Abstract

The reflection resonance spectrum of a subwavelength diffraction-grating-coupled waveguide is used to analyze biomolecular interactions in real time. By detecting this resonance wavelength shift, the optical waveguide biosensor provides the ability to identify the kinetics of the biomolecular interaction on an on-line basis without the need for extrinsic labeling of the biomolecules. A theoretical analysis of the subwavelength optical waveguide biosensor is performed. A biosensor with a narrow reflection resonance spectrum, and hence an enhanced detection resolution, is then designed and fabricated. Currently, the detection limit of the optical waveguide sensor is approximately 10−5 refractive-index units. The biosensor is successfully applied to study of the dynamic response of an antibody interaction with protein G adsorbed on the sensing surface.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, "Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips," Sensors Actuators B 91, 241-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sensors Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, "Resonant grating waveguide structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, "Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations," Phy. Rev. B 26, 2907-2917 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, and H. L. Bertoni, "Theory of periodic dielect waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 123-133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. C. Flanders, H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, and C. V. Shank, "Grating filters for thin-film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 194-196 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, "On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum," Phil. Mag. 4, 396-408 (1902).

Bertoni, H. L.

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, and H. L. Bertoni, "Theory of periodic dielect waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 123-133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cottier, K.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, "Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips," Sensors Actuators B 91, 241-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sensors Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flanders, D. C.

D. C. Flanders, H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, and C. V. Shank, "Grating filters for thin-film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 194-196 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, "Resonant grating waveguide structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, "Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips," Sensors Actuators B 91, 241-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Haggans, C. W.

Hessel, A.

Iwata, K.

Kikuta, H.

Kogelnik, H.

D. C. Flanders, H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, and C. V. Shank, "Grating filters for thin-film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 194-196 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Kubo, H.

Kunz, R. E.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, "Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips," Sensors Actuators B 91, 241-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiki and R. E. Kunz, "Wavelength-interrogated optical sensor for biochemical applications," Opt. Lett. 25, 463-465 (2000).

Li, L.

Li, P.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sensors Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sensors Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Magnusson, R.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, G. M.

Nakamura, M.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ohira, Y.

Oliner, A. A.

Peng, S.

Peng, S. T.

S. T. Peng, "Rigorous formulation of scattering and guidance by dielectric grating waveguides: general case of oblique incidence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1869-1883 (1989).

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, and H. L. Bertoni, "Theory of periodic dielect waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 123-133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, J.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sensors Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, D.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, "Resonant grating waveguide structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanda, P. N.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, "Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations," Phy. Rev. B 26, 2907-2917 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R. V.

D. C. Flanders, H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, and C. V. Shank, "Grating filters for thin-film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 194-196 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

D. C. Flanders, H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, and C. V. Shank, "Grating filters for thin-film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 194-196 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sharon, A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, "Resonant grating waveguide structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, "Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations," Phy. Rev. B 26, 2907-2917 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stepleman, R. S.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, "Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations," Phy. Rev. B 26, 2907-2917 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, and H. L. Bertoni, "Theory of periodic dielect waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 123-133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tiefenthaler, K.

Voirin, G.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, "Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips," Sensors Actuators B 91, 241-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiki, M.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, "Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips," Sensors Actuators B 91, 241-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiki and R. E. Kunz, "Wavelength-interrogated optical sensor for biochemical applications," Opt. Lett. 25, 463-465 (2000).

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, "On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum," Phil. Mag. 4, 396-408 (1902).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley-Interscience, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley-Interscience, 1984).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. C. Flanders, H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, and C. V. Shank, "Grating filters for thin-film optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 194-196 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, "Resonant grating waveguide structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038-2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

S. T. Peng, T. Tamir, and H. L. Bertoni, "Theory of periodic dielect waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 123-133 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phil. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, "On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum," Phil. Mag. 4, 396-408 (1902).

Phy. Rev. B (1)

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, "Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations," Phy. Rev. B 26, 2907-2917 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators B (2)

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, "Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips," Sensors Actuators B 91, 241-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sensors Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley-Interscience, 1984).

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