Abstract

This contribution is focused on applications of spectroscopic methods for the precise control of deposition processes. Besides a monochromator system with a moving grating for the deep ultraviolet∕vacuum ultraviolet (DUV∕VUV) spectral range, two approaches are presented for online spectrophotometers with CCD arrays. The conventional spectrophotometer is considered for the operator-assisted deposition of fluoride coatings applied in the DUV∕VUV range. The concepts with CCD arrays are combined with an advanced software tool for an automatic production of optical coatings. An ion-assisted deposition process and ion-beam sputtering are considered for rapid manufacturing of complex layer systems in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The present contribution summarizes and discusses the major aspects of the described combinations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Vidal, A. Fornier, and E. Pelletier, 'Optical monitoring of non-quarter-wave multilayer filters,' Appl. Opt. 17, 1038-1047 (1978).
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  3. I. Powell, J. C. M. Zwinkels, and A. R. Robertson, 'Development of optical monitor for control of thin-film deposition,' Appl. Opt. 25, 3645-3652 (1986).
  4. F. J. van Milligen, B. Bovard, M. R. Jacobson, J. Mueller, R. Potoff, R. L. Shoemaker, and H. A. Macleod, 'Development of an automated scanning monochromator for monitoring thin films,' Appl. Opt. 24, 1799-1802 (1985).
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  6. G. Emiliani, A. Piegari, and E. Masetti, 'Fast scan spectrometer for monitoring of thin film optical properties,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 35-46 (1988).
  7. H. H. Bauer and E. Nüssler, 'In-situ optical multichannel spectrometer system,' Proc SPIE 2253, 423-431 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Tilsch, V. Scheuer, J. Staub, and T. Tschudi, 'Direct optical monitoring instrument with double detection system for the control of multilayer systems from the visible to the near infrared,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 414-422 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. T. Sullivan and J. A. Dobrowolski, 'Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings: II. Experimental results-sputtering system,' Appl. Opt. 32, 2351-2360 (1993).
  10. K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Conference on Optical and Infrared Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Lappschies, T. Groß, H. Ehlers, and D. Ristau, 'Broadband optical monitoring for the deposition of complex coatings,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in Optical Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 5250, 637-645 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. St. Günster, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, 'Online spectrophotometric characterization of MgF2/LaF3: fluoride multilayer coatings production,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ME9.
  13. D. Ristau and St. Günster, 'Optimization of optical coatings for the UV/VUV-range,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies,Proc. SPIE 5188, 80-95 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Dobrowolski, has presented papers at OSA conferences on optical interference coatings in 1995, 1998, 2001 and 2004.
  15. M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, 'Application of optical broadband monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion beam sputtering,' presented at the Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson, Ariz., 27 June-2 July, 2004.
  16. J. Freisinger, H. W. Löb, and A. Scharmann: 'Rf-ion beam source RIM-10 for material processing,' Kerntechnik 51, 125-128 (1987).
  17. M. Dieckmann, Spektrum: Thin Film Design Software. 1990-2005.
  18. SyrusPro and APSPro are registered trade marks of Leybold Optics GmbH, Alzenau, Germany.
  19. Product of Leybold Optics GmbH, Alzenau, Germany.

2004 (1)

M. Lappschies, T. Groß, H. Ehlers, and D. Ristau, 'Broadband optical monitoring for the deposition of complex coatings,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in Optical Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 5250, 637-645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Ristau and St. Günster, 'Optimization of optical coatings for the UV/VUV-range,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies,Proc. SPIE 5188, 80-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Conference on Optical and Infrared Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. H. Bauer and E. Nüssler, 'In-situ optical multichannel spectrometer system,' Proc SPIE 2253, 423-431 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Tilsch, V. Scheuer, J. Staub, and T. Tschudi, 'Direct optical monitoring instrument with double detection system for the control of multilayer systems from the visible to the near infrared,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 414-422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1988 (2)

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, and K.-H Müller, 'In-situ optical monitoring of thin film deposition,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 10-15 (1988).

G. Emiliani, A. Piegari, and E. Masetti, 'Fast scan spectrometer for monitoring of thin film optical properties,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 35-46 (1988).

1987 (1)

J. Freisinger, H. W. Löb, and A. Scharmann: 'Rf-ion beam source RIM-10 for material processing,' Kerntechnik 51, 125-128 (1987).

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

Bauer, H. H.

H. H. Bauer and E. Nüssler, 'In-situ optical multichannel spectrometer system,' Proc SPIE 2253, 423-431 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bovard, B.

Dieckmann, M.

M. Dieckmann, Spektrum: Thin Film Design Software. 1990-2005.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

B. T. Sullivan and J. A. Dobrowolski, 'Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings: II. Experimental results-sputtering system,' Appl. Opt. 32, 2351-2360 (1993).

J. A. Dobrowolski, has presented papers at OSA conferences on optical interference coatings in 1995, 1998, 2001 and 2004.

Ehlers, H.

M. Lappschies, T. Groß, H. Ehlers, and D. Ristau, 'Broadband optical monitoring for the deposition of complex coatings,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in Optical Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 5250, 637-645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emiliani, G.

G. Emiliani, A. Piegari, and E. Masetti, 'Fast scan spectrometer for monitoring of thin film optical properties,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 35-46 (1988).

Fornier, A.

Freisinger, J.

J. Freisinger, H. W. Löb, and A. Scharmann: 'Rf-ion beam source RIM-10 for material processing,' Kerntechnik 51, 125-128 (1987).

Görtz, B.

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, 'Application of optical broadband monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion beam sputtering,' presented at the Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson, Ariz., 27 June-2 July, 2004.

Groß, T.

M. Lappschies, T. Groß, H. Ehlers, and D. Ristau, 'Broadband optical monitoring for the deposition of complex coatings,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in Optical Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 5250, 637-645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Conference on Optical and Infrared Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Günster, St.

D. Ristau and St. Günster, 'Optimization of optical coatings for the UV/VUV-range,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies,Proc. SPIE 5188, 80-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

St. Günster, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, 'Online spectrophotometric characterization of MgF2/LaF3: fluoride multilayer coatings production,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ME9.

Jacobson, M. R.

Kadkhoda, P.

St. Günster, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, 'Online spectrophotometric characterization of MgF2/LaF3: fluoride multilayer coatings production,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ME9.

Lappschies, M.

M. Lappschies, T. Groß, H. Ehlers, and D. Ristau, 'Broadband optical monitoring for the deposition of complex coatings,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in Optical Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 5250, 637-645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, 'Application of optical broadband monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion beam sputtering,' presented at the Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson, Ariz., 27 June-2 July, 2004.

Löb, H. W.

J. Freisinger, H. W. Löb, and A. Scharmann: 'Rf-ion beam source RIM-10 for material processing,' Kerntechnik 51, 125-128 (1987).

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. J.

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, and K.-H Müller, 'In-situ optical monitoring of thin film deposition,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 10-15 (1988).

Masetti, E.

G. Emiliani, A. Piegari, and E. Masetti, 'Fast scan spectrometer for monitoring of thin film optical properties,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 35-46 (1988).

Mueller, J.

Müller, K.-H

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, and K.-H Müller, 'In-situ optical monitoring of thin film deposition,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 10-15 (1988).

Netterfield, R. P.

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, and K.-H Müller, 'In-situ optical monitoring of thin film deposition,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 10-15 (1988).

Nüssler, E.

H. H. Bauer and E. Nüssler, 'In-situ optical multichannel spectrometer system,' Proc SPIE 2253, 423-431 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Piegari, A.

G. Emiliani, A. Piegari, and E. Masetti, 'Fast scan spectrometer for monitoring of thin film optical properties,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 35-46 (1988).

Potoff, R.

Powell, I.

Ristau, D.

M. Lappschies, T. Groß, H. Ehlers, and D. Ristau, 'Broadband optical monitoring for the deposition of complex coatings,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in Optical Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 5250, 637-645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau and St. Günster, 'Optimization of optical coatings for the UV/VUV-range,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies,Proc. SPIE 5188, 80-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Conference on Optical and Infrared Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

St. Günster, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, 'Online spectrophotometric characterization of MgF2/LaF3: fluoride multilayer coatings production,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ME9.

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, 'Application of optical broadband monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion beam sputtering,' presented at the Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson, Ariz., 27 June-2 July, 2004.

Robertson, A. R.

Scharmann:, A.

J. Freisinger, H. W. Löb, and A. Scharmann: 'Rf-ion beam source RIM-10 for material processing,' Kerntechnik 51, 125-128 (1987).

Scheuer, V.

M. Tilsch, V. Scheuer, J. Staub, and T. Tschudi, 'Direct optical monitoring instrument with double detection system for the control of multilayer systems from the visible to the near infrared,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 414-422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, R. L.

Starke, K.

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Conference on Optical and Infrared Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Staub, J.

M. Tilsch, V. Scheuer, J. Staub, and T. Tschudi, 'Direct optical monitoring instrument with double detection system for the control of multilayer systems from the visible to the near infrared,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 414-422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, B. T.

Tilsch, M.

M. Tilsch, V. Scheuer, J. Staub, and T. Tschudi, 'Direct optical monitoring instrument with double detection system for the control of multilayer systems from the visible to the near infrared,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 414-422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

M. Tilsch, V. Scheuer, J. Staub, and T. Tschudi, 'Direct optical monitoring instrument with double detection system for the control of multilayer systems from the visible to the near infrared,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 414-422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Milligen, F. J.

Vidal, B.

Zwinkels, J. C. M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Opt. (4)

Kerntechnik (1)

J. Freisinger, H. W. Löb, and A. Scharmann: 'Rf-ion beam source RIM-10 for material processing,' Kerntechnik 51, 125-128 (1987).

Proc SPIE (1)

H. H. Bauer and E. Nüssler, 'In-situ optical multichannel spectrometer system,' Proc SPIE 2253, 423-431 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

M. Tilsch, V. Scheuer, J. Staub, and T. Tschudi, 'Direct optical monitoring instrument with double detection system for the control of multilayer systems from the visible to the near infrared,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 414-422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, and K.-H Müller, 'In-situ optical monitoring of thin film deposition,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 10-15 (1988).

G. Emiliani, A. Piegari, and E. Masetti, 'Fast scan spectrometer for monitoring of thin film optical properties,' Proc. SPIE 1012, 35-46 (1988).

K. Starke, T. Groß, and D. Ristau, 'Rapid prototyping of optical thin film filters,' in Conference on Optical and Infrared Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 4094, 83-92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lappschies, T. Groß, H. Ehlers, and D. Ristau, 'Broadband optical monitoring for the deposition of complex coatings,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advances in Optical Thin Films, Proc. SPIE 5250, 637-645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau and St. Günster, 'Optimization of optical coatings for the UV/VUV-range,' in Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies,Proc. SPIE 5188, 80-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spektrum: Thin Film Design Software. (1)

M. Dieckmann, Spektrum: Thin Film Design Software. 1990-2005.

Other (5)

SyrusPro and APSPro are registered trade marks of Leybold Optics GmbH, Alzenau, Germany.

Product of Leybold Optics GmbH, Alzenau, Germany.

J. A. Dobrowolski, has presented papers at OSA conferences on optical interference coatings in 1995, 1998, 2001 and 2004.

M. Lappschies, B. Görtz, and D. Ristau, 'Application of optical broadband monitoring to quasi-rugate filters by ion beam sputtering,' presented at the Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Tucson, Ariz., 27 June-2 July, 2004.

St. Günster, P. Kadkhoda, and D. Ristau, 'Online spectrophotometric characterization of MgF2/LaF3: fluoride multilayer coatings production,' in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ME9.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Assignment of the spectrophotometers to the wavelength channels in the optical broadband monitoring system. For an adaptation of the individual signal levels, additional attenuators are installed in each wavelength channel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In situ spectra of a high-reflecting stack for the wavelength 157 nm. The solid black curve in the upper part of the diagram depicts the substrate spectrum before deposition. A slight shift can be observed for the spectrum of the mirror after the cooling-down cycle (gray curve) in comparison to the spectrum directly after deposition (black curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Development of the spectra for the venting cycle of a HR system (fluoride materials, design for 175 nm at normal incidence) after deposition. The two spectra covering the entire depicted spectral range correspond to the situation after the cool-down cycle (black) and a second evacuation after venting (gray), respectively. As a consequence of the atmospheric absorption in the depicted spectral range, the spectra recorded during the venting cycle start at different wavelength positions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of online spectra for a broadband antireflective-coating BBAR 1000–2500 nm (eight layers of TiO2∕SiO2, total thickness, 826 nm) directly after production (in situ hot), after cool-down and venting cycles (in situ cold) recorded by the broadband optical monitor between 580 and 1050 nm, and ex situ measured with a commercial photometer (Lambda 19, Perkin-Elmer). The insert illustrates the spectral characteristics of the layer system for the entire spectral region of interest.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Long-pass filter of the material combination TiO2∕SiO2 produced on the basis of a plasma-assisted process with the Advanced Plasma Source (APSPro) in a Leybold SyrusPro 1100 deposition plant. Comparison of the design curve to the spectrum of the produced system measured ex situ in a commercial photometer (Lambda 19, Perkin-Elmer).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples for layer systems deposited with the described IBS concept. (a) Double chirped mirror for 800 nm (solid curve, design; dash–dot, produced coating). (b) Nonpolarizing edge filter (solid curve, design; dash–dot, produced coating). For the ex situ transmittance measurements a commercial spectrophotometer (Lambda 19, Perkin-Elmer) was employed.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Considered Combinations of Deposition Processes and Online Spectrophotometers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Technical Features and Deposition Materials of the Employed Processes

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