Abstract

Multigate detection of single photons at 1550  nm is achieved by using capacitor-balanced InGaAs∕InP avalanche photodiodes, with which we experimentally demonstrate the efficient discrimination of single-photon timing by counting single-photon clicks and the corresponding afterpulses within the multiple gates. Results show that the technique of multigate detection is a practical method for the single-photon timing information process.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," arXive.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0106007, 1 June 2001, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/bp0106007
  3. B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, "Single photon detection at 1.3 µm using a gated avalanche photodiode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 553-555 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "An autocompensating fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 340-347 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. http://www.vad1.com/qcr/torbjoern/.
  6. A. Tomita and K. Nakamura, "Balanced, gated-mode photon detector for quantum-bit discrimination at 1550 nm," Opt. Lett. 27, 1827-1829 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tomita and K. Nakamura, "Balanced, gated-mode photon detector for quantum-bit discrimination at 1550 nm," Opt. Lett. 27, 1827-1829 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "An autocompensating fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 340-347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, "Single photon detection at 1.3 µm using a gated avalanche photodiode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 553-555 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, "Single photon detection at 1.3 µm using a gated avalanche photodiode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 553-555 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bethune, D. S.

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "An autocompensating fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 340-347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, "Single photon detection at 1.3 µm using a gated avalanche photodiode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 553-555 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

Rarity, J. G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," arXive.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0106007, 1 June 2001, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/bp0106007

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," arXive.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0106007, 1 June 2001, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/bp0106007

Risk, W. P.

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "An autocompensating fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 340-347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, A.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," arXive.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0106007, 1 June 2001, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/bp0106007

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," arXive.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0106007, 1 June 2001, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/bp0106007

Tomita, A.

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, T.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," arXive.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0106007, 1 June 2001, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/bp0106007

Yamamoto, Y.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," arXive.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0106007, 1 June 2001, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/bp0106007

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, "Single photon detection at 1.3 µm using a gated avalanche photodiode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 553-555 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "An autocompensating fiber-optic quantum cryptography system based on polarization splitting of light," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 340-347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier-cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," arXive.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0106007, 1 June 2001, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/bp0106007

http://www.vad1.com/qcr/torbjoern/.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the capacitor-balanced single-photon detector. The APD and the compensating capacitor, C, were installed in the same copper box with Peltier cooling. The spikes were canceled by the magic-T circuit, while the avalanche signal is efficiently transmitted to the amplifier. (b) Experimental setup for testing the multigate single-photon timing discriminator. R1–R3 and R5, 75 Ω resistors; R4, 37.5 Ω resistor; R6, 150 Ω resistor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spike-cancellation waveforms for four successive gates: (a) 10 V (peak-to-peak) bias gates for the APD, (b) transient spikes measured at the transformer's output with capacitor C disconnected. The magnitude of the noise was ∼8 mV. (c) With capacitor C connected, the spikes were perfectly canceled. The residual magnitude was less than 2 mV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dark-count probabilities of the four detection channels. (b) At n ≈<1.0> with a 100 kHz repetition rate we measured the afterpulses with a time delay from the fourth gate in the condition that the first gate caught a photon click.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-photon timing discrimination: (a) waveforms for different time slots of the photon click. Counting results are shown for different temporal channels at (b) <n> = 0.1 and (c) <n> = 1.0.

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