Abstract

We have measured the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) efficiency at an angle of incidence of 10° of a flat crystalline anisotropically etched blazed grating. The measured efficiencies are high for uncoated gratings and agree well with a calculated model derived from a reasonable estimate of the groove profile. The highest groove efficiencies derived from the measurements are 48.8% at 19.07nm and 64.1% at 16.53nm for the 2 and 3 orders, respectively, which are comparable to the best values obtained yet from a holographic ion-etched blazed grating. This presents opportunities to instrument designs for high-resolution EUV spectroscopy in astrophysics where high efficiency in high orders is desirable.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  2. K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter," Z. Phys. 106, 588-596 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000 l/mm grating," Phys. Scr. 41, 396-399 (1990).
  5. M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125-133-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 34, 7338-7346 (1995).
  6. J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, R. Eby, and K. G. Stolt, "Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135-250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts," Appl. Opt. 34, 7347-7354 (1995).
  7. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).
  8. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).
  9. M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, and R. G. Cruddace, "Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 2422-2425 (1993).
  10. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, and C. M. Brown, "On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136-142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 4890-4897 (1993).
  11. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, and J. C. Rife, "Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115-340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 34, 6453-6458 (1995).
  12. W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24-42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 6411-6415 (1997).
  13. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. R. Hunter and J. C. Rife, "An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A A246, 465-468 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, and M. N. Kabler, "A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141-153 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C," NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).
  22. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

1993

1990

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000 l/mm grating," Phys. Scr. 41, 396-399 (1990).

1986

W. R. Hunter and J. C. Rife, "An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A A246, 465-468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, and M. Neviere, "Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142-149 (1985).

1982

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, and M. N. Kabler, "A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141-153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1939

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter, Nachtrag," Z. Phys. 111, 495-497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1937

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter," Z. Phys. 106, 588-596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Akilian, M.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, T. C.

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bannister, N. P.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24-42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 6411-6415 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, and J. C. Rife, "Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115-340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 34, 6453-6458 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125-133-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 34, 7338-7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, R. Eby, and K. G. Stolt, "Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135-250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts," Appl. Opt. 34, 7347-7354 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, and R. G. Cruddace, "Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 2422-2425 (1993).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, and C. M. Brown, "On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136-142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 4890-4897 (1993).

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000 l/mm grating," Phys. Scr. 41, 396-399 (1990).

Barstow, M. A.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bookbinder, J.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C. N.

Brickhouse, N. S.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

Bruhweiler, F. C.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, A. C.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, G. R.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J.

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. G.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, R. Eby, and K. G. Stolt, "Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135-250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts," Appl. Opt. 34, 7347-7354 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125-133-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 34, 7338-7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, and J. C. Rife, "Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115-340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 34, 6453-6458 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, and R. G. Cruddace, "Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 2422-2425 (1993).

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000 l/mm grating," Phys. Scr. 41, 396-399 (1990).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C," NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Culhane, J. L.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, and M. Neviere, "Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142-149 (1985).

Dupree, A. K.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eby, R.

Ekerdt, J. G.

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, K. A.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, R. C.

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forest, C. R.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, R. D.

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, G. G.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, W. H.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goray, L. I.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gursky, H.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K. F.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).

Heilmann, R. K.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

Hellwege, K.-H.

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter, Nachtrag," Z. Phys. 111, 495-497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter," Z. Phys. 106, 588-596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Holberg, J. B.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G. E.

Howell, S. B.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24-42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 6411-6415 (1997).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125-133-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 34, 7338-7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, and J. C. Rife, "Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115-340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 34, 6453-6458 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, R. Eby, and K. G. Stolt, "Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135-250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts," Appl. Opt. 34, 7347-7354 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, and C. M. Brown, "On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136-142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 4890-4897 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, and R. G. Cruddace, "Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 2422-2425 (1993).

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000 l/mm grating," Phys. Scr. 41, 396-399 (1990).

W. R. Hunter and J. C. Rife, "An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A A246, 465-468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, and M. N. Kabler, "A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141-153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C," NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Joo, C.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, C.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kabler, M. N.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, and M. N. Kabler, "A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141-153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, S. M.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kierey, H.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kirkland, J. P.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, and M. N. Kabler, "A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141-153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

Konkola, P. T.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kordas, J. F.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24-42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 6411-6415 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, and J. C. Rife, "Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115-340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 34, 6453-6458 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125-133-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 34, 7338-7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, R. Eby, and K. G. Stolt, "Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135-250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts," Appl. Opt. 34, 7347-7354 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, and C. M. Brown, "On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136-142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 4890-4897 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, and R. G. Cruddace, "Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 2422-2425 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C," NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Laming, J. M.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lapington, J. S.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lapsa, A.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lenke, R.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, R. Lenke, H. Kierey, T. W. Barbee, Jr., and W. R. Hunter, "Record high extreme ultraviolet efficiency at near-normal incidence from a multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic grating," Opt. Lett. 29, 2914-2916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linsky, J. L.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, S. A.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mauche, C. W.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menke, D.

Montoya, J. C.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E.

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nelles, B.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neviere, M.

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, and M. Neviere, "Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142-149 (1985).

Osterried, K.

Paerels, F.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, A.

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, A. P.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24-42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 6411-6415 (1997).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, R. Eby, and K. G. Stolt, "Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135-250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts," Appl. Opt. 34, 7347-7354 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125-133-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 34, 7338-7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, and J. C. Rife, "Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115-340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 34, 6453-6458 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, and C. M. Brown, "On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136-142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 4890-4897 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, and R. G. Cruddace, "Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 2422-2425 (1993).

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000 l/mm grating," Phys. Scr. 41, 396-399 (1990).

W. R. Hunter and J. C. Rife, "An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A A246, 465-468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, and M. N. Kabler, "A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141-153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C," NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Schattenburg, M. L.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 14.5-16.0-nm wavelength region," Opt. Lett. 22, 834-836 (1997).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24-42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 6411-6415 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, and J. C. Rife, "Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115-340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 34, 6453-6458 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125-133-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 34, 7338-7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, R. Eby, and K. G. Stolt, "Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135-250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts," Appl. Opt. 34, 7347-7354 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, and R. G. Cruddace, "Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 2422-2425 (1993).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, and C. M. Brown, "On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136-142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 4890-4897 (1993).

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C," NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

Siegmund, O. H. W.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sion, E. M.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stolt, K. G.

Sun, Y.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varlese, S. J.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, B.

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, and M. Neviere, "Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142-149 (1985).

Vincent, P.

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, and M. Neviere, "Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142-149 (1985).

Voisin, R.

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B. Y.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Werner, K.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. T.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, and M. N. Kabler, "A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141-153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, M. T.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wood, K. S.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yentis, D. J.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

You, J.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. P. Kowalski, J. F. Seely, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, and R. G. Cruddace, "Dual-waveband operation of a multilayer-coated diffraction grating in the soft x-ray range at near-normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 2422-2425 (1993).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, and C. M. Brown, "On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated concave diffraction grating in the 136-142-Å wavelength region and near normal incidence," Appl. Opt. 32, 4890-4897 (1993).

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, and T. W. Barbee, Jr., "Grazing-incidence efficiencies in the 24-42-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 36, 6411-6415 (1997).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, and J. C. Rife, "Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115-340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings," Appl. Opt. 34, 6453-6458 (1995).

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated ion-etched holographic grating in the 125-133-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 34, 7338-7346 (1995).

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, R. Eby, and K. G. Stolt, "Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135-250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts," Appl. Opt. 34, 7347-7354 (1995).

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 36, 8206-8213 (1997).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

C.-H. Chang, R. K. Heilmann, R. C. Fleming, J. Carter, E. Murphy, T. C. Bailey, J. G. Ekerdt, R. D. Frankel, and R. Voisin, "Fabrication of sawtooth diffraction gratings using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2755-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, J. C. Montoya, M. Akilian, A. Lapsa, R. K. Heilmann, M. L. Schattenburg, M. Li, K. A. Flanagan, A. P. Rasmussen, J. F. Seely, J. M. Laming, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and L. I. Goray, "High fidelity blazed grating replication using nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3260-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, and M. N. Kabler, "A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 195, 141-153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

W. R. Hunter and J. C. Rife, "An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A A246, 465-468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Scr.

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000 l/mm grating," Phys. Scr. 41, 396-399 (1990).

Proc. SPIE

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, B. Nelles, R. Lenke, and H. Kierey, "High efficiency multilayer-coated polymer-overcoated blazed ion-etched holographic gratings for high resolution EUV astronomical spectroscopy," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 910-921 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Vidal, P. Vincent, P. Dhez, and M. Neviere, "Thin films and gratings: theories used to optimize the high reflectivity of mirrors and gratings for x-ray optics," in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE 563, 142-149 (1985).

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, C. G. Chen, C. R. Forest, C. Joo, P. T. Konkola, J. C. Montoya, Y. Sun, J. You, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Advances in reflection grating technology for Constellation-X," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 271-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rasmussen, A. Aquila, J. Bookbinder, C.-H. Chang, E. Gullikson, R. K. Heilmann, S. M. Kahn, F. Paerels, and M. L. Schattenburg, "Grating arrays for high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometers," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 248-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., G. G. Fritz, W. R. Hunter, K. F. Heidemann, and M. A. Barstow, "Proposed multilayer-grating designs for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio and S. L. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5168, 21-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, H. Gursky, T. W. Barbee, Jr., W. H. Goldstein, J. F. Kordas, G. G. Fritz, M. A. Barstow, N. P. Bannister, J. L. Culhane, and J. S. Lapington, "The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): a high resolution spectroscopic observatory," in Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation, J. C. Blades and O. H. W. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE 4854, 640-653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. S. Wood, D. J. Yentis, M. T. Wolff, J. M. Laming, H. Gursky, G. R. Carruthers, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. F. Kordas, C. W. Mauche, G. G. Fritz, S. J. Varlese, M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, O. H. W. Siegmund, B. Y. Welsh, N. S. Brickhouse, A. K. Dupree, A. Brown, F. C. Bruhweiler, A. C. Cameron, J. B. Holberg, S. B. Howell, C. Jordan, J. L. Linsky, S. A. Matthews, E. M. Sion, and K. Werner, "Proposed mission concept for the Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): an EUV high resolution spectroscopic SMEX," in UV/EUV and Visible Instrumentation for Astronomy II, O. H. W. Siegmund, ed., Proc. SPIE 5164, 1-16 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter," Z. Phys. 106, 588-596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hellwege, "Über rasterförmige Reflexionsgitter, Nachtrag," Z. Phys. 111, 495-497 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, and W. R. Hunter, "Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beam line X24C," NRL Memo. Rep. 7620-95-7738 (U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured detector current made at an angle of incidence of 10° for wavelengths of 16.53 nm (thin black curve), 19.07 nm (thick gray curve), and 22.54 nm (thick black curve). Diffraction order labels are for 16.53 nm (black underlined), 19.07 nm (gray), and 22.54 nm (black).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured efficiency in the 4 (open circles), 3 (open diamonds), 2 (open triangles), and 1 (open squares) orders. The solid curves are the results of model calculations for the 4 (filled circles), 3 (filled diamonds), 2 (filled triangles), and 1 (filled squares) orders.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Atomic force micrograph of a similar crystalline anisotropically etched blazed grating (with nubs). (b) Simulated grating groove profile used to model the measured efficiency. The profile has been normalized to the groove period ( 200 nm ) in both the X and height directions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Groove efficiency in the (a) 2 and (b) 3 orders. The open symbols and dashed curves were calculated using the measured efficiency, and the filled symbols and solid curves were calculated from the model.

Equations (87)

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19.07 nm
16.53 nm
2
3
0.5 nm rms
> 30 %
1 7 nm
5000   grooves / mm
25  mm  × 18 mm
600   grooves / mm
600
0.03 nm
500 nm
90 %
1 mm
1 mm
22.54 nm
16.53 nm
5 °
+ 2
± 0.5 °
35 nm
200 nm
35 nm
SiO 2
2.0 nm
< 0.2 nm
SiO 2
1.0 nm
2
24.0 nm
3
16.0 nm
21.3 nm
1 nm
SiO 2
Si
19.07 nm
16.53 nm
2
3
19.00 nm
16.50 nm
2
3
24.00 nm
16.00 nm
2
3
2
3
19.07 nm
16.53 nm
2
3
15.79     nm
2
2000   l / mm
125 133 - Å
135 250 - Å
14.5 16.0 - nm
150 - Å
Mo / Si
136 142 - Å
115 340 - Å
3600 - line / mm
24 42 - Å
3600 - line / mm
5 eV
5 keV
16.53 nm
19.07 nm
22.54 nm
16.53 nm
19.07 nm
22.54 nm
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
( 200 nm )
2
3

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