Abstract

An instrument is demonstrated that can be used for optical detection of honeybees in a cluttered environment. The instrument uses a continuous-wave diode laser with a center wavelength of 808 nm and an output power of 28  mW as the laser transmitter source. Light scattered from moving honeybee wings will produce an intensity-modulated signal at a characteristic wing-beat frequency (170270  Hz) that can be used to detect the honeybees against a cluttered background. The optical detection of honeybees has application in the biological detection of land mines and explosives, as was recently demonstrated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.
  2. G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenk, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.DeVillers and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. C. Smith, "Biological systems: alternatives for landmine detection," RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Science and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.
  4. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.
  5. J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.
  6. S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.
  7. J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J.Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churn-side, and J. J. Wilson, "Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating landmines," Opt. Express 13, 5853-5863 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosophila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).
  9. D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).
  10. A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing-beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signal and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1997), 514-581.

2005

2003

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

2002

A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing-beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).

1942

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosophila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).

Alnasseer, G. H.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenk, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.DeVillers and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

Altshuler, T.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Balch, T.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Bender, G. L.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

Bender, S.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Bender, S. F.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Bender, S. F. A.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

Broach, T.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Bromenshenk, J. J.

J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J.Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churn-side, and J. J. Wilson, "Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating landmines," Opt. Express 13, 5853-5863 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenk, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.DeVillers and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. C. Smith, "Biological systems: alternatives for landmine detection," RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Science and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Carin, L.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Carlsten, J. L.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Chadwick, L. E.

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosophila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).

Churn-side, J. H.

Dunkle, D. L.

Ellington, C. P.

D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).

Etter, R. T.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Hargis, P. J.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

Harmon, R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Henderson, C. B.

J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J.Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churn-side, and J. J. Wilson, "Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating landmines," Opt. Express 13, 5853-5863 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. C. Smith, "Biological systems: alternatives for landmine detection," RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Science and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Johnson, M. S.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

Jones, D. C.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenk, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.DeVillers and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

Klarkowski, J. R.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

Lockwood, J. R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

MacDonald, J.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Magee, G. I.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

McFee, J.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Miller, R. H.

A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing-beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A.

A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing-beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nawab, S. H.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signal and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1997), 514-581.

Nugent, P. W.

Oppenheim, A. V.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signal and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1997), 514-581.

Rappaport, C.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Reed, S. C.

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosophila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).

Repasky, K. S.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Rodacy, P.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Rodacy, P. J.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

Schmitt, R. L.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

Scott, W.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Seccomb, R.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Seccomb, R. A.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Seldomridge, N.

Seldomridge, N. L.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Shaw, J. A.

J. A. Shaw, N. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. Spangler, J. J.Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churn-side, and J. J. Wilson, "Polarization measurements of honeybees in flight for locating landmines," Opt. Express 13, 5853-5863 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Smith, G. C.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. C. Smith, "Biological systems: alternatives for landmine detection," RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Science and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenk, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.DeVillers and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

Spangler, L.

Spangler, L. H.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

Unwin, D. M.

D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).

Weaver, R.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

Williams, C. M.

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosophila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).

Willsky, A. S.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signal and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1997), 514-581.

Wilson, J. J.

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am.

A. Moore and R. H. Miller, "Automated identification of optically sensed aphid (homoptera: Aphidae) wing-beat forms," Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95, 1-8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Biol.

D. M. Unwin and C. P. Ellington, "An optical tachometer for measurement of the wing-beat frequency of free-flying insects," J. Exp. Biol. 82, 377-378 (1979).

J. Mine Action

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, R. T. Etter, S. F. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, and L. H. Spangler, "Can honey bees assist in area reduction and landmine detection?," J. Mine Action 7.3 (2003), available at http://www.maic.jmu.edu/journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.

Opt. Express

Other

S. C. Reed, C. M. Williams, and L. E. Chadwick, "Frequency of wing-beat as a character for separating species races and geographic varieties of drosophila," Genetics 27, 349-361 (1942).

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signal and Systems, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1997), 514-581.

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. Seccomb, L. H. Spangler, J. A. Shaw, K. S. Repasky, J. L. Carlsten, T. Balch, P. Rodacy, and S. Bender, Technical Report-Study/Services, CDRL DI-MISC-80598A, for U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, R. L. Schmitt, P. J. Hargis, Jr., M. S. Johnson, J. R. Klarkowski, G. I. Magee, and G. L. Bender, "Tracking honey bees using LIDAR (light detection and ranging)," Sandia National Laboratories Rep. SAND2003-0184, 2003.

J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, R. Harmon, C. Rappaport, W. Scott, and R. Weaver, "Alternatives for landmine detection" (RAND Corp., 2003), available at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608/MR1608.appg.pdf.

G. C. Smith, J. J. Bromenshenk, D. C. Jones, and G. H. Alnasseer, "Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in beehive atmospheres," in Honey Bees: Estimating the Environmental Impact of Chemicals, J.DeVillers and M.-H.Pham-Delegue, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), Chap. 2, pp. 12-41.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, and G. C. Smith, "Biological systems: alternatives for landmine detection," RAND Science and Technology Institute for Office of Science and Technology Policy Report, J. MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood, J. McFee, T. Altshuler, T. Broach, L. Carin, C. Rappaport, W. R. Scott, and R. Weaver, eds. (RAND Corp., 2003), available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1608.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for remote detection of honeybees by means of wing-beat modulation of the return signal of a cw laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of voltage as a function of time of the return signal. The light scattered back to the detector from the moving bee wing causes a modulated return signal with a frequency specific to the honeybee. The modulated return signal can be used to pick out a honeybee as it flies through the laser beam against a cluttered background.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the return signal as a function of frequency. The solid curve represents a modulated return signal from a honeybee's moving wing while the dashed curve represents the background return signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Field measurements made with the instrument shown in Fig. 1. The white beehive surrounded by vegetation is visible in this photograph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Field detection of honeybees by the instrument shown in Fig. 1. Time is plotted along the x axis, and frequency is plotted along the y axis. A plot of the power in each frequency bin is represented by the gray scale. Honeybees flew into the laser beam during the 4–9 s time window of the plot. The honeybee detection shows up at a frequency near 170 Hz. The second harmonic of the wing modulation shows up near 340 Hz.

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