Abstract

Modern optical applications need solutions for providing polymer surfaces with antireflective properties. The problems involved in coating comprise thermal limitations, incompatible mechanical properties of coating and substrate materials, and interaction between polymers and plasma. As an alternative for coating, antireflective properties on polymers can also be obtained by hot embossing or by ion etching of surface structures. My objective is to provide the criteria for choosing suitable deposition or structuring methods based on an understanding of plasma-, radiation-, and ion-induced surface phenomena; material compatibility; mechanical and environmental performance; and cost issues. The potential to produce antireflective interference coatings is documented for plasma-enhanced physical- and chemical-vapor-deposition methods, including modern hybrid techniques, as well as for solgel wet-chemical processes. The review about state-of-the-art coatings focuses on the thermoplastic acrylic, polycarbonate, and cycloolefin polymers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

U. Schulz, 'Coating on plastics,' in Handbook of Plastic Optics, S. Bäumer, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2005), pp. 149-180.

A. Kaless, U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, 'NANO-moth eye antireflection pattern by plasma treatment of polymers,' Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 58-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, N. L. S. Yamasaki, and C. W. Lantman, 'Tailoring the adhesion of optical films on polymethyl-methacrylate by plasma-induced surface stabilization,' Thin Solid Films 476, 101-107 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. J. Jan, C. F. Ai, and C. C. Lee, 'Deposition of nitrogen-containing diamond-like carbon films on acrylic substrates by ion beam process,' Vacuum 74, 531-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (9)

M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Groening, and L. Schlapbach, 'Modification of the micro- and nanotopography of several polymers by plasma treatments,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 207, 276-286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Leterrier, 'Durability of nanosized oxygen-barrier coatings on polymers,' Prog. Mater. Sci. 48, 1-55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Chen, X. Zhang, and S.-Y. Lin, 'Intrinsic stress generation and relaxation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited oxide during deposition and subsequent thermal cycling,' Thin Solid Films 434 , 190-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Skurat, 'Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers,' Nucl. Instrum. Methods B208, 27-34 (2003).

M. Kuhr, S. Bauer, U. Rothhaar, and D. Wolff, 'Coatings on plastics with the PICVD technology,' Thin Solid Films 442, 107-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schottner, K. Rose, and U. Posset, 'Scratch and abrasion resistant coatings on plastic lenses--state of the art, current developments and perspectives,' J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 27, 71-79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. T. Kruschwitz, 'Software tools speed optical thin-film design,' Laser Focus World 39, 157-166 (2003).

U. Schulz, U. B. Schallenberg, and N. Kaiser, 'Symmetrical periods in antireflective coatings for plastic optics,' Appl. Opt. 42, 1346-1351 (2003).

P. Munzert, U. Schulz, and N. Kaiser, 'Transparent thermoplastic polymers in plasma-assisted coating processes,' Surf. Coat. Technol. 173-174, 1048-1052 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. F. Tjandraatmadja, L. S. Burn, and M. C. Jollands, 'Evaluation of commercial polycarbonate optical properties after QUV-A radiation,' Polym. Degrad. Stab. 78, 435-448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Schulz, U. Schallenberg, and N. Kaiser, 'Antireflection coating design for plastic optics,' Appl. Opt. 16, 3107-3110 (2002).

C. H. Hsueh, 'Thermal stresses in elastic multilayer systems,' Thin Solid Films 418, 183-189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

U. Schulz, P. Munzert, and N. Kaiser, 'Surface modification of PMMA by dc glow discharge and microwave plasma treatment for the improvement of coating adhesion,' Surf. Coat. Technol. 142-144, 507-511 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Teixeira, 'Mechanical integrity in PVD coatings due to the presence of residual stresses,' Thin Solid Films 392, 276-281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, 'Anti-reflection (AR) coatings made by sol-gel processes: a review,' Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 313-336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakai, H. Norimatsu, Y. Saito, H. Inomata, and T. Misuno, 'Silica coating on plastics by liquid phase deposition (LPD) method,' Thin Solid Films 392, 294-298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (7)

P. Prené, J.-J. Priotton, and P. Belleville, 'Preparation of a sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch-resistant coating for amplifier blastshields of the french laser LIL,' J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 533-537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Schiller, V. Kirchhoff, N. Schiller, and H. Morgner, 'PVD coating of plastic webs and sheets with high rates on large areas,' Surf. Coat. Technol. 125, 354-360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, 'Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Weikart and H. K. Yasuda, 'Modification, degradation, and stability of polymeric surfaces treated with reactive plasmas,' J. Polym. Sci. Part A 38, 3028-3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Poitras and L. Martinu #x201C;Interphase in plasma-deposited films on plastics: effect on the spectral properties of optical filters,' Appl. Opt. 39, 1168-1173 (2000).

O. Chiantore, L. Trossarelli, and M. Lazzari, 'Photooxidative degradation of acrylic and methacrylic polymers,' Polymer 41, 1657-1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bergeron, D. Poitras, and L. Martinu, 'Interphase in plasma-deposited silicon nitride optical films on polycarbonate: in-situ ellipsometric characterization,' Opt. Eng. 39, 825-831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (10)

F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, E. Melissano, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, and L. Vasanelli, 'Adhesion enhancement of optical coatings on plastic substrate via ion treatment,' Thin Solid Films 346, 196-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sepeur, N. Kunze, B. Werner, and H. Schmidt, 'UV curable hard coatings on plastics,' Thin Solid Films 35, 216-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Rats, V. Hajek, and L. Martinu, 'Micro-scratch analysis and mechanical properties of plasma-deposited silicon-based coatings on polymer substrates,' Thin Solid Films 340, 33-39 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, 'Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflective coatings,' Science 283, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Holländer, R. Wilken, and J. Behnisch, 'Subsurface chemistry in the plasma treatment of polymers,' Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-119, 788-791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Friedrich, I. Koprinarov, R. Giebler, A. Lippitz, and W. Unger, 'Reactions and intermediates at the metal-polymer interface as observed by XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy,' J. Adhes. 71, 297-309 (1999).

K. Yamamoto, T. Harada, N. Tomikawa, H. Uyama, S.-C. Yang, and H. Fujiyama, 'Temperature measurement of polymer substrates during plasma irradiation,' Thin Solid Films 345, 94-98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, 'Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,' Thin Solid Films 351, 73-78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Wertheimer, A. C. Fozza, and A. Holländer, 'Industrial processing of polymers by low pressure plasmas: the role of VUV radiation,' Nucl. Instrum. Methods B151, 65-75 (1999).

A. C. Fozza, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and M. R. Wertheimer, 'Vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of polymers,' Plasmas Polymers. 4, 183-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

A. Gombert, K. Rose, A. Heinzel, W. Horbelt, C. Zahnke, B. Bläsi, and V. Wittwer, 'Antireflective submicrometer surface-relief gratings for solar applications,' Sol. Energy Mater. 54, 333-342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Tamulevicius, 'Stress and strain in vacuum deposited thin films,' Vacuum 51, 127-139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Zajickova, V. Bursikova, and J. Janca, 'Protection coatings for polycarbonates based on PECVD from organosilicon feeds,' Vacuum 50, 19-21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Okudaira, E. Morikawa, S. Hasegawa, P. T. Sprunger, V. Saile, K. Seki, Y. Harada, and N. Ueno, 'Radiation damage of poly(methylmethacrylate) thin films analyzed by UPS,' J. Electr. Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 88-91, 913-917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bergeron, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, 'Structure of the interfacial region between polycarbonate and plasmadeposited SiN1.3 and SiO2 optical coatings studied by ellipsometry,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3227-3234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

C. Bichler, H. Langowski, U. Moosheimer, and B. Seifert, 'Adhesion mechanism of aluminum, aluminum oxide and silicon oxide on biaxial oriented polypropylene (BOPP), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC),' J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 11, 233-246 (1997).

G. N. Strauss, N. Q. Danh, and H. K. Pulker, 'Mechanical stress in thin SiO2 and Ta2O5 films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating (RLVIP),' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 256-261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Fozza, J. Roch, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, A. Kruse, A. Holländer, and M. R. Wertheimer, 'Oxidation and ablation of polymers by vacuum-UV radiation from low pressure plasmas,' Nucl. Instrum. Methods B131, 205-210 (1997).

P. W. Oliveira, H. Krug, A. Frantzen, M. Mennig, and H. Schmidt, 'Generation of wet-chemical AR-coatings on plastic substrates by use of polymerizable nanoparticles,' in Sol-Gel Optics IV, B. S. Dunn, J. D. Mackenzie, E. J. A. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3136, 452-461 (1997).

D. R. Uhlmann, T. Suratwals, K. Davidson, J. M. Boulton, and G. Teowee, 'Sol-gel derived coatings on glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 113-122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, B. T. Sullivan, and P. G. Verly, 'Optimal single-band normal-incidence antireflective coatings,' Appl. Opt. 35, 644-658 (1996).

Ph. Lalanne and M. P. Jurek, 'On the effective medium theory of subwavelength periodic structures,' J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2063-2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Samson, 'Ophthalmic lens coating,' Surf. Coat. Technol. 81, 79-86 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Licciardello, M. E. Fragala, G. Foti, G. Compagnini, and O. Puglisi, 'Ion beam effects on the surface and on the bulk of thin films of polymethylmethacrylate,' Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B116, 168-172 (1996).

S. Vallon, A. Hofrichter, B. Drévillon, J. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, F. Poncin-Epaillard, A. Schalchi, and J. Benattar, 'Adhesion mechanism of silica layers on plasma-treated polymers. I. Polycarbonate,' J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 10, 1287-1311 (1996).

1995 (5)

Y. Lian, K. Leu, S. Liao, and W. Tsai, 'Effect of surface treatments and deposition conditions on the adhesion of silicon dioxide thin film on polymethylmethacrylate,' Surf. Coat. Technol. 71, 142-150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Schissel, C. Kennedy, and R. Goggin, 'Role of inorganic oxide interlayers in improving the adhesion of sputtered silver film on PMMA,' J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 9, 412-424 (1995).

R. Cueff, G. Baud, M. Benmalek, J. P. Besse, J. R. Butruille, H. M. Dunlop, and M. Jacquet, 'Characterization and adhesion study of thin alumina coatings sputtered on PET,' Thin Solid Films 270, 230-236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Mohan and M. G. Krishna, 'A review of ion beam assisted deposition of optical thin films,' Vacuum 46, 645-659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Rivaton, 'Recent advances in bisphenol-A polycarbonate photodegradation,' Polym. Degrad. Stab. 49, 163-179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

H. Cherdon, M. J. Brekner, and F. Osan, 'Cycloolefin-Copolymere: Eine neue Klasse transparenter Thermoplaste,' Angew. Makromol. Chem. 223, 121-133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Darraud, B. Bennamane, C. Gagnadre, J. L. Decossas, J. C. Vareille, and J. Stejny, 'Refractive-index modifications of some polymeric materials by ion beams,' Appl. Opt. 33, 3338-3341 (1994).

U. Hayat, 'Improved process for producing well-adhered/abrasion-resistant optical coatings on an optical plastic substrate,' Pure Appl. Chem. 31, 665-675 (1994).

1993 (3)

J. C. Rostaing, F. Coeuret, B. Drevillion, R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, and V. A. Yakovlev, 'Silicon-based, protective transparent multilayer coatings deposited at high rate on optical polymers by dual-mode MW/r.f. PECVD,' Thin Solid Films 236, 58-63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Liston, L. Martinu, and M. R. Wertheimer, 'Plasma surface modification of polymers for improved adhesion: a critical review,' J. Adhesion Sci. Technol. A 7, 1091-1127 (1993).

R. R. Willey, 'Predicting achievable design performance of broadband antireflection coatings,' Appl. Opt. 32, 5447-5451 (1993).

1992 (1)

S. Pongratz and A. Zöller, 'Plasma ion assisted deposition: a promising technique for optical coatings,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1897-1904 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

S. Küper, S. Modaressi, and M. Stuke, 'Photofragmentation pathways of a PMMA model compound under UV excimer laser ablation conditions,' J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7514-7518 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. G. Vargo, J. A. Gardella, and L. Salvati, 'H2O and O2/ H2O plasma modified polymethyl methacrylates,' J. Polym. Sci. A 27, 1267-1286 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Allen and A. Tregunna, 'Antireflection coatings for plastic optics,' J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 21, 92-95 (1988).

1987 (2)

J. E. Green, 'Low energy ion bombardment during film deposition from the vapor phase: effects on microstructure and microchemistry,' Solid State Technol. 14, 115-122 (1987).

T. J. Hook, J. A. Gardella, and L. Salvati, 'H2O/Ar plasma-modified polymethylmethacrylates,' J. Mater. Res. 2, 117-131 (1987).

1985 (4)

C. H. Hsueh and A. G. Evans, 'Residual stresses in metal/ceramic bonded strips,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68, 241-248 (1985).

U. J. Gibson and C. M. Kennemore, 'Ion-assisted deposition of MgF2 at ambient temperatures,' Thin Solid Films 124, 27-33 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Herrmann, 'Quarterwave layers: simulation by three thin layers of two materials,' Appl. Opt. 24, 1183-1188 (1985).

A. Ram, O. Zilber, and S. Kenig, 'Life expectation of polycarbonate,' Polym. Eng. Sci. 25, 535-540 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Dislich, 'Glassy and crystalline systems from gels: chemical basis and technical application,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 57, 371-388 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. J. Wilson and M. C. Hutley, 'The optical properties of 'moth eye' antireflection surfaces,' Opt. Acta 29, 993-1009 (1982).

1973 (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, 'Reduction of lens reflexion by the 'moth eye' principle,' Nature 244, 281-282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agostino, R.

R. Agostino, Plasma Deposition, Treatment, and Etching of Polymers, (Academic, 1990).

Ai, C. F.

D. J. Jan, C. F. Ai, and C. C. Lee, 'Deposition of nitrogen-containing diamond-like carbon films on acrylic substrates by ion beam process,' Vacuum 74, 531-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Allen, J.

J. Allen and A. Tregunna, 'Antireflection coatings for plastic optics,' J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 21, 92-95 (1988).

Alvisi, M.

F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, E. Melissano, A. Rizzo, S. Scaglione, and L. Vasanelli, 'Adhesion enhancement of optical coatings on plastic substrate via ion treatment,' Thin Solid Films 346, 196-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asai, K.

K. Asai and M. Kikuchi, 'Plastic lens and method of forming anti-reflecting layer on a plastic lens,' U.S. patent 5,116,644 (26 May 1992).

Baud, G.

R. Cueff, G. Baud, M. Benmalek, J. P. Besse, J. R. Butruille, H. M. Dunlop, and M. Jacquet, 'Characterization and adhesion study of thin alumina coatings sputtered on PET,' Thin Solid Films 270, 230-236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

M. Kuhr, S. Bauer, U. Rothhaar, and D. Wolff, 'Coatings on plastics with the PICVD technology,' Thin Solid Films 442, 107-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bäumer, S.

S. Bäumer, Handbook of Plastic Optics (Wiley-VCH, 2005).

Beckmann, R.

R. Beckmann, K.-D. Nauenburg, T. Naumann, U. Patz, G. Ickes, H. Hagedorn, and J. Snyder, 'A new high-rate deposition process for scratch- and wipe-resistant coatings for optical and decorative plastic parts,' in 44th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2001), pp. 288-294.

Behnisch, J.

A. Holländer, R. Wilken, and J. Behnisch, 'Subsurface chemistry in the plasma treatment of polymers,' Surf. Coat. Technol. 116-119, 788-791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Belleville, P.

P. Prené, J.-J. Priotton, and P. Belleville, 'Preparation of a sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch-resistant coating for amplifier blastshields of the french laser LIL,' J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 533-537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benattar, J.

S. Vallon, A. Hofrichter, B. Drévillon, J. Klemberg-Sapieha, L. Martinu, F. Poncin-Epaillard, A. Schalchi, and J. Benattar, 'Adhesion mechanism of silica layers on plasma-treated polymers. I. Polycarbonate,' J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 10, 1287-1311 (1996).

Benmalek, M.

R. Cueff, G. Baud, M. Benmalek, J. P. Besse, J. R. Butruille, H. M. Dunlop, and M. Jacquet, 'Characterization and adhesion study of thin alumina coatings sputtered on PET,' Thin Solid Films 270, 230-236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennamane, B.

Bergeron, A.

A. Bergeron, D. Poitras, and L. Martinu, 'Interphase in plasma-deposited silicon nitride optical films on polycarbonate: in-situ ellipsometric characterization,' Opt. Eng. 39, 825-831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bergeron, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, 'Structure of the interfacial region between polycarbonate and plasmadeposited SiN1.3 and SiO2 optical coatings studied by ellipsometry,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3227-3234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Besse, J. P.

R. Cueff, G. Baud, M. Benmalek, J. P. Besse, J. R. Butruille, H. M. Dunlop, and M. Jacquet, 'Characterization and adhesion study of thin alumina coatings sputtered on PET,' Thin Solid Films 270, 230-236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, N.

T. Sawitowski, N. Beyer, and F. Schulz, 'Bio-inspired anti-reflective surfaces by imprinting processes,' in The Nano-Micro Interface, H.-J.Fecht and M.Werner, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), pp. 263-280.

Bichler, C.

C. Bichler, H. Langowski, U. Moosheimer, and B. Seifert, 'Adhesion mechanism of aluminum, aluminum oxide and silicon oxide on biaxial oriented polypropylene (BOPP), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC),' J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 11, 233-246 (1997).

Blacker, R.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, and R. Gove, 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2000), pp. 222-229.

R. Blacker, D. Bohling, M. Coda, and M. Kosoley, 'Development of intrinsically conductive antireflection coatings for the ophthalmic industry,' 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2000), pp. 212-216.

Bläsi, B.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, 'Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,' Thin Solid Films 351, 73-78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gombert, K. Rose, A. Heinzel, W. Horbelt, C. Zahnke, B. Bläsi, and V. Wittwer, 'Antireflective submicrometer surface-relief gratings for solar applications,' Sol. Energy Mater. 54, 333-342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bohling, D.

R. Blacker, D. Bohling, M. Coda, and M. Kosoley, 'Development of intrinsically conductive antireflection coatings for the ophthalmic industry,' 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2000), pp. 212-216.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, and R. Gove, 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2000), pp. 222-229.

Boulton, J. M.

D. R. Uhlmann, T. Suratwals, K. Davidson, J. M. Boulton, and G. Teowee, 'Sol-gel derived coatings on glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 113-122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brekner, M. J.

H. Cherdon, M. J. Brekner, and F. Osan, 'Cycloolefin-Copolymere: Eine neue Klasse transparenter Thermoplaste,' Angew. Makromol. Chem. 223, 121-133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, I.

J. M. Walls, D. R. Gibson, and I. Brinkley, 'Closed field magnetron sputtering: a new strategy for multilayer optical coatings,' in 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 387-392.

Burmeister, P.

P. Burmeister, W. Doell, and W. G. Kleer, 'Method for producing a tool which can be used to create surface structures in the sub-micrometer,' European patent EP130760481 (5 June 2004).

Burn, L. S.

G. F. Tjandraatmadja, L. S. Burn, and M. C. Jollands, 'Evaluation of commercial polycarbonate optical properties after QUV-A radiation,' Polym. Degrad. Stab. 78, 435-448 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bursikova, V.

L. Zajickova, V. Bursikova, and J. Janca, 'Protection coatings for polycarbonates based on PECVD from organosilicon feeds,' Vacuum 50, 19-21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Butruille, J. R.

R. Cueff, G. Baud, M. Benmalek, J. P. Besse, J. R. Butruille, H. M. Dunlop, and M. Jacquet, 'Characterization and adhesion study of thin alumina coatings sputtered on PET,' Thin Solid Films 270, 230-236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, 'Anti-reflection (AR) coatings made by sol-gel processes: a review,' Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 313-336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, Y. Yan, S. Raychaudhuri, Y. Sato, and A. Sarkar, 'Plastic articles having multi-layer antireflection coatings, and sol-gel processes for depositing such coatings,' U.S. patent 5,856,018 (5 January 1999).

Chen, K.-S.

K.-S. Chen, X. Zhang, and S.-Y. Lin, 'Intrinsic stress generation and relaxation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited oxide during deposition and subsequent thermal cycling,' Thin Solid Films 434 , 190-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cherdon, H.

H. Cherdon, M. J. Brekner, and F. Osan, 'Cycloolefin-Copolymere: Eine neue Klasse transparenter Thermoplaste,' Angew. Makromol. Chem. 223, 121-133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chiantore, O.

O. Chiantore, L. Trossarelli, and M. Lazzari, 'Photooxidative degradation of acrylic and methacrylic polymers,' Polymer 41, 1657-1668 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

S. Koh, H. Jung, S. Song, W. Choi, Y. Yoon, and J. Cho, 'Process for modifying surfaces of polymers and polymers having surfaces modified by such process,' U.S. patent 5 ,783,641 (21 July 1998).

Choi, W.

S. Koh, H. Jung, S. Song, W. Choi, Y. Yoon, and J. Cho, 'Process for modifying surfaces of polymers and polymers having surfaces modified by such process,' U.S. patent 5 ,783,641 (21 July 1998).

Clapham, P. B.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, 'Reduction of lens reflexion by the 'moth eye' principle,' Nature 244, 281-282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Coda, M.

D. Bohling, M. Coda, R. Blacker, and R. Gove, 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2000), pp. 222-229.

R. Blacker, D. Bohling, M. Coda, and M. Kosoley, 'Development of intrinsically conductive antireflection coatings for the ophthalmic industry,' 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2000), pp. 212-216.

Coen, M. C.

M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Groening, and L. Schlapbach, 'Modification of the micro- and nanotopography of several polymers by plasma treatments,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 207, 276-286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coeuret, F.

J. C. Rostaing, F. Coeuret, B. Drevillion, R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, and V. A. Yakovlev, 'Silicon-based, protective transparent multilayer coatings deposited at high rate on optical polymers by dual-mode MW/r.f. PECVD,' Thin Solid Films 236, 58-63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Collaud-Coen, M.

P. Gröning, O. M. Küttel, M. Collaud-Coen, G. Dietler and L. Schlapbach 'Interaction of low-energy ions with polymethylmethacrylate during plasma pretreatment,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 89, 83-91 (1995).

Compagnini, G.

A. Licciardello, M. E. Fragala, G. Foti, G. Compagnini, and O. Puglisi, 'Ion beam effects on the surface and on the bulk of thin films of polymethylmethacrylate,' Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B116, 168-172 (1996).

Couget, N.

N. Couget, 'Method of production of an optical coating on a substrate by vacuum evaporation of a powder,' European patent EP1112981 (7 April 2001).

Cueff, R.

R. Cueff, G. Baud, M. Benmalek, J. P. Besse, J. R. Butruille, H. M. Dunlop, and M. Jacquet, 'Characterization and adhesion study of thin alumina coatings sputtered on PET,' Thin Solid Films 270, 230-236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Danh, N. Q.

G. N. Strauss, N. Q. Danh, and H. K. Pulker, 'Mechanical stress in thin SiO2 and Ta2O5 films produced by reactive-low-voltage-ion-plating (RLVIP),' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 256-261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Darraud, C.

Davidson, K.

D. R. Uhlmann, T. Suratwals, K. Davidson, J. M. Boulton, and G. Teowee, 'Sol-gel derived coatings on glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 113-122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Decossas, J. L.

Dietler, G.

P. Gröning, O. M. Küttel, M. Collaud-Coen, G. Dietler and L. Schlapbach 'Interaction of low-energy ions with polymethylmethacrylate during plasma pretreatment,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 89, 83-91 (1995).

Dislich, H.

H. Dislich, 'Glassy and crystalline systems from gels: chemical basis and technical application,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 57, 371-388 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, B. T. Sullivan, and P. G. Verly, 'Optimal single-band normal-incidence antireflective coatings,' Appl. Opt. 35, 644-658 (1996).

J. A. Dobrowolski, 'Optical properties of films and coatings' in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1994), Chap. 42.

Doell, W.

P. Burmeister, W. Doell, and W. G. Kleer, 'Method for producing a tool which can be used to create surface structures in the sub-micrometer,' European patent EP130760481 (5 June 2004).

Doerner, M. F.

M. F. Doerner and W. D. Nix, 'Stresses and deformation processes in thin films on substrates,' CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 14, 225-268 (1988).

Döll, W.

A. Gombert, W. Glaubitt, K. Rose, J. Dreibholz, B. Bläsi, A. Heinzel, D. Sporn, W. Döll, and V. Wittwer, 'Subwavelength-structured antireflective surfaces on glass,' Thin Solid Films 351, 73-78 (1999).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the scratch-resistant AR coating called AR-hard, which is suitable for low-index polymer substrates. Arrangements are of (a) symmetrical periods with 3 QW optical thickness each and (b) nonsymmetrical layer stacks with 4 QW optical thickness. Both arrangements build up step-down designs of equivalent layers: H, high-index material; L, low-index material.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Performance of AR-hard coatings for different spectral bandwidths, applying basic layer arrangements as shown in Fig. 1(a) (curve 1) and Fig. 1(b) (curve 2). Both examples are calculated for a Zeonex substrate (n = 1.53) without a back surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of surfaces with decreasing refractive index from the substrate site to air: (a) porous coating, (b) stochastic surface structure, (c) periodic surface structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM images (1 μm × 1 μm) of AR surface structures on PMMA: (a) hot-embossed periodic structure and (b) stochastic structure produced by direct ion etching.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature development measured in situ and simultaneously on a polymer substrate, a glass substrate, and a metallic substrate holder during IAD of a single-layer of TiO2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cracking behavior of coatings on polymers: (a) buckling of a coating as a consequence of compressive growth stress and insufficient coating adhesion and (b) tensile-stress cracking caused by different thermal expansions of the substrate and coating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PMMA with a stochastic AR structure, showing spectral transmission at normal and tilted incidence of light.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Properties of Transparent Thermoplastic Materials a

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