Abstract

We present measured values of the refractive index, thermo-optic coefficient, and absorption coefficient of a number of common organic solvents and aqueous inorganic solutions that may have application in immersion photolithography at 248 or 193  nm wavelengths. The measurements were performed with a laser-based Hilger–Chance refractometer system whose design and operation are described. The optical properties of the sample fluids are compared with those of water, the currently favored immersion medium, and we discuss the potential for finding higher-index fluids that will be suitable for this application.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Mack, "The lithography expert: the Rayleigh depth of focus," Microlith. World 13 (February), 14-15 (2004).
  3. J. H. Burnett and S. G. Kaplan, "Measurement of the refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of water near 193 nm," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 3, 68-72 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Burnett, S. G. Kaplan, E. L. Shirley, P. J. Tompkins, and J. E. Webb, "High-index materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 611-621 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).
  7. J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).
  8. B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Moreels, C. de Greef, and R. Finsy, "Laser light refractometer," Appl. Opt. 23, 3010-3013 (1984).
  10. L. W. Tilton, "Standard conditions for precise prism refractometry," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 14, 393-418 (1935).
  11. D. Tentori and J. R. Lerma, "Refractometry by minimum deviation: accuracy analysis," Opt. Eng. 29, 160-168 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. L. Lauer, "The refractive index of several hydrocarbons in the near ultraviolet wave-length region," J. Chem. Phys. 16, 612-619 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. R. Cooper, "Refractive-index measurements of liquids used in conjunction with optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 22, 3070-3072 (1983).
  14. K. R. Wolf, "Phosphoric acid as a high-index immersion fluid," in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Microelectronic Engineering Conference (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2004), pp. 40-43.

2005 (3)

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burnett, S. G. Kaplan, E. L. Shirley, P. J. Tompkins, and J. E. Webb, "High-index materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 611-621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burnett and S. G. Kaplan, "Measurement of the refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of water near 193 nm," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 3, 68-72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Wolf, "Phosphoric acid as a high-index immersion fluid," in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Microelectronic Engineering Conference (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2004), pp. 40-43.

1990 (1)

D. Tentori and J. R. Lerma, "Refractometry by minimum deviation: accuracy analysis," Opt. Eng. 29, 160-168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1948 (1)

J. L. Lauer, "The refractive index of several hydrocarbons in the near ultraviolet wave-length region," J. Chem. Phys. 16, 612-619 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

L. W. Tilton, "Standard conditions for precise prism refractometry," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 14, 393-418 (1935).

Bourov, A.

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

Budhlall, B.

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J.

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. H.

J. H. Burnett, S. G. Kaplan, E. L. Shirley, P. J. Tompkins, and J. E. Webb, "High-index materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 611-621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burnett and S. G. Kaplan, "Measurement of the refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of water near 193 nm," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 3, 68-72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Chiba, T.

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, G.

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Cooper, P. R.

Cropanese, F.

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

de Greef, C.

Estroff, A.

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

Fan, Y.

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

Finsy, R.

French, R. H.

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Gao, X.

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, S. E.

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Herzinger, C. M.

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Hieda, K.

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirakawa, O.

S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, S.

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Kaplan, S. G.

J. H. Burnett, S. G. Kaplan, E. L. Shirley, P. J. Tompkins, and J. E. Webb, "High-index materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 611-621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burnett and S. G. Kaplan, "Measurement of the refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of water near 193 nm," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 3, 68-72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kusumuto, S.

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, N.

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

Lauer, J. L.

J. L. Lauer, "The refractive index of several hydrocarbons in the near ultraviolet wave-length region," J. Chem. Phys. 16, 612-619 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Lemon, M. F.

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Lerma, J. R.

D. Tentori and J. R. Lerma, "Refractometry by minimum deviation: accuracy analysis," Opt. Eng. 29, 160-168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mack, C. A.

C. A. Mack, "The lithography expert: the Rayleigh depth of focus," Microlith. World 13 (February), 14-15 (2004).

Miyamatsu, T.

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreels, E.

Nagasaka, H.

S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, H.

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Owa, S.

S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parris, G.

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pribil, G. K.

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Ross, B.

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shima, M.

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimokawa, T.

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, E. L.

J. H. Burnett, S. G. Kaplan, E. L. Shirley, P. J. Tompkins, and J. E. Webb, "High-index materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 611-621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

Synowicki, R. A.

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Tentori, D.

D. Tentori and J. R. Lerma, "Refractometry by minimum deviation: accuracy analysis," Opt. Eng. 29, 160-168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tilton, L. W.

L. W. Tilton, "Standard conditions for precise prism refractometry," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 14, 393-418 (1935).

Tompkins, P. J.

J. H. Burnett, S. G. Kaplan, E. L. Shirley, P. J. Tompkins, and J. E. Webb, "High-index materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 611-621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, J. E.

J. H. Burnett, S. G. Kaplan, E. L. Shirley, P. J. Tompkins, and J. E. Webb, "High-index materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 611-621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, K. R.

K. R. Wolf, "Phosphoric acid as a high-index immersion fluid," in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Microelectronic Engineering Conference (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2004), pp. 40-43.

Yamamoto, T.

S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. K.

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Zarkov, Z.

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zavyalova, L.

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

Zhang, P.

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. L. Lauer, "The refractive index of several hydrocarbons in the near ultraviolet wave-length region," J. Chem. Phys. 16, 612-619 (1948).
[CrossRef]

J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. (1)

J. H. Burnett and S. G. Kaplan, "Measurement of the refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient of water near 193 nm," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 3, 68-72 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

L. W. Tilton, "Standard conditions for precise prism refractometry," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 14, 393-418 (1935).

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Tentori and J. R. Lerma, "Refractometry by minimum deviation: accuracy analysis," Opt. Eng. 29, 160-168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

S. Owa, H. Nagasaka, Y. Ishii, O. Hirakawa, and T. Yamamoto, "Feasibility of immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5377, 264-272 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyamatsu, Y. Wang, M. Shima, S. Kusumuto, T. Chiba, H. Nakagawa, K. Hieda, and T. Shimokawa, "Material design for immersion lithography with high refractive index fluid," in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, J. L. Sturtevant, ed., Proc. SPIE 5753, 10-19 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burnett, S. G. Kaplan, E. L. Shirley, P. J. Tompkins, and J. E. Webb, "High-index materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 611-621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Budhlall, G. Parris, P. Zhang, X. Gao, Z. Zarkov, B. Ross, S. Kaplan, and J. Burnett, "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5754, 622-629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Fabtech (1)

R. A. Synowicki, G. K. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. M. Herzinger, S. E. Green, R. H. French, M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan, "Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurements using prism minimum deviation techniques," Semicond. Fabtech 22, 55-58 (2004).

Other (3)

J. Zhou, Y. Fan, A. Bourov, N. Lafferty, F. Cropanese, L. Zavyalova, A. Estroff, and B. W. Smith, "Immersion lithography fluids for high NA 193 nm lithography," in Optical Microlithography XVIII, B. W. Smith, ed., Proc. SPIE 5743, 630-637 (2005).

C. A. Mack, "The lithography expert: the Rayleigh depth of focus," Microlith. World 13 (February), 14-15 (2004).

K. R. Wolf, "Phosphoric acid as a high-index immersion fluid," in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Microelectronic Engineering Conference (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2004), pp. 40-43.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the laser-based Hilger–Chance refractometer: L, laser source; A, aperture; M, folding mirror; RS, rotation stage; C, fluid cell; SM, spherical mirror; BC, bicell position sensor; S, variable slit; D, photodiode detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the prism cell used in the refractometer. Angles θ3, θ2, and θ44 is exaggerated in the figure) were measured with an autocollimator and are listed in the text. Also shown is a normally incident ray refracted through the fluid (in this case, with lower refractive index than that of the glass prism material.) Equations (2)–(4) are used to solve for n, θ3f , and θ2p , given values for θ3, θ2, θ4, Δθ, n gas, and np .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive Index n and Thermo-Optic Coefficient dn∕dT of the Modified Fused-Silica Glass Used to Make the Prism Cell Shown in Fig. 2 a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive Index n and Thermo-Optic Coefficient dn∕dT of 12 Sample Fluids at 21.5 °C at the Three Different Laser Wavelengths as Described in the Text

Tables Icon

Table 3 Absorption Coefficients of 12 Sample Fluids at 21.5 °C and the Two Excimer Laser Wavelengths Used for the Refractive Index Measurements a

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = n p     2 n gas sin ( Δ θ ) n p     2 n gas             2 sin 2 ( Δ θ ) ,
n p sin ( θ 3 ) = n sin ( θ 3 f ) ,
n sin ( θ 2 θ 3 f + θ 3 ) = n p sin ( θ 2 p ) ,
n p sin ( θ 2 θ 2 p + θ 4 ) = n gas sin ( Δ θ + θ 4 ) ,

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