. 4145, 105-109, (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

D. L. Windt, "IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

M. Yamamoto and T. Namioka, "Layer-by-layer design method for soft x-ray multilayers," Appl. Opt. 31, 1622-1630 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, and T. Namioka, "Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379-1382, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, C. N.

C. N. Berglund and W. E. Spicer, "Photoemission studies of copper and silver: theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. 136, A 1030 (1964).

Bontempi, E.

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Borgatti, F.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Cann, X. Le

DeLuisa, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Depero, L.

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

Doyle, B. P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Eriksson, M.

Finetti, P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Fujisawa, M.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garoli, D.

Gaupp, A.

Gazzadi, G. C.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Giglia, A.

G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, "The monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA," in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich eds.; SPIE Proc. Vol. 4145, 105-109, (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Gudat, W.

Harada, H.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

Kimura, H.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, and T. Namioka, "Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379-1382, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kotsugi, M.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larruquert, J.

Luisa, A. De

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 1142.

Maehara, T.

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, and T. Namioka, "Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379-1382, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maggioni, G.

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Mahne, N.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Matsushita, T.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mattarello, V.

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Mertin, M.

Mertins, H.-Ch.

Miyahara, T.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muro, T.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, T.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naletto, G.

G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, "The monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA," in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich eds.; SPIE Proc. Vol. 4145, 105-109, (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Namioka, T.

M. Yamamoto and T. Namioka, "Layer-by-layer design method for soft x-ray multilayers," Appl. Opt. 31, 1622-1630 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, and T. Namioka, "Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379-1382, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nannarone, S.

G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, "The monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA," in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich eds.; SPIE Proc. Vol. 4145, 105-109, (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 1142.

Nicolosi, P.

M. G. Pelizzo, D. Garoli, P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, and V. Rigato, "Design, deposition and characterization of multilayer coatings for the ultraviolet and visible-light coronagraphic imager," Appl. Opt. 43, 2661-2669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Nyholm, R.

Packe, I.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Pasquali, L.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 1142.

Patelli, A.

M. G. Pelizzo, D. Garoli, P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, and V. Rigato, "Design, deposition and characterization of multilayer coatings for the ultraviolet and visible-light coronagraphic imager," Appl. Opt. 43, 2661-2669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Pedio, M.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Pelizzo, M. G.

M. G. Pelizzo, D. Garoli, P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, and V. Rigato, "Design, deposition and characterization of multilayer coatings for the ultraviolet and visible-light coronagraphic imager," Appl. Opt. 43, 2661-2669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, "The monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA," in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich eds.; SPIE Proc. Vol. 4145, 105-109, (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Petersen, H.

Rigato, V.

M. G. Pelizzo, D. Garoli, P. Nicolosi, A. Patelli, and V. Rigato, "Design, deposition and characterization of multilayer coatings for the ultraviolet and visible-light coronagraphic imager," Appl. Opt. 43, 2661-2669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, Y.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salmaso, G.

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

Schmolla, F.

Sekiyama, A.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Selvaggi, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Soda, K.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soullié, G.

Spicer, W. E.

C. N. Berglund and W. E. Spicer, "Photoemission studies of copper and silver: theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. 136, A 1030 (1964).

Spiller, E

E Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Suga, S.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, "The monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA," in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich eds.; SPIE Proc. Vol. 4145, 105-109, (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

Ueda, S.

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Walker, R.

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, "IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto and T. Namioka, "Layer-by-layer design method for soft x-ray multilayers," Appl. Opt. 31, 1622-1630 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, and T. Namioka, "Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379-1382, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, and T. Namioka, "Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379-1382, (1992).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (2)

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 450; http://new.tasc.infm.it/research/bear/.

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," AIP Conf. Proc. 705 (2004), p. 1142.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Comp. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, "IMD-software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films," Comp. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. N. Berglund and W. E. Spicer, "Photoemission studies of copper and silver: theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. 136, A 1030 (1964).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

Y. Saitoh, H. Kimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Nakatani, T. Matsushita, T. Muro, T. Miyahara, M. Fujisawa, K. Soda, S. Ueda, H. Harada, M. Kotsugi, A. Sekiyama, and S. Suga, "Performance of a very high resolution soft x-ray beamline BL25SU with a twin-helical undulator at Spring-8," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3254-3259 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, and T. Namioka, "Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379-1382, (1992).
[CrossRef]

SPIE Proc. Vol. (1)

G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello, S. Nannarone, and A. Giglia, "The monochromator for the synchrotron radiation beamline X-MOSS at ELETTRA," in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, and S. Oestreich eds.; SPIE Proc. Vol. 4145, 105-109, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

V. Rigato, A. Patelli, G. Maggioni, G. Salmaso, V. Mattarello, M. G. Pelizzo, P. Nicolosi, L. Depero, E. Bontempi, and P. Mazzoldi, "Effects of ion bombardment and gas incorporation on the properties of Mo/a-Si:H multilayers for EUV applications," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 40-48 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Absolute XUV silicon photodiode, AXUV series (International Radiation Detectors, Torrance, Calif. http://www.ird-inc.com).

E Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Propagation and reflection of electric-field components on a plane mirror, which can have either of two orientations: case 1, the mirror normal belongs to plane zx; case 2, the mirror normal belongs to plane yx.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bidimensional reflectance of a Mo–Si ML optimized for 40.8 eV as a function of incidence angle and energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Traces of sections from Fig. 2. (a) From section A, the first-and higher-order reflectivity peaks of the ML are marked by numbers that correspond to those in Fig. 2. (b) Higher-order reflectivity peak curves are superimposed upon the first curve, assuming that the independent variable has a value E∕h, where h = 1, 2, 3, 4. If the incidence beam is affected by the presence of high-order radiation, the reflectivity measurements are combinations of all these contributions. (c) Sections B and C, ML reflectivity at 40.8 eV and at its double energy 81.6 eV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurements and simulations of the multilayer reflectivity at 96.8 eV as a function of incidence angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fit of average reflectivity to find parameter α at 96.8 eV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fit of experimental data at 96.8 eV obtained with the chamber in two positions by use of Eqs. (21) and (22).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental data at 48.4 eV for both chamber positions with simulations of first- and second-order reflectivity. From the data, the presence of second-order radiation, which is due to the multilayer second-order peak of reflectivity, is apparent.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fit of the average of the measurements at 48.4 eV to recover parameter α.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fit of experimental data at 48.4 eV obtained with the chamber in two positions by use of Eqs. (24) and (25).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Difference between experimental and simulated reflectivities as a function of parameters α and α2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental and simulated curves calculated for an (α, α2) couple value that corresponds to case B of Fig. 10.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Continuous curve, normal-incidence reflectivity curve of the Mo–Si multilayer (d = 21.0 nm, Γ = 0.75) as a function of the photon energy. Second-order (dotted curve) and third-order (dashed curve) reflectivity curves overlap the first one at 30 eV.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 ML Parameters Obtained through Several Experimental Techniques

Equations (27)

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ε i ( r , t ) = ε i , ( r , t ) y ^ + ε i , ( r , t ) z ^ ,
ε i , ( r , t ) = m = 1 N ε ( m E ) exp { i [ k r 2 πmνt + φ ( m E ) ] } ,
ε i , ( r , t ) = m = 1 N ε ( m E ) exp { i [ k r 2 πmνt + φ ( m E ) ] } ,
ε r 1 ( r , t ) = ε r 1 , ( r , t ) y ^ + ε r 1 , ( r , t ) z ^ ,
ε r 1 , ( r , t ) = m = 1 N ε ( m E ) ρ S ( θ , m E ) exp { i [ k r 2 πmνt + φ ( m E ) + φ S ( θ , m E ) ] }
ε r 1 , ( r , t ) = m = 1 N ε ( m E ) ρ P ( θ , m E ) exp { i [ k r 2 πmνt + φ ( m E ) + φ P ( θ , m E ) ] }
ε r 2 ( r , t ) = ε r 2 , ( r , t ) y ^ + ε r 2 , ( r , t ) z ^ ,
ε r 2 , ( r , t ) = m = 1 N ε ( m E ) ρ P ( θ , m E ) exp { i [ k r 2 πmνt + φ ( m E ) + φ P ( θ , m E ) ] }
ε r 2 , ( r , t ) = m = 1 N ε ( m E ) ρ S ( θ , m E ) exp { i [ k r 2 πmνt + φ ( m E ) + φ S ( θ , m E ) ] }
R 1     E ( θ ) = ε r , 1 ε r , 1 * ε i ε i * = m = 1 N [ ε ( m E ) 2 | ρ S ( θ , m E ) | 2 + ε ( m E ) 2 | ρ P ( θ , m E ) | 2 ] m = 1 N [ ε ( m E ) 2 + ε ( m E ) 2 ] .
R 2     E ( θ ) = m = 1 N [ ε ( m E ) 2 | ρ P ( θ , m E ) | 2 + ε ( m E ) 2 | ρ S ( θ , m E ) | 2 ] m = 1 N [ ε ( m E ) 2 + ε ( m E ) 2 ] .
R 1     E ( θ ) = R S ( θ , E ) I ( E ) + R P ( θ , E ) I ( E ) + m = 2 N [ R S ( θ , m E ) I ( m E ) + R P ( θ , m E ) I ( m E ) ] I ( E ) + I ( E ) + m = 2 N [ I ( E ) + I ( E ) ] ,
R 2     E ( θ ) = R S ( θ , E ) I ( E ) + R P ( θ , E ) I ( E ) + m = 2 N [ R S ( θ , m E ) I ( m E ) + R P ( θ , m E ) I ( m E ) ] I ( E ) + I ( E ) + m = 2 N [ I ( m E ) + I ( m E ) ] ,
R A V             E ( θ ) = R 1     E ( θ ) + R 2     E ( θ ) 2 = 1 2 R S ( θ , E ) I ( E ) + R P ( θ , E ) I ( E ) + m = 2 N [ R S ( θ , m E ) I ( m E ) + R P ( θ , m E ) I ( m E ) ] I ( E ) + m = 2 N I ( m E ) ,
R A V             E ( θ ) = R ( θ , E ) + m = 2 [ R ( θ , m E ) α m ] 1 + α .
R 1     E ( θ ) = R S ( θ , E ) γ 1 + R P ( θ , E ) ( 1 γ 1 ) I ( E ) + m = 2 N [ R S ( θ , m E ) α m γ m + R P ( θ , m E ) α m ( 1 γ m ) ] 1 + α ,
R 2     E ( θ ) = R S ( θ , E ) ( 1 γ 1 ) + R P ( θ , E ) γ 1 + m = 2 N [ R S ( θ , m E ) α m ( 1 γ m ) + R P ( θ , m E ) α m γ m ] 1 + α ,
V 1 = I ( E ) I ( E ) I ( E ) + I ( E ) = 2 γ 1 1 ,
V m = I ( m E ) I ( m E ) I ( m E ) + I ( m E ) = 2 γ m 1
R A V             E ( θ ) = R ( θ , E ) 1 + α ,
R 1     E ( θ ) = R S ( θ , E ) γ 1 + R P ( θ , E ) ( 1 γ 1 ) 1 + α ,
R 2     E ( θ ) = R S ( θ , E ) ( 1 γ 1 ) + R P ( θ , E ) γ 1 1 + α .
R A V           E ( θ ) = R ( θ , E ) + R ( θ , 2 E ) α 2 1 + α ,
R 1     E ( θ ) = R S ( θ , E ) γ 1 + R P ( θ ) ( 1 γ 1 ) + R S ( θ , 2 E ) α 2 γ 2 + R P ( θ , 2 E ) α 2 ( 1 γ 2 ) 1 + α ,
R 2     E ( θ ) = R S ( θ , E ) ( 1 γ 1 ) + R P ( θ , E ) γ 1 + R S ( θ , 2 E ) α 2 ( 1 γ 2 ) + R P ( θ , 2 E ) α 2 γ 2 1 + α .
α 2 , X P S = I ( 2 E ) I ( E ) = I X PS ( 2 E ) × T A n _ El ( E k 1 ) × σ ( E k 1 ) × λ ( E k 1 ) I X PS ( E ) × T An _ El ( E k 2 ) × σ ( E k 2 ) × λ ( E k 2 ) .
R A V           E ( θ ) = R ( θ , E ) + R ( θ , 2 E ) α 2 + R ( θ , 3 E ) α 3 1 + α ;

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