Abstract

Titanium oxide thin films were deposited by electron-beam evaporation with ion-beam-assisted deposition. The effect of the substrate temperature and annealing temperature on the columnar microstructure and recrystallization of titanium oxide was studied. The values of the refractive index varied from 2.26 to 2.4, indicating that the different substrate temperatures affected the film density. X-ray diffraction revealed that all films were amorphous as deposited. At annealing temperatures from 100°C   to   300  °C, only the anatase phase was formed. As the substrate temperature increased from 150°C    to 200 °C to 250°C, the recrystallization temperature fell from 300°C through 250  °C   to  200°C. Changing the substrate temperature resulted in the formation of various types of columnar microstructure, as determined by scanning-electron microscopy. Different columnar structures resulted in different surface morphologies, as measured by atomic-force microscopy.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001), Chap. 15, pp. 621-627.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, and W. C. Herrmann, "Ion-assisted deposition of optical thin film: low-energy vs high energy bombardment," Appl. Opt. 23, 552-559 (1984).
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  4. J. R. McNeil, G. A. Al-Jumaily, K. C. Jungling, and A. C. Barron, "Properties of TiO2 and SiO2 thin films deposited using ion assisted deposition," Appl. Opt. 24, 486-489 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B.-S. Jeong, J. D. Budai, and D. P. Norton, "Epitaxial stabilization of single crystal anatase films via reactive sputter deposition," Thin Solid Films 422, 166-169 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, "Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1-6 (1999).
  7. N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Rinner, J. Gerlach, and W. Ensinger, "Formation of titanium oxide films on titanium and Ti6A14V by O2-plasma immersion ion implantation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 132, 111-116 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Bennett, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, and A. Saxer, "Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques," Appl. Opt. 28, 3303-3317 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  10. O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).
  11. Y. Leprince-Wang, K. Yu-Zhang, V. N. Van, D. Souche, and J. Rivory, "Correlation between microstructure and the optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared on different substrates," Thin Solid Films 307, 38-42 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, "Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment," Thin Solid Films 300, 113-121 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, "Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films," Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. Eng. 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. N. Sayers and N. R. Armstrong, "X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TiO2 and other titanate electrodes and various standard titanium oxide materials: surface compositional changes of the TiO2 electrode during photoelectrolysis," Surf. Sci. 77, 301-320 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. J. Meng, M. Andritschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures," Thin Solid Films 226, 22-29 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. J. Meng, M. Andrtschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of d.c. reactive magnetron sputtered titanium oxide films," Thin Solid Films 223, 242-247 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C.-C. Lee, H.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Jaing, "Effect of thermal annealing on the optical properties and residual stress of TiO2 films produced by ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Opt. 44, 2996-3000 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Ben Amor, L. Guedri, G. Baud, M. Jacquet, and M. Ghedira, "Influence of the temperature on the properties of sputtered titanium oxide films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 77, 903-911 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, "Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films," Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B.-S. Jeong, J. D. Budai, and D. P. Norton, "Epitaxial stabilization of single crystal anatase films via reactive sputter deposition," Thin Solid Films 422, 166-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ben Amor, L. Guedri, G. Baud, M. Jacquet, and M. Ghedira, "Influence of the temperature on the properties of sputtered titanium oxide films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 77, 903-911 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rinner, J. Gerlach, and W. Ensinger, "Formation of titanium oxide films on titanium and Ti6A14V by O2-plasma immersion ion implantation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 132, 111-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, "Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1-6 (1999).

1997 (2)

Y. Leprince-Wang, K. Yu-Zhang, V. N. Van, D. Souche, and J. Rivory, "Correlation between microstructure and the optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared on different substrates," Thin Solid Films 307, 38-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, "Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment," Thin Solid Films 300, 113-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

L. J. Meng, M. Andritschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures," Thin Solid Films 226, 22-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Meng, M. Andrtschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of d.c. reactive magnetron sputtered titanium oxide films," Thin Solid Films 223, 242-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1978 (1)

C. N. Sayers and N. R. Armstrong, "X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TiO2 and other titanate electrodes and various standard titanium oxide materials: surface compositional changes of the TiO2 electrode during photoelectrolysis," Surf. Sci. 77, 301-320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. Eng. 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

Allen, T. H.

Andritschky, M.

L. J. Meng, M. Andritschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures," Thin Solid Films 226, 22-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andrtschky, M.

L. J. Meng, M. Andrtschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of d.c. reactive magnetron sputtered titanium oxide films," Thin Solid Films 223, 242-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, N. R.

C. N. Sayers and N. R. Armstrong, "X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TiO2 and other titanate electrodes and various standard titanium oxide materials: surface compositional changes of the TiO2 electrode during photoelectrolysis," Surf. Sci. 77, 301-320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Barron, A. C.

Baud, G.

S. Ben Amor, L. Guedri, G. Baud, M. Jacquet, and M. Ghedira, "Influence of the temperature on the properties of sputtered titanium oxide films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 77, 903-911 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ben Amor, S.

S. Ben Amor, L. Guedri, G. Baud, M. Jacquet, and M. Ghedira, "Influence of the temperature on the properties of sputtered titanium oxide films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 77, 903-911 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Borgogno, J. P.

Brett, M. J.

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, "Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films," Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Budai, J. D.

B.-S. Jeong, J. D. Budai, and D. P. Norton, "Epitaxial stabilization of single crystal anatase films via reactive sputter deposition," Thin Solid Films 422, 166-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Castro, S. G. C.

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-C.

Colgan, M. J.

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, "Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films," Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Da Cru, N. C.

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davanzo, C. U.

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Moraes, M. A. B.

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Djurfors, B.

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, "Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films," Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, M. P.

L. J. Meng, M. Andritschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures," Thin Solid Films 226, 22-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Meng, M. Andrtschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of d.c. reactive magnetron sputtered titanium oxide films," Thin Solid Films 223, 242-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ensinger, W.

M. Rinner, J. Gerlach, and W. Ensinger, "Formation of titanium oxide films on titanium and Ti6A14V by O2-plasma immersion ion implantation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 132, 111-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. Eng. 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Frach, P.

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. Eng. 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, J.

M. Rinner, J. Gerlach, and W. Ensinger, "Formation of titanium oxide films on titanium and Ti6A14V by O2-plasma immersion ion implantation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 132, 111-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghedira, M.

S. Ben Amor, L. Guedri, G. Baud, M. Jacquet, and M. Ghedira, "Influence of the temperature on the properties of sputtered titanium oxide films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 77, 903-911 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gloess, D.

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).

Goedicke, K.

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).

Guedri, L.

S. Ben Amor, L. Guedri, G. Baud, M. Jacquet, and M. Ghedira, "Influence of the temperature on the properties of sputtered titanium oxide films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 77, 903-911 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Herrmann, W. C.

Ivey, D. G.

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, "Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films," Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jacquet, M.

S. Ben Amor, L. Guedri, G. Baud, M. Jacquet, and M. Ghedira, "Influence of the temperature on the properties of sputtered titanium oxide films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 77, 903-911 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C.-C.

Jeong, B.-S.

B.-S. Jeong, J. D. Budai, and D. P. Norton, "Epitaxial stabilization of single crystal anatase films via reactive sputter deposition," Thin Solid Films 422, 166-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jungling, K. C.

Kikuchi, K.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, "Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1-6 (1999).

Lazarides, B.

Lee, C.-C.

Leprince-Wang, Y.

Y. Leprince-Wang, K. Yu-Zhang, V. N. Van, D. Souche, and J. Rivory, "Correlation between microstructure and the optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared on different substrates," Thin Solid Films 307, 38-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, "Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1-6 (1999).

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, and W. G. Sainty, "Ion-beam-assisted deposition of thin films," Appl. Opt. 22, 178-184 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001), Chap. 15, pp. 621-627.
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. Eng. 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Martin, N.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, "Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment," Thin Solid Films 300, 113-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

McNeil, J. R.

Meng, L. J.

L. J. Meng, M. Andritschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures," Thin Solid Films 226, 22-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Meng, M. Andrtschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of d.c. reactive magnetron sputtered titanium oxide films," Thin Solid Films 223, 242-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mercier, R.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, "Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment," Thin Solid Films 300, 113-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Modes, T.

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).

Muller, K. H.

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Norton, D. P.

B.-S. Jeong, J. D. Budai, and D. P. Norton, "Epitaxial stabilization of single crystal anatase films via reactive sputter deposition," Thin Solid Films 422, 166-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, "Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1-6 (1999).

Pacey, C. G.

Palmino, F.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, "Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment," Thin Solid Films 300, 113-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Rangel, E. C.

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinner, M.

M. Rinner, J. Gerlach, and W. Ensinger, "Formation of titanium oxide films on titanium and Ti6A14V by O2-plasma immersion ion implantation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 132, 111-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rivory, J.

Y. Leprince-Wang, K. Yu-Zhang, V. N. Van, D. Souche, and J. Rivory, "Correlation between microstructure and the optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared on different substrates," Thin Solid Films 307, 38-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rondot, D.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, "Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment," Thin Solid Films 300, 113-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rousselot, C.

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, "Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment," Thin Solid Films 300, 113-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sahm, H.

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).

Sainty, W. G.

Saxer, A.

Sayers, C. N.

C. N. Sayers and N. R. Armstrong, "X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TiO2 and other titanate electrodes and various standard titanium oxide materials: surface compositional changes of the TiO2 electrode during photoelectrolysis," Surf. Sci. 77, 301-320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schmell, R. A.

Souche, D.

Y. Leprince-Wang, K. Yu-Zhang, V. N. Van, D. Souche, and J. Rivory, "Correlation between microstructure and the optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared on different substrates," Thin Solid Films 307, 38-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, "Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1-6 (1999).

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Transferetti, B. C.

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle-Hart, T.

Van, V. N.

Y. Leprince-Wang, K. Yu-Zhang, V. N. Van, D. Souche, and J. Rivory, "Correlation between microstructure and the optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared on different substrates," Thin Solid Films 307, 38-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. R.

Yu-Zhang, K.

Y. Leprince-Wang, K. Yu-Zhang, V. N. Van, D. Souche, and J. Rivory, "Correlation between microstructure and the optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared on different substrates," Thin Solid Films 307, 38-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zywitzki, O.

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Phys. Eng. (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. Eng. 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (2)

Q. Tang, K. Kikuchi, S. Ogura, and H. A. Macleod, "Mechanism of columnar microstructure growth in titanium oxide thin films deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A17, 1-6 (1999).

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Ben Amor, L. Guedri, G. Baud, M. Jacquet, and M. Ghedira, "Influence of the temperature on the properties of sputtered titanium oxide films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 77, 903-911 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (3)

N. C. Da Cru, E. C. Rangel, B. C. Transferetti, C. U. Davanzo, S. G. C. Castro, M. A. B. De Moraes, and K. H. Muller, "Properties of titanium oxide films obtained by PECVD," Surf. Coat. Technol. 126, 123-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rinner, J. Gerlach, and W. Ensinger, "Formation of titanium oxide films on titanium and Ti6A14V by O2-plasma immersion ion implantation," Surf. Coat. Technol. 132, 111-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Zywitzki, T. Modes, H. Sahm, P. Frach, K. Goedicke, and D. Gloess, "Structure and properties of crystalline titanium oxide layers deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 538-543 (2004).

Surf. Sci. (1)

C. N. Sayers and N. R. Armstrong, "X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TiO2 and other titanate electrodes and various standard titanium oxide materials: surface compositional changes of the TiO2 electrode during photoelectrolysis," Surf. Sci. 77, 301-320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (6)

L. J. Meng, M. Andritschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "Investigations of titanium oxide films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering in different sputtering pressures," Thin Solid Films 226, 22-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Meng, M. Andrtschky, and M. P. Dos Santos, "The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of d.c. reactive magnetron sputtered titanium oxide films," Thin Solid Films 223, 242-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Leprince-Wang, K. Yu-Zhang, V. N. Van, D. Souche, and J. Rivory, "Correlation between microstructure and the optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared on different substrates," Thin Solid Films 307, 38-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Martin, C. Rousselot, D. Rondot, F. Palmino, and R. Mercier, "Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment," Thin Solid Films 300, 113-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, "Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films," Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B.-S. Jeong, J. D. Budai, and D. P. Norton, "Epitaxial stabilization of single crystal anatase films via reactive sputter deposition," Thin Solid Films 422, 166-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001), Chap. 15, pp. 621-627.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

X-ray diffraction spectra of TiO2 as-deposited film at a substrate temperature of 150 °C; the films were annealed at 250 °C and 300 °C. At 300 °C a distinct anatase (101) peak is observed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction spectra of TiO2 as-deposited film at a substrate temperature of 200 °C; the films were annealed at 100 °C to 300 °C. At 250 °C a distinct anatase (101) peak is observed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray diffraction spectra of TiO2 as-deposited film at a substrate temperature of 250 °C; the films were annealed at 100 °C to 300 °C. At 200 °C a distinct anatase (101) peak is observed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in refractive indices at a wavelength of 550 nm with substrate temperature and annealing temperature. The variation was greater at 150 °C than at 200 °C or 250 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Change in extinction coefficient at a wavelength of 550 nm with substrate temperature and annealing temperature. The variation was greater at 150 °C than at 200 °C or 250 °C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM micrographs of TiO2 films annealed at several temperatures. Substrate temperatures: (a) 150 °C, (b) 200 °C, (c) 250 °C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Surface morphology of TiO2 films annealed at several temperatures as measured by an AFM substrate temperatures: (a) 150 °C, (b) 200 °C, (c) 250 °C.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Films Deposited at Three Substrate Temperatures

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