Abstract

Methods for the manufacture of rugate filters by the ion-beam-sputtering process are presented. The first approach gives an example of a digitized version of a continuous-layer notch filter. This method allows the comparison of the basic theory of interference coatings containing thin layers with practical results. For the other methods, a movable zone target is employed to fabricate graded and gradual rugate filters. The examples demonstrate the potential of broadband optical monitoring in conjunction with the ion-beam-sputtering process. First-characterization results indicate that these types of filter may exhibit higher laser-induced damage-threshold values than those of classical filters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. E. Johnson and R. L. Crane, 'Introduction to rugate filter technology,' in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, J. A. Dobrowolski and P. G. Verly, eds., Proc. SPIE 2046, 88-108 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Southwell, 'Coating design using very thin high- and low-index layers,' Appl. Opt. 24, pp. 457-460 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. ISO 11254-2, 'Test methods for laser induced damage threshold of optical surfaces. Part 2: S on 1 test,' International Standard, 2001 (International Organization for Standardization, 2001).
  5. ISO 11551, 'Test method for absorptance of optical laser components,' International Standard, 1997 (International Organization for Standardization, 1997).
  6. P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolsky, W. J. Wild, and R. L. Burton, 'Synthesis of high rejection filters with the Fourier transform method,' Appl. Opt. 28, 2864-2875 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, and R. A. Stempniak, 'Self-consistent dependence of porosity and refractive index on composition in co-evaporated films,' NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 299-404 (1988).
  8. P. Baumeister, 'Simulation of a rugate filter via a stepped-index dielectric multilayer,' Appl. Opt. 25, 2644-2645 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Abu-Safia, A. I. Al-Sharif, and I. O. Abu Aljarayesh, 'Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using half-apodization,' Appl. Opt. 32, 4831-4835 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Dieckmann, 'SPEKTRUM, Thin Film Design Software,' Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 1990-2005.

2000

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

W. E. Johnson and R. L. Crane, 'Introduction to rugate filter technology,' in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, J. A. Dobrowolski and P. G. Verly, eds., Proc. SPIE 2046, 88-108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Abu-Safia, A. I. Al-Sharif, and I. O. Abu Aljarayesh, 'Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using half-apodization,' Appl. Opt. 32, 4831-4835 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1988

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, and R. A. Stempniak, 'Self-consistent dependence of porosity and refractive index on composition in co-evaporated films,' NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 299-404 (1988).

1986

1985

Abu Aljarayesh, I. O.

Abu-Safia, H. A.

Al-Sharif, A. I.

Baumeister, P.

Burton, R. L.

Crane, R. L.

W. E. Johnson and R. L. Crane, 'Introduction to rugate filter technology,' in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, J. A. Dobrowolski and P. G. Verly, eds., Proc. SPIE 2046, 88-108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dieckmann, M.

M. Dieckmann, 'SPEKTRUM, Thin Film Design Software,' Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 1990-2005.

Dobrowolsky, J. A.

Farabaugh, E. N.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, and R. A. Stempniak, 'Self-consistent dependence of porosity and refractive index on composition in co-evaporated films,' NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 299-404 (1988).

Feldman, A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, and R. A. Stempniak, 'Self-consistent dependence of porosity and refractive index on composition in co-evaporated films,' NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 299-404 (1988).

Gross, T.

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. E.

W. E. Johnson and R. L. Crane, 'Introduction to rugate filter technology,' in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, J. A. Dobrowolski and P. G. Verly, eds., Proc. SPIE 2046, 88-108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lappschies, M.

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Starke, K.

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stempniak, R. A.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, and R. A. Stempniak, 'Self-consistent dependence of porosity and refractive index on composition in co-evaporated films,' NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 299-404 (1988).

Verly, P. G.

Wild, W. J.

Appl. Opt.

NBS Spec. Publ.

A. Feldman, E. N. Farabaugh, and R. A. Stempniak, 'Self-consistent dependence of porosity and refractive index on composition in co-evaporated films,' NBS Spec. Publ. 746, 299-404 (1988).

Proc. SPIE

K. Starke, T. Gross, M. Lappschies, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Johnson and R. L. Crane, 'Introduction to rugate filter technology,' in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-Inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, J. A. Dobrowolski and P. G. Verly, eds., Proc. SPIE 2046, 88-108 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

ISO 11254-2, 'Test methods for laser induced damage threshold of optical surfaces. Part 2: S on 1 test,' International Standard, 2001 (International Organization for Standardization, 2001).

ISO 11551, 'Test method for absorptance of optical laser components,' International Standard, 1997 (International Organization for Standardization, 1997).

M. Dieckmann, 'SPEKTRUM, Thin Film Design Software,' Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., 1990-2005.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Graph of the continuously modulated refractive-index profile and the resulting notch filter with a reflection band at 550 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance spectra of the fabricated quasi-rugate filter at 1064 nm (gray curve) in comparison with its target design (black curve) and a measured high–low system (dotted curve) with equal reflectance in the high-reflection region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance spectrum and layer sequence derived from the transformation of the continuous profile. The inset shows further enlargement of the layer sequence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured notch-filter transmittance (gray curve) compared with the target (dotted curve) and the recalculated design (black curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup of the ion-beam-sputtering plant equipped with a zone target mounted on a linear-motion system to realize the deposition of material mixtures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured transmittance (dotted line) compared with a calculated sinusoidal periodic-modulated rugate filter (solid curve). The formula representing the refractive-index profile is given for the center wavelength.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Characterization Results of the Quasi-Rugate Notch Filter and a Classical High–Low System with Equal Reflectance a

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