Abstract

Coherent radiation from undulator beamlines has been used to directly measure the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction of several materials at both extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray wavelengths. Using the XOR interferometer, we measure the refractive indices of silicon and ruthenium, essential materials for extreme-ultraviolet lithography. Both materials are tested at wavelength (13.4  nm) and across silicon's L2(99.8  eV) and L3(99.2  eV) absorption edges. We further extend this direct phase measurement method into the soft-x-ray region, where measurements of chromium and vanadium are performed around their L 3 absorption edges at 574.1 and 512.1   eV, respectively. These are the first direct measurements, to our knowledge, of the real part of the index of refraction made in the soft-x-ray region.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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