Abstract

We present a design for a biaxial thin-film coated-plate polarizing beam splitter that transmits the p-polarized component of a beam of light without change of direction and reflects the s-polarized component. The beam splitter has a periodic structure and is planned for fabrication by serial bideposition in mutually orthogonal planes. Recent experimental data for form-birefringent silicon is used to establish the feasibility of the design for a beam splitter to be used at 1310  nm and at an angle of 45° in air.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Dobrowolski, Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 42.
  2. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1959).
  3. M. Elshazly-Zaghloul and R. M. Azzam, 'Brewster and pseudo-Brewster angles of uniaxial crystal surfaces and their use for determination of optical properties,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 657-661 (1982).
  4. M. Elshazly-Zaghloul and R. M. Azzam, 'Brewster and pseudo-Brewster angles of uniaxial crystal surfaces and their use for determination of optical properties: errata,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 607 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Lekner, 'Brewster angles in reflection by uniaxial crystals,' J. Opt Soc. Am. A 10, 2059-2064 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Motohiro and Y. Taga, 'Thin film retardation plate by oblique deposition,' Appl. Opt. 28, 2466-2482 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).
  8. I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794-1796 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, 'Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,' Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Beydaghyan, K. Kaminska, T. Brown, and K. Robbie, 'Enhanced birefringence in vacuum evaporated silicon thin films,' Appl. Opt. 43, 5343-5349 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Serial bideposition of anisotropic thin films with enhanced linear birefringence,' Appl. Opt. 38, 3621-3625 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. J. Brett, and K. Robbie, 'Vacuum deposition of biaxial films with surface-aligned principal axes and large birefringence Deltan,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 104-106.
  13. K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Suzuki and Y. Taga, 'Anisotropy in the optical absorption of Ag-SiO2 thin films with oblique columnar structures,' J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2448-2454 (1992).
  15. K. Robbie, L. Friedrich, S. Dew, T. Smy, and M. Brett, 'Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. C. Hazel, 'Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide and zirconium oxide,' Appl. Opt. 37, 2653-2659 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, M. D. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, 'All-silicon polarizing filters for near infrared wavelengths,' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, 'Polarizing beam splitter based on the anistropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings,' Opt. Lett. 21, 761-763 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Motohiro, Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, and S. Noda, 'Simultaneous oblique deposition from opposite azimuthal directions for fabrication of thin film retardation plates,' in International Symposium on Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T.Yoshizawa and H.Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE 2873, 214-217 (1996).
  20. D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, M. D. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, 'All-silicon polarizing filters for near infrared wavelengths,' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Beydaghyan, K. Kaminska, T. Brown, and K. Robbie, 'Enhanced birefringence in vacuum evaporated silicon thin films,' Appl. Opt. 43, 5343-5349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, 'Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,' Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794-1796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Serial bideposition of anisotropic thin films with enhanced linear birefringence,' Appl. Opt. 38, 3621-3625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

K. Robbie, L. Friedrich, S. Dew, T. Smy, and M. Brett, 'Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Lekner, 'Brewster angles in reflection by uniaxial crystals,' J. Opt Soc. Am. A 10, 2059-2064 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Suzuki and Y. Taga, 'Anisotropy in the optical absorption of Ag-SiO2 thin films with oblique columnar structures,' J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2448-2454 (1992).

1989 (2)

Adams, J.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, M. D.

Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, M. D. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, 'All-silicon polarizing filters for near infrared wavelengths,' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M.

Beydaghyan, G.

G. Beydaghyan, K. Kaminska, T. Brown, and K. Robbie, 'Enhanced birefringence in vacuum evaporated silicon thin films,' Appl. Opt. 43, 5343-5349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1959).

Brett, M.

K. Robbie, L. Friedrich, S. Dew, T. Smy, and M. Brett, 'Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. J. Brett, and K. Robbie, 'Vacuum deposition of biaxial films with surface-aligned principal axes and large birefringence Deltan,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 104-106.

Brown, T.

G. Beydaghyan, K. Kaminska, T. Brown, and K. Robbie, 'Enhanced birefringence in vacuum evaporated silicon thin films,' Appl. Opt. 43, 5343-5349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buzea, C.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Silva, L.

Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, M. D. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, 'All-silicon polarizing filters for near infrared wavelengths,' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dean, C.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dew, S.

K. Robbie, L. Friedrich, S. Dew, T. Smy, and M. Brett, 'Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diener, J.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 42.

Elshazly-Zaghloul, M.

Fainman, Y.

Friedrich, L.

K. Robbie, L. Friedrich, S. Dew, T. Smy, and M. Brett, 'Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, L. R.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, 'Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,' Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazel, J. C.

Heckler, H.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hioki, T.

T. Motohiro, Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, and S. Noda, 'Simultaneous oblique deposition from opposite azimuthal directions for fabrication of thin film retardation plates,' in International Symposium on Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T.Yoshizawa and H.Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE 2873, 214-217 (1996).

Hodgkinson, I. J.

Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, M. D. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, 'All-silicon polarizing filters for near infrared wavelengths,' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Serial bideposition of anisotropic thin films with enhanced linear birefringence,' Appl. Opt. 38, 3621-3625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794-1796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. C. Hazel, 'Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide and zirconium oxide,' Appl. Opt. 37, 2653-2659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. J. Brett, and K. Robbie, 'Vacuum deposition of biaxial films with surface-aligned principal axes and large birefringence Deltan,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 104-106.

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

Kaminska, K.

Koch, F.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, D.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Künzner, N.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lekner, J.

J. Lekner, 'Brewster angles in reflection by uniaxial crystals,' J. Opt Soc. Am. A 10, 2059-2064 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Motohiro, T.

T. Motohiro and Y. Taga, 'Thin film retardation plate by oblique deposition,' Appl. Opt. 28, 2466-2482 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Motohiro, Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, and S. Noda, 'Simultaneous oblique deposition from opposite azimuthal directions for fabrication of thin film retardation plates,' in International Symposium on Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T.Yoshizawa and H.Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE 2873, 214-217 (1996).

Nevitt, T. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, 'Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,' Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

T. Motohiro, Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, and S. Noda, 'Simultaneous oblique deposition from opposite azimuthal directions for fabrication of thin film retardation plates,' in International Symposium on Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T.Yoshizawa and H.Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE 2873, 214-217 (1996).

Ouderkirk, A. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, 'Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,' Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polisski, G.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Beydaghyan, K. Kaminska, T. Brown, and K. Robbie, 'Enhanced birefringence in vacuum evaporated silicon thin films,' Appl. Opt. 43, 5343-5349 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, L. Friedrich, S. Dew, T. Smy, and M. Brett, 'Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. J. Brett, and K. Robbie, 'Vacuum deposition of biaxial films with surface-aligned principal axes and large birefringence Deltan,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 104-106.

Scherer, A.

Smy, T.

K. Robbie, L. Friedrich, S. Dew, T. Smy, and M. Brett, 'Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stover, C. A.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, 'Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,' Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P.-C.

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki and Y. Taga, 'Anisotropy in the optical absorption of Ag-SiO2 thin films with oblique columnar structures,' J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2448-2454 (1992).

Taga, Y.

M. Suzuki and Y. Taga, 'Anisotropy in the optical absorption of Ag-SiO2 thin films with oblique columnar structures,' J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2448-2454 (1992).

T. Motohiro and Y. Taga, 'Thin film retardation plate by oblique deposition,' Appl. Opt. 28, 2466-2482 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, Y.

T. Motohiro, Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, and S. Noda, 'Simultaneous oblique deposition from opposite azimuthal directions for fabrication of thin film retardation plates,' in International Symposium on Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T.Yoshizawa and H.Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE 2873, 214-217 (1996).

Takeuchi, E.

Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, M. D. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, 'All-silicon polarizing filters for near infrared wavelengths,' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Timoshenko, V. Yu.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R.-C.

Weber, M. F.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, 'Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,' Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1959).

Wu, Q. H.

Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, M. D. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, 'All-silicon polarizing filters for near infrared wavelengths,' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Serial bideposition of anisotropic thin films with enhanced linear birefringence,' Appl. Opt. 38, 3621-3625 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794-1796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. C. Hazel, 'Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide and zirconium oxide,' Appl. Opt. 37, 2653-2659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. J. Brett, and K. Robbie, 'Vacuum deposition of biaxial films with surface-aligned principal axes and large birefringence Deltan,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 104-106.

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Künzner, V. Yu. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, 'Strong in-plane birefringence of spatially nanostructured silicon,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916-918 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, 'Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794-1796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Suzuki and Y. Taga, 'Anisotropy in the optical absorption of Ag-SiO2 thin films with oblique columnar structures,' J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2448-2454 (1992).

Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, M. D. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, 'All-silicon polarizing filters for near infrared wavelengths,' J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Lekner, 'Brewster angles in reflection by uniaxial crystals,' J. Opt Soc. Am. A 10, 2059-2064 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

K. Robbie, L. Friedrich, S. Dew, T. Smy, and M. Brett, 'Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, 'Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled 3-D nanoscale structure,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089-1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Gilbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, 'Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirrors,' Science 287, 2451-2456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. J. Brett, and K. Robbie, 'Vacuum deposition of biaxial films with surface-aligned principal axes and large birefringence Deltan,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 104-106.

J. A. Dobrowolski, Handbook of Optics, M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 42.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1959).

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

T. Motohiro, Y. Takeda, T. Hioki, and S. Noda, 'Simultaneous oblique deposition from opposite azimuthal directions for fabrication of thin film retardation plates,' in International Symposium on Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T.Yoshizawa and H.Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE 2873, 214-217 (1996).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic design of a thin-film coated-plate polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Combinations of refractive indices n A and n B that yield zero reflectance for p-polarized light incident at 45° from a cover medium of refractive index n C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One period of a biaxial thin-film stack for a coated-plate polarizing beam splitter, showing alignment of the principal axes in layers A and B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Physical schematic of the evaporator used for depositing birefringent films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principal refractive indices of bideposited silicon.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Birefringence n 3n 2 of bideposited silicon.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated transmittances of an all-silicon 45° polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated dependence of copolarized and cross-polarized transmittances of the 45° polarizing beam splitter on an azimuthal angle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated dependence of the extinction ratio of the beam splitter on an optical angle of incidence.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental curves showing the dependence of the extinction ratio of a titanium oxide– tantalum oxide polarizing beam splitter on an optical angle of incidence.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ A p = ( 1 / n A 2        2 β 2 / n A1        2 n A2        2 ) 1 / 2 ,
γ B p = ( 1 / n B3         2 β 2 / n B1        2 n B3        2 ) 1 / 2 .
r p = ( γ A p γ B p ) / ( γ A p + γ B p ) ,
n A1 n A2 / ( n A1        2 β 2 ) 1 / 2 = n B1 n B3 / ( n B1        2 β 2 ) 1 / 2 .
n A p = [ ( γ A p        2 + γ A p       4 4 γ A p        2 β 2 ) / 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
n B p = [ ( γ B p        2 + γ B p        4 4 γ B p        2 β 2 ) / 2 ] 1 / 2 .
n A p = n B p .
d A = λ 0 / [ 4 ( n A3         2 β 2 ) 1 / 2 ] ,
d B = λ 0 / [ 4 ( n B 2         2 β 2 ) 1 / 2 ] .
n 1 = 1.6531 + 4.2123 θ υ 2.5252 θ υ     2 ,
n 2 = 4.5239 1.8987 θ υ 0.1660 θ υ     2 ,
n 3 = 3.2871 + 0.9393 θ υ 1.5155 θ υ     2 .

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