Abstract

Adapting the concept of solid immersion lenses, we numerically study a micro-optical scheme for conventional high-index and photonic-crystal waveguide coupling by using a combination of different numerical methods such as ray tracing, angular-spectrum propagation, finite-difference time-domain simulations, and finite-element-method simulations. The numerical findings are discussed by means of impedance, group- or energy-velocity, spot-size, and phase-matching criteria. When fabrication constraints for high-index immersion lenses made of silicon are taken into account, a coupling efficiency of 80% can be reached for monomode silicon-on-insulator waveguides with a quadratic cross section of the core and rectangular cross sections of moderate aspect ratio. Similar coupling efficiencies of 80% can be obtained for silicon-on-insulator photonic-crystal waveguides. Tolerances that are due to misalignments and variations of the substrate thickness of the silicon lens are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004 (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Margan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. van de Nes, L. Billy, S. F. Pereira, and J. J. M. Braat, "Calculation of the vectorial field distribution in a stratified focal region of a high numerical aperture imaging system," Opt. Express 12, 1281-1293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (9)

M. Galarza, K. De-Mesel, S. Verstuyft, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Moerman, P. Van-Daele, and R. Baets, "A new spot-size converter concept using fiber-matched antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 269-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).

P. Bienstman, S. Assefa, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Taper structures for coupling into photonic crystal slab waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1817-1821 (2003).

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguides for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona, "Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides: efficient butt coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4986-4991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, "Experimental demonstration of evanescent coupling from optical fiber tapers to photonic crystal waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 842-844 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Michaelis, U. Peschel, C. Wächter, and A. Bräuer, "Coupling coefficients of photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4987, 114-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

R. Kaiser and H. Heidrich, "Optoelectronic/photonic integrated circuits on InP between technological feasibility and commercial success," IEICE Trans. Electron. 4, 970-981 (2002).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hosomi and T. Katsuyama, "A dispersion compensator using coupled defects in a photonic crystal," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 825-829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Talneau, Ph. Lalanne, M. Agio, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low reflection photonic-crystal taper for efficient coupling between guide sections of arbitrary widths," Opt. Lett. 27, 1522-1524 (2002).

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1997 (4)

I. Ichimura, S. Hayashi, and G. S. Kinso, "High-density optical recording using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Opt. 36, 4339-4348 (1997).

P. Török and P. Varga, "Electromagnetic diffraction of light focused through a stratified medium," Appl. Opt. 36, 2305-2312 (1997).

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges "Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small core dimensions for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1238-1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and P. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1988 (1)

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358-379 (1959).

1919 (1)

V. S. Ignatowsky, "Diffraction by a lens of arbitrary aperture," Trans. Opt. Inst. Petrograd 1(4), 1-36 (1919).

Agio, M.

Almeida, V. R.

Aramburu, C.

Assefa, S.

Baets, R.

M. Galarza, K. De-Mesel, S. Verstuyft, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Moerman, P. Van-Daele, and R. Baets, "A new spot-size converter concept using fiber-matched antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 269-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

Barclay, P. E.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguides for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, "Experimental demonstration of evanescent coupling from optical fiber tapers to photonic crystal waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 842-844 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, F. S.

H. Wu and F. S. Barnes, Microlenses—Coupling Light to Optical Fibers (IEEE, 1991).

Bienstman, P.

P. Bienstman, S. Assefa, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Taper structures for coupling into photonic crystal slab waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1817-1821 (2003).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Billy, L.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G.-L.

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona, "Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides: efficient butt coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4986-4991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Borselli, M.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, "Experimental demonstration of evanescent coupling from optical fiber tapers to photonic crystal waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 842-844 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Bräuer, A.

D. Michaelis, U. Peschel, C. Wächter, and A. Bräuer, "Coupling coefficients of photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4987, 114-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, F. Schmidt, L. Zschiedrich, "Adaptive FEM solver for the computation of electromagnetic eigenmodes in 3D photonic crystal structures," Proceedings SCEE04—Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering (Springer-Verlag, submitted for publication).

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, and L. Zschiedrich, "HelmPole—A finite element solver for scattering problems on unbounded domains: implementation based on PML," Tech. Rep. 03-38 (Zuse Institute, 2003).

Chai, Y. J.

T. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Margan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S. P.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ching-Eng, P.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Connell, G. A. N.

Demeester, P.

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and P. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

De-Mesel, K.

M. Galarza, K. De-Mesel, S. Verstuyft, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Moerman, P. Van-Daele, and R. Baets, "A new spot-size converter concept using fiber-matched antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 269-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De-Vreede, A. H.

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

Dobbelaere, G.

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

Dorgeuille, F.

Fijol, J. J.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fike, E. E.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Filoche, M.

Flagello, D. G.

Forchel, A.

T.-D. Happ, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, "Photonic crystal tapers for ultra-compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 26, 1102-1104 (2001).

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

Francois, S.

Frish, M. B.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Galarza, M.

Gilbody, D.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

Haes, J.

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

Hak, D.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Happ, T.-D.

Hayashi, S.

Headley, W. R.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

R. Kaiser and H. Heidrich, "Optoelectronic/photonic integrated circuits on InP between technological feasibility and commercial success," IEICE Trans. Electron. 4, 970-981 (2002).

Herrmann, C.

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

Herve-Gruyer, G.

Hoffmann, M.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges "Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small core dimensions for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1238-1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hosomi, K.

K. Hosomi and T. Katsuyama, "A dispersion compensator using coupled defects in a photonic crystal," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 825-829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, I.

Ignatowsky, V. S.

V. S. Ignatowsky, "Diffraction by a lens of arbitrary aperture," Trans. Opt. Inst. Petrograd 1(4), 1-36 (1919).

Jacobson, S. A.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jamois, C.

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kaiser, R.

R. Kaiser and H. Heidrich, "Optoelectronic/photonic integrated circuits on InP between technological feasibility and commercial success," IEICE Trans. Electron. 4, 970-981 (2002).

Kamp, M.

Karle, T.

T. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Margan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katsuyama, T.

K. Hosomi and T. Katsuyama, "A dispersion compensator using coupled defects in a photonic crystal," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 825-829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keating, P. B.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, W. J.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinso, G. S.

Klose, R.

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, and L. Zschiedrich, "HelmPole—A finite element solver for scattering problems on unbounded domains: implementation based on PML," Tech. Rep. 03-38 (Zuse Institute, 2003).

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, F. Schmidt, L. Zschiedrich, "Adaptive FEM solver for the computation of electromagnetic eigenmodes in 3D photonic crystal structures," Proceedings SCEE04—Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering (Springer-Verlag, submitted for publication).

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Kopka, P.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges "Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small core dimensions for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1238-1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

T. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Margan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, Ph.

A. Talneau, Ph. Lalanne, M. Agio, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low reflection photonic-crystal taper for efficient coupling between guide sections of arbitrary widths," Opt. Lett. 27, 1522-1524 (2002).

M. Palamaru and Ph. Lalanne, "Photonic crystal waveguides—Out of plane losses and adiabadic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1466-1468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, J. J.

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Leijtens, X.

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

Lieberman, M. A.

M. A. Lieberman, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing (Wiley, 1994).

Lim, S. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lopez-Amo, M.

Margan, C. N.

T. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Margan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

März, R.

R. März, Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling (Artech House, 1994).

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

Masanovic, G. Z.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Mekis, A.

Mersali, B.

Metaal, E.

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

Michaelis, D.

D. Michaelis, U. Peschel, C. Wächter, and A. Bräuer, "Coupling coefficients of photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4987, 114-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

Milster, T.

Moerman, I.

M. Galarza, K. De-Mesel, S. Verstuyft, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Moerman, P. Van-Daele, and R. Baets, "A new spot-size converter concept using fiber-matched antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 269-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and P. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona, "Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides: efficient butt coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4986-4991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).

Painter, O.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, "Experimental demonstration of evanescent coupling from optical fiber tapers to photonic crystal waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 842-844 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguides for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

Palamaru, M.

M. Palamaru and Ph. Lalanne, "Photonic crystal waveguides—Out of plane losses and adiabadic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1466-1468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S. F.

Peschel, U.

D. Michaelis, U. Peschel, C. Wächter, and A. Bräuer, "Coupling coefficients of photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4987, 114-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

Popovic, Z. D.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358-379 (1959).

Rosenbluth, A. E.

Schädle, A.

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, F. Schmidt, L. Zschiedrich, "Adaptive FEM solver for the computation of electromagnetic eigenmodes in 3D photonic crystal structures," Proceedings SCEE04—Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering (Springer-Verlag, submitted for publication).

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, and L. Zschiedrich, "HelmPole—A finite element solver for scattering problems on unbounded domains: implementation based on PML," Tech. Rep. 03-38 (Zuse Institute, 2003).

Schmidt, F.

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, F. Schmidt, L. Zschiedrich, "Adaptive FEM solver for the computation of electromagnetic eigenmodes in 3D photonic crystal structures," Proceedings SCEE04—Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering (Springer-Verlag, submitted for publication).

Smith, M.

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Soukoulis, C. M.

Spargue, R. A.

Srinivasan, K.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, "Experimental demonstration of evanescent coupling from optical fiber tapers to photonic crystal waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 842-844 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguides for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics—The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 1998).

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Talneau, A.

Török, P.

Van Daele, P.

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and P. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van de Nes, A. S.

Van-Daele, P.

M. Galarza, K. De-Mesel, S. Verstuyft, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Moerman, P. Van-Daele, and R. Baets, "A new spot-size converter concept using fiber-matched antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 269-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Varga, P.

Verstuyft, S.

M. Galarza, K. De-Mesel, S. Verstuyft, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Amo, I. Moerman, P. Van-Daele, and R. Baets, "A new spot-size converter concept using fiber-matched antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 269-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Voges, E.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges "Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small core dimensions for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1238-1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wächter, C.

D. Michaelis, U. Peschel, C. Wächter, and A. Bräuer, "Coupling coefficients of photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4987, 114-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wandel, K.

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

Wei, C.

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

White, I. H.

T. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Margan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358-379 (1959).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Wu, H.

H. Wu and F. S. Barnes, Microlenses—Coupling Light to Optical Fibers (IEEE, 1991).

Wu, L.

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

Zschiedrich, L.

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, and L. Zschiedrich, "HelmPole—A finite element solver for scattering problems on unbounded domains: implementation based on PML," Tech. Rep. 03-38 (Zuse Institute, 2003).

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, F. Schmidt, L. Zschiedrich, "Adaptive FEM solver for the computation of electromagnetic eigenmodes in 3D photonic crystal structures," Proceedings SCEE04—Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering (Springer-Verlag, submitted for publication).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Palamaru and Ph. Lalanne, "Photonic crystal waveguides—Out of plane losses and adiabadic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1466-1468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, "Experimental demonstration of evanescent coupling from optical fiber tapers to photonic crystal waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 842-844 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Margan, I. H. White, and T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 514-519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, and T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van-Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De-Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

K. Hosomi and T. Katsuyama, "A dispersion compensator using coupled defects in a photonic crystal," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 825-829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and P. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges "Low-loss fiber-matched low-temperature PECVD waveguides with small core dimensions for optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1238-1240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

R. Kaiser and H. Heidrich, "Optoelectronic/photonic integrated circuits on InP between technological feasibility and commercial success," IEICE Trans. Electron. 4, 970-981 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona, "Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides: efficient butt coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4986-4991 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358-379 (1959).

Proc. SPIE (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Masanovic, W. R. Headley, P. Ching-Eng, S. P. Chan, S. T. Lim, V. M. Passaro, D. Hak, O. Cohen, and M. Paniccia, "Small devices in SOI: fabrication and design issues," Proc. SPIE 5357, 75-86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Fijol, E. E. Fike, P. B. Keating, D. Gilbody, J. J. LeBlanc, S. A. Jacobson, W. J. Kessler, and M. B. Frish, "Fabrication of silicon-on-insulator adiabatic tapers for low loss optical interconnection of photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 4997, 157-170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Michaelis, U. Peschel, C. Wächter, and A. Bräuer, "Coupling coefficients of photonic crystal waveguides," Proc. SPIE 4987, 114-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Opt. Inst. Petrograd (1)

V. S. Ignatowsky, "Diffraction by a lens of arbitrary aperture," Trans. Opt. Inst. Petrograd 1(4), 1-36 (1919).

Other (10)

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics—The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 1998).

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, and L. Zschiedrich, "HelmPole—A finite element solver for scattering problems on unbounded domains: implementation based on PML," Tech. Rep. 03-38 (Zuse Institute, 2003).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

C. Wei, J. Haes, G. Dobbelaere, P. Demeester, R. Baets, X. Leijtens, A. H. De-Vreede, M. Smith, and E. Metaal, "Elliptic beam converters on InP: design and experiment," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Delft U. Press, 1995), pp. 193-196.

R. März, Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling (Artech House, 1994).

H. Wu and F. S. Barnes, Microlenses—Coupling Light to Optical Fibers (IEEE, 1991).

R. März, S. Burger, S. Golka, A. Forchel, C. Herrmann, C. Jamois, D. Michaelis, and K. Wandel, "Planar high-index-contrast photonic crystals for telecom applications," in Photonic Crystals: Advances in Design, Fabrication and Characterization, K.Busch, S.Lölkes, R.B.Wehrspohn, and H.Föll, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 308-328.

S. Burger, R. Klose, A. Schädle, F. Schmidt, L. Zschiedrich, "Adaptive FEM solver for the computation of electromagnetic eigenmodes in 3D photonic crystal structures," Proceedings SCEE04—Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering (Springer-Verlag, submitted for publication).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

M. A. Lieberman, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing (Wiley, 1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System under consideration: (a) micro-optical coupling scheme, (b) schemes of a SOI PCW and a SOI conventional waveguide; n and w indicate the two cross sections of mirror symmetry of the PCW, and the contour graphics correspond to the main electric-field components of the modal distributions for the cross sections n and w.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial distribution of the time-averaged Poynting vector component in propagation direction Sz for the wavelength λ = 1.55 μm. (a) Sz in the focal plane, (b) Sz distribution of the eigenmode of the SOI waveguide with a 0.2 μm × 0.5 μm silicon cross section.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Band structure of the PCW. (b) Spatial distribution of the time-averaged Poynting vector component in propagation direction Sz of the Bloch mode for the cross section n and (c) for the cross section w. Parameters: silicon film thickness d = 0.4a, radius of the airholes r PCW = 0.36a, lattice constant a = 530 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FDTD simulation of the coupling of the main electric-field component from the silicon lens into the PCW; the dashed line indicates the plane of transition between the angular spectrum and the FDTD simulation: (a) silicon lens directly attached to the PCW, (b) 100 nm gap between the silicon lens and the PC filled with a high-index liquid with a refractive index of 2, (c) 100 nm air gap between the silicon lens and the PC. The parameters are the same as those in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coupling efficiency for varying substrate thicknesses of the silicon lens: (a) PCW coupling, (b) SOI conventional waveguide coupling. The parameters are the same as those in Fig. 3.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = | ( cp ) d x d y [ E Foc         ( t ) * × H W     ( t ) + E W     ( t ) × H Foc ( t ) * ] z | 2 | ( cp ) d x d y [ E Foc         ( t ) × H W     ( t ) - E W     ( t ) × H Foc ( t ) ] z | 2 ( cp ) d x d y [ E Foc         ( t ) * × H W         ( t ) + E W         ( t ) × H Foc ( t ) * ] z .
| + d x + d y [ E ( t ) × H ( t ) * + E ( t ) * × H ( t ) ] z | = 1
z = 1 R r 2 1 + 1 r 2 / R 2 + α 2 r 2 + α 4 r 4 ,
v eff = + d x + d y S z / + d x + d y w c / n eff ,

Metrics