Abstract

Efficiency measurements of a grazing-incidence diffraction grating in the off-plane mount were performed using polarized synchrotron radiation. The grating had 5000grooves/mm, an effective blaze angle of 14°, and was gold coated. The efficiencies in the two polarization orientations (TM and TE) were measured in the 1.55.0  nm wavelength range and were compared with the efficiencies calculated using the PCGrate-SX code. The TM and TE efficiencies differ, offering the possibility of performing unique science studies of astrophysical, solar, and laboratory sources by exploiting the polarization sensitivity of the off-plane grating.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Cash, "Echelle spectrographs at grazing incidence," Appl. Opt. 21, 710-717 (1982).
  2. M. C. Hettrick and S. Bowyer, "Variable line-space gratings: new designs for use in grazing incidence spectrometers," Appl. Opt. 22, 3921-3924 (1983).
  3. W. Cash, "X-ray spectrographs using radial groove gratings," Appl. Opt. 22, 3971-3976 (1983).
  4. M. C. Hettrick, "Aberrations of variable line-space gazing incidence gratings in converging light beams," Appl. Opt. 23, 3221-3235 (1984).
  5. W. C. Cash, "X-ray optics. 2: A technique for high resolution spectroscopy, " Appl. Opt. 30, 1749-1759 (1991).
  6. R. McEntaffer, W. Cash, and A. Shipley, "Off-plane gratings for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 4851, 549-556 (2002).
  7. L. I. Goray, "Rigorous efficiency calculations for blazed gratings working in in- and off-plane mountings in the 5-50-Å wavelength range," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 260-270 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Werner, "X-ray efficiencies of blazed gratings in extreme off-plane mountings," Appl. Opt. 16, 2078-2080 (1977).
  9. M. Neviere, D. Maystre, and W. R. Hunter, "On the use of classical and conical diffraction mountings for XUV gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1106-1113 (1978).
  10. D. Windt and W. Cash, "Laboratory evaluation of conical diffraction spectrographs," in Proc. SPIE 503, 98-105 (1984).
  11. E. Wilkinson, J. C. Green, and W. Cash, "The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph: a radial groove grating, sounding rocket-borne, astrophysical instrument," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 89, 211-220 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. McEntaffer, F. Hearty, B. Gleeson, and W. Cash, "An x-ray test facility for diffraction gratings," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 499-507 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Spencer and M. Murty, "General ray-tracing procedure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 672-678 (1962).
  18. D. Maystre and R. Petit, "Principe d'un spectromètre à réseau à transmission constante," Opt. Commun. 5, 35-37 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. I. Goray and J. F. Seely, "Efficiencies of master, replica, and multilayer gratings for the soft x-ray-extreme-ultraviolet range: modeling based on the modified integral method and comparisons with measurements," Appl. Opt. 41, 1434-1444 (2002).
  20. J. Seely, C. Brown, D. Windt, S. Donguy, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, "Normal-incidence efficiencies of multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer on the Solar-B mission," Appl. Opt. 43, 1463-1471 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004

L. I. Goray, "Rigorous efficiency calculations for blazed gratings working in in- and off-plane mountings in the 5-50-Å wavelength range," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 260-270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. McEntaffer, F. Hearty, B. Gleeson, and W. Cash, "An x-ray test facility for diffraction gratings," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 499-507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Seely, C. Brown, D. Windt, S. Donguy, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, "Normal-incidence efficiencies of multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer on the Solar-B mission," Appl. Opt. 43, 1463-1471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1993

E. Wilkinson, J. C. Green, and W. Cash, "The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph: a radial groove grating, sounding rocket-borne, astrophysical instrument," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 89, 211-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1984

M. C. Hettrick, "Aberrations of variable line-space gazing incidence gratings in converging light beams," Appl. Opt. 23, 3221-3235 (1984).

D. Windt and W. Cash, "Laboratory evaluation of conical diffraction spectrographs," in Proc. SPIE 503, 98-105 (1984).

1983

1982

1978

1977

1972

D. Maystre and R. Petit, "Principe d'un spectromètre à réseau à transmission constante," Opt. Commun. 5, 35-37 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1962

Akilian, M.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akilian, M. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonnemason, F.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bookbinder, J. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S. C.

Brach, C.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C.

Cash, W.

R. McEntaffer, F. Hearty, B. Gleeson, and W. Cash, "An x-ray test facility for diffraction gratings," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 499-507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. McEntaffer, W. Cash, and A. Shipley, "Off-plane gratings for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 4851, 549-556 (2002).

D. Windt and W. Cash, "Laboratory evaluation of conical diffraction spectrographs," in Proc. SPIE 503, 98-105 (1984).

W. Cash, "X-ray spectrographs using radial groove gratings," Appl. Opt. 22, 3971-3976 (1983).

W. Cash, "Echelle spectrographs at grazing incidence," Appl. Opt. 21, 710-717 (1982).

Cash, W. C.

E. Wilkinson, J. C. Green, and W. Cash, "The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph: a radial groove grating, sounding rocket-borne, astrophysical instrument," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 89, 211-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Cash, "X-ray optics. 2: A technique for high resolution spectroscopy, " Appl. Opt. 30, 1749-1759 (1991).

Chang, C.-H.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donguy, S.

Flamand, J.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, K. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forest, C.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, B.

R. McEntaffer, F. Hearty, B. Gleeson, and W. Cash, "An x-ray test facility for diffraction gratings," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 499-507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goray, L. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goray, L. I.

L. I. Goray, "Rigorous efficiency calculations for blazed gratings working in in- and off-plane mountings in the 5-50-Å wavelength range," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 260-270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Goray and J. F. Seely, "Efficiencies of master, replica, and multilayer gratings for the soft x-ray-extreme-ultraviolet range: modeling based on the modified integral method and comparisons with measurements," Appl. Opt. 41, 1434-1444 (2002).

Green, J. C.

E. Wilkinson, J. C. Green, and W. Cash, "The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph: a radial groove grating, sounding rocket-borne, astrophysical instrument," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 89, 211-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hearty, F.

R. McEntaffer, F. Hearty, B. Gleeson, and W. Cash, "An x-ray test facility for diffraction gratings," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 499-507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heilmann, R. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heilmann, R. K.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hettrick, M. C.

Hunter, W. R.

Joo, C.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, S. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

Kjornrattanawanich, B. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Konkola, P.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laming, J. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lapsa, A. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

D. Maystre and R. Petit, "Principe d'un spectromètre à réseau à transmission constante," Opt. Commun. 5, 35-37 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D. R.

McEntaffer, R.

R. McEntaffer, F. Hearty, B. Gleeson, and W. Cash, "An x-ray test facility for diffraction gratings," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 499-507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. McEntaffer, W. Cash, and A. Shipley, "Off-plane gratings for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 4851, 549-556 (2002).

Montoya, J.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montoya, J. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murty, M.

Neviere, M. R.

Osterman, S.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paerels, F. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petit, R.

D. Maystre and R. Petit, "Principe d'un spectromètre à réseau à transmission constante," Opt. Commun. 5, 35-37 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, A. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, A. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schattenburg, M. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schattenburg, M. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schattenburg, M. L.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J.

Seely, J. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. I.

Shipley, A.

R. McEntaffer, W. Cash, and A. Shipley, "Off-plane gratings for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 4851, 549-556 (2002).

Spencer, G.

Sun, Y.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Touzet, B.

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Werner, W.

Wilkinson, E. C.

E. Wilkinson, J. C. Green, and W. Cash, "The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph: a radial groove grating, sounding rocket-borne, astrophysical instrument," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 89, 211-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D.

You, J.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J. Suppl.

E. Wilkinson, J. C. Green, and W. Cash, "The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph: a radial groove grating, sounding rocket-borne, astrophysical instrument," Astrophys. J. Suppl. 89, 211-220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
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Opt. Commun.

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Proc. SPIE

R. McEntaffer, W. Cash, and A. Shipley, "Off-plane gratings for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 4851, 549-556 (2002).

L. I. Goray, "Rigorous efficiency calculations for blazed gratings working in in- and off-plane mountings in the 5-50-Å wavelength range," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 260-270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Windt and W. Cash, "Laboratory evaluation of conical diffraction spectrographs," in Proc. SPIE 503, 98-105 (1984).

R. McEntaffer, S. Osterman, W. Cash, J. Gilchrist, J. Flamand, B. Touzet, F. Bonnemason, and C. Brach, "X-ray performance of gratings in the extreme off-plane mount," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 492-498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. McEntaffer, F. Hearty, B. Gleeson, and W. Cash, "An x-ray test facility for diffraction gratings," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 499-507 (2004).
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R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. Chen, C. Forest, C. Joo, P. Konkola, J. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
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A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft x-ray spectrometers," in Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the off-plane grating and the conical diffraction pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CMOS image of the conical diffraction pattern for a wavelength of 1.6 nm. Shown below the CMOS image are subimages of the visible light beam and the 1.6 nm beam. The two subimages of the shadow of the grating in the 1.6 nm beam, shown at the lower right, illustrate how rapid feedback from the CMOS images can be used to establish grating alignment under x-ray illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CMOS images of the conical diffraction pattern for illumination by monochromatic radiation with wavelengths of 2.1, 3.0, and 5.0 nm and by broadband radiation of 2–4 and 2–7 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured zero-order TM efficiency for ϕ = 88.00°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detector scans through the 0 and +1 orders for 3.0–5.1 nm incident wavelengths and ϕ = 88.00°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured TM efficiencies in the 0, 1, and 2 orders and for ϕ = 88.00°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured zero- and first-order efficiencies in the (a) TE orientation with ϕ = 88.00° and (b) TM orientation with ϕ = 88.27°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) AFM scans across the grooves near the center of the grating. (b) Histogram of the angles of pairs of points on the AFM scans giving a measure of the average blaze angle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated (solid curves) and measured (dashed curves) efficiencies in the (a) TE and (b) TM grating orientations.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated TM efficiencies for an assumed groove profile with a 36.2 nm depth and 0.5 nm microroughness.

Equations (83)

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5000 grooves / mm
1.5 5.0   nm
0.83 4.45   nm
20 110   nm
0.99 4.48   nm
5000 groove / mm
5   nm
20   nm
15   m
30   m
10 3 0   nm
80% 9 0 %
TE   ( δ = 0 ° )
TM ( δ = 90 ° )
(Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu-)
48 μ m
50.8   mm × 25 .4   mm
1.6   nm
1.6   nm
211 μ m
( 1.6   nm   beam )
sin α + sin β = m λ / d sin γ
γ = 2.0 °
α = 30.0 °
+ 1
( β = 0 )
α + β = 2 ε
0.5   mm
0.5   mm
5   cm
80   cm
120   cm
0.5   mm
2   mm
0.5   mm
0.5   mm
1.6   nm
< 3 %
( 2   nm )
158   nm
17   nm
2 4   nm
200   nm
10   mm × 10   mm
6   mm × 16   mm
6.4   mm
9.6   mm
3   mm × 16   mm
0.5   mm
( 0.01   nm )
3   mm × 16   mm
3.0   to   5 .1   nm
0.1   nm
+ 1
m λ / d . 1
0 , + 1 ,   and   + 2
6.4   mm
( 2.28   nm )
N ( 3 .10   nm )
SiO 2
( < 3   nm )
( > 3   nm )
+ 1
λ = 2 d   sin   ε   sin   σ
ε = 7.5 °
σ = 1.75 °
λ = 1.6   nm
TM   + 1
3.3   nm
1   nm
0.89   nm
0 .92   nm
5   cm
0.2   nm
1.0   nm
80 %
δ = 90 ° )
( 0.01   nm )
( 100 % )
36.2   nm
24.8   nm
0.5   nm
5000 groove / mm

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