Abstract

We have developed an integral three-dimensional (3-D) television that uses a 2000-scanning-line video system that can shoot and display 3-D color moving images in real time. We had previously developed an integral 3-D television that used a high-definition television system. The new system uses ∼6 times as many elemental images [160(horizontal)×118(vertical)  elemental   images] arranged at 1.5 times the density to improve further the picture quality of the reconstructed image. Through comparison an image near the lens array can be reconstructed at 1.9 times the spatial frequency, and the viewing angle is 1.5 times as wide.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. G. Lippmann, "Épreuves réversibles donnant la sensation du relief," J. Phys. (Paris) 4, 821-825 (1908).
  2. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1971), pp. 77-80.
  3. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imaging J. October/November, 339-346 (2003).
  7. T. Yamashita, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, M. Shirakawa, and F. Okano, "A new sensor alignment method for an 8k × 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition camera with four imagers," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, M. M. Blouke, N. Sampat, and R. J. Motta, eds., Proc. SPIE 5301, 76-86 (2004).
  8. M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, Y. Fujita, I. Yuyama, and K. Itakura, "A 4K × 2K pixel color video pickup system," in Visual Communications and Image Processing '99, K. Aizawa, R. L. Stevenson, and Y.-Q. Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 3653, 1404-1411 (1999).
  9. J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).
  10. M. Okui, J. Arai, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Improvement of integral 3-D image quality by compensating for lens position errors," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 321-328 (2004).
  11. J.-S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javide, "Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus by use of real and virtual image fields," Opt. Lett. 28, 1421-1423 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
  13. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).
  14. J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 951-958 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Mertz and F. Gray, "A theory of scanning and its relation to the characteristic of the transmitted signal in telephotography and television," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 13, 464-515 (1934).
  17. K. Mitani, M. Sugawara, and F. Okano, "Experimental ultrahigh-definition color camera system with three 8M-pixel CCDs," SMPTE J. 111, 148-153 (2002).
  18. "Critical viewing conditions for evaluation of color television pictures," SMPTE Recommended Practice, RP 166-1995 (1995).
  19. H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Improved analysis on the viewing angle of integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 2311-2317 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Improved analysis on the viewing angle of integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 2311-2317 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

K. Mitani, M. Sugawara, and F. Okano, "Experimental ultrahigh-definition color camera system with three 8M-pixel CCDs," SMPTE J. 111, 148-153 (2002).

1999 (1)

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1934 (1)

P. Mertz and F. Gray, "A theory of scanning and its relation to the characteristic of the transmitted signal in telephotography and television," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 13, 464-515 (1934).

1908 (1)

M. G. Lippmann, "Épreuves réversibles donnant la sensation du relief," J. Phys. (Paris) 4, 821-825 (1908).

Arai, J.

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 951-958 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

M. Okui, J. Arai, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Improvement of integral 3-D image quality by compensating for lens position errors," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 321-328 (2004).

Choi, H.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Improved analysis on the viewing angle of integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 2311-2317 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, Y.

M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, Y. Fujita, I. Yuyama, and K. Itakura, "A 4K × 2K pixel color video pickup system," in Visual Communications and Image Processing '99, K. Aizawa, R. L. Stevenson, and Y.-Q. Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 3653, 1404-1411 (1999).

Gray, F.

P. Mertz and F. Gray, "A theory of scanning and its relation to the characteristic of the transmitted signal in telephotography and television," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 13, 464-515 (1934).

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

Hong, J.

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).

Hoshino, H.

Isono, H.

Itakura, K.

M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, Y. Fujita, I. Yuyama, and K. Itakura, "A 4K × 2K pixel color video pickup system," in Visual Communications and Image Processing '99, K. Aizawa, R. L. Stevenson, and Y.-Q. Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 3653, 1404-1411 (1999).

Jang, J.-S.

Javide, B.

Jin, F.

Jung, S.

Kanazawa, M.

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imaging J. October/November, 339-346 (2003).

Kim, H.-R.

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).

Kim, J.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).

Kim, Y.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Improved analysis on the viewing angle of integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 2311-2317 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).

Kobayashi, M.

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 951-958 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Okui, J. Arai, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Improvement of integral 3-D image quality by compensating for lens position errors," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 321-328 (2004).

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

Lee, B.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Improved analysis on the viewing angle of integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 2311-2317 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).

Lee, S.-D.

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).

Lippmann, M. G.

M. G. Lippmann, "Épreuves réversibles donnant la sensation du relief," J. Phys. (Paris) 4, 821-825 (1908).

Mertz, P.

P. Mertz and F. Gray, "A theory of scanning and its relation to the characteristic of the transmitted signal in telephotography and television," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 13, 464-515 (1934).

Mitani, K.

K. Mitani, M. Sugawara, and F. Okano, "Experimental ultrahigh-definition color camera system with three 8M-pixel CCDs," SMPTE J. 111, 148-153 (2002).

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imaging J. October/November, 339-346 (2003).

T. Yamashita, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, M. Shirakawa, and F. Okano, "A new sensor alignment method for an 8k × 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition camera with four imagers," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, M. M. Blouke, N. Sampat, and R. J. Motta, eds., Proc. SPIE 5301, 76-86 (2004).

M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, Y. Fujita, I. Yuyama, and K. Itakura, "A 4K × 2K pixel color video pickup system," in Visual Communications and Image Processing '99, K. Aizawa, R. L. Stevenson, and Y.-Q. Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 3653, 1404-1411 (1999).

Okano, F.

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 951-958 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Mitani, M. Sugawara, and F. Okano, "Experimental ultrahigh-definition color camera system with three 8M-pixel CCDs," SMPTE J. 111, 148-153 (2002).

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamashita, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, M. Shirakawa, and F. Okano, "A new sensor alignment method for an 8k × 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition camera with four imagers," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, M. M. Blouke, N. Sampat, and R. J. Motta, eds., Proc. SPIE 5301, 76-86 (2004).

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imaging J. October/November, 339-346 (2003).

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

M. Okui, J. Arai, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Improvement of integral 3-D image quality by compensating for lens position errors," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 321-328 (2004).

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1971), pp. 77-80.

Okui, M.

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 951-958 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

M. Okui, J. Arai, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Improvement of integral 3-D image quality by compensating for lens position errors," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 321-328 (2004).

Park, J.-H.

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, "Improved analysis on the viewing angle of integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 2311-2317 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).

Shimamoto, H.

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

T. Yamashita, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, M. Shirakawa, and F. Okano, "A new sensor alignment method for an 8k × 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition camera with four imagers," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, M. M. Blouke, N. Sampat, and R. J. Motta, eds., Proc. SPIE 5301, 76-86 (2004).

M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, Y. Fujita, I. Yuyama, and K. Itakura, "A 4K × 2K pixel color video pickup system," in Visual Communications and Image Processing '99, K. Aizawa, R. L. Stevenson, and Y.-Q. Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 3653, 1404-1411 (1999).

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imaging J. October/November, 339-346 (2003).

Shirakawa, M.

T. Yamashita, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, M. Shirakawa, and F. Okano, "A new sensor alignment method for an 8k × 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition camera with four imagers," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, M. M. Blouke, N. Sampat, and R. J. Motta, eds., Proc. SPIE 5301, 76-86 (2004).

Sugawara, M.

K. Mitani, M. Sugawara, and F. Okano, "Experimental ultrahigh-definition color camera system with three 8M-pixel CCDs," SMPTE J. 111, 148-153 (2002).

M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, Y. Fujita, I. Yuyama, and K. Itakura, "A 4K × 2K pixel color video pickup system," in Visual Communications and Image Processing '99, K. Aizawa, R. L. Stevenson, and Y.-Q. Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 3653, 1404-1411 (1999).

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imaging J. October/November, 339-346 (2003).

Yamashita, T.

T. Yamashita, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, M. Shirakawa, and F. Okano, "A new sensor alignment method for an 8k × 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition camera with four imagers," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, M. M. Blouke, N. Sampat, and R. J. Motta, eds., Proc. SPIE 5301, 76-86 (2004).

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imaging J. October/November, 339-346 (2003).

Yuyama, I.

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, Y. Fujita, I. Yuyama, and K. Itakura, "A 4K × 2K pixel color video pickup system," in Visual Communications and Image Processing '99, K. Aizawa, R. L. Stevenson, and Y.-Q. Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 3653, 1404-1411 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

P. Mertz and F. Gray, "A theory of scanning and its relation to the characteristic of the transmitted signal in telephotography and television," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 13, 464-515 (1934).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Phys. (1)

M. G. Lippmann, "Épreuves réversibles donnant la sensation du relief," J. Phys. (Paris) 4, 821-825 (1908).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-H. Park, H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Scaling of three-dimensional integral imaging," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 216-224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

SMPTE J. (1)

K. Mitani, M. Sugawara, and F. Okano, "Experimental ultrahigh-definition color camera system with three 8M-pixel CCDs," SMPTE J. 111, 148-153 (2002).

Other (9)

"Critical viewing conditions for evaluation of color television pictures," SMPTE Recommended Practice, RP 166-1995 (1995).

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1971), pp. 77-80.

M. Sugawara, M. Kanazawa, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Ultrahigh-definition video system with 4000 scanning lines," SMPTE Motion Imaging J. October/November, 339-346 (2003).

T. Yamashita, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, M. Shirakawa, and F. Okano, "A new sensor alignment method for an 8k × 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition camera with four imagers," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, M. M. Blouke, N. Sampat, and R. J. Motta, eds., Proc. SPIE 5301, 76-86 (2004).

M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, Y. Fujita, I. Yuyama, and K. Itakura, "A 4K × 2K pixel color video pickup system," in Visual Communications and Image Processing '99, K. Aizawa, R. L. Stevenson, and Y.-Q. Zhang, eds., Proc. SPIE 3653, 1404-1411 (1999).

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H.Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, and S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

M. Okui, J. Arai, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, "Improvement of integral 3-D image quality by compensating for lens position errors," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 321-328 (2004).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of IP for capture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of IP for display.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Viewing area of IP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the integral 3-D TV system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Experimental setup for capture (second system).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Examples of reconstructed images.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Changes in reconstructed images viewed from different positions (second system).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for measuring the resolution characteristics.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental result of the resolution characteristics. The horizontal axis represents the image distance normalized by the picture height. The vertical axis represents the spatial frequency of the reconstructed image observed from the viewing distance.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Examples of the reconstructed images of test patterns.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

MTFs of an elemental lens, capturing camera, and display device:(a) MTF of an elemental lens for capturing, (b) MTF of a piece of equipment consisting of a capturing camera and display device, (c) MTF of an elemental lens for the display of the first system, (d) MTF of an elemental lens for the display of the second system.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Example of captured elemental images:In (a) a significant degradation cannot be measured compared with (c). However, the elemental images in (e) are degraded because of the large focusing error.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Specification of the Camera System

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Table 2 Specification of the Integral 3-D Television

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Table 3 Geometrical Relation between an Object and a Reconstructed Image

Equations (19)

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ξ = x d x c = a d g c z c ( d a ) + d g c ,
η = z d z c = a b g c z c ( d a ) + d g c ,
p d = a p c ,
g d = b g c ,
1 ν d = d | z d | b ν c | z c | ,
α d = b α c d ,
ν d = ν c / a .
β = ν d ( L z d ) = ν c ( L z d ) / a .
MTF T ( β ) = [ MTF L c ( β ) MTF d c ( β ) ] × [ MTF L d ( β ) MTF d d ( β ) ] ,
β N yq = L / 2 p d .
lim z c 0 MTF L c [ β N yq ( z c ) ] = 2 J 1 [ ( π / 2 ) ( ω c / p c ) ] ( π / 2 ) ( ω c / p c ) , lim z d 0 MTF L d [ β Ny q ( z d ) ] = 2 J 1 [ ( π / 2 ) ( ω d / p d ) ] ( π / 2 ) ( ω d / p d ) ,
θ = 2   arctan [ w el / ( 2 g d ) ] .
MTF T ( β N yq ) = MTF L c ( α c ) × MTF dev ( α c ) × MTF L d ( α d ) ,
MTF L c ( α c ) = 0.0086 α c + 0.9794 ,
MTF dev ( α c ) = 0.066 α c + 1.0675 ,
MTF L d ( α d ) = 0.0027 α d + 1.0116.
MTF L c ( α c ) = 0.0086 α c + 0.9794 ,
MTF dev ( α c ) = 0.062 α c + 1.0888 ,
MTF L d ( α d ) = 0.0079 α d + 0.973.

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