Abstract

A new deposition-rate-control and electron-beam-gun (e-gun) strategy was developed that significantly reduces the growth-rate variations for e-beam-deposited SiO2 coatings. The resulting improvements in optical performance are evaluated for multilayer bandpass filters. The adverse effect of uneven silica-source depletion on coating spectral performances during long deposition runs is discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Umrath, 'Fundamentals of vacuum technology,' in Instrumentation Catalog 2000-2001, (INFICON, 2000), pp. 125-132.
  2. M. Gevelber, B. Xu, D. Smith, J. Oliver, and J. Howe, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings: the role of arcing and controller tuning,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004), pp. 395-401.
  3. M. Gevelber, B. Xu, N. Duanmu, and D. Smith, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 305-310.
  4. J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, 'Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 39th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.
  5. R. Chow and N. Tsujimoto, 'Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system,' Appl. Opt. 35, 5095-5101 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Blaise, J.

J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, 'Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 39th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.

Chow, R.

Duanmu, N.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, N. Duanmu, and D. Smith, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 305-310.

Gevelber, M.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, N. Duanmu, and D. Smith, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 305-310.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, D. Smith, J. Oliver, and J. Howe, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings: the role of arcing and controller tuning,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004), pp. 395-401.

Gogol, C.

J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, 'Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 39th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.

Howe, J.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, D. Smith, J. Oliver, and J. Howe, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings: the role of arcing and controller tuning,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004), pp. 395-401.

Kushneir, J.

J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, 'Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 39th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.

Oliver, J.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, D. Smith, J. Oliver, and J. Howe, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings: the role of arcing and controller tuning,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004), pp. 395-401.

Smith, D.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, D. Smith, J. Oliver, and J. Howe, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings: the role of arcing and controller tuning,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004), pp. 395-401.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, N. Duanmu, and D. Smith, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 305-310.

Tsujimoto, N.

Umrath, W.

W. Umrath, 'Fundamentals of vacuum technology,' in Instrumentation Catalog 2000-2001, (INFICON, 2000), pp. 125-132.

Xu, B.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, N. Duanmu, and D. Smith, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 305-310.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, D. Smith, J. Oliver, and J. Howe, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings: the role of arcing and controller tuning,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004), pp. 395-401.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (4)

W. Umrath, 'Fundamentals of vacuum technology,' in Instrumentation Catalog 2000-2001, (INFICON, 2000), pp. 125-132.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, D. Smith, J. Oliver, and J. Howe, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings: the role of arcing and controller tuning,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004), pp. 395-401.

M. Gevelber, B. Xu, N. Duanmu, and D. Smith, 'Improving rate control in electron-beam evaporated optical coatings,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2003), pp. 305-310.

J. Kushneir, C. Gogol, and J. Blaise, 'Reducing process variation through multiple point crystal sensor monitoring,' in the Society of Vacuum Coaters 39th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, 1996), pp. 19-23.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Deposition-rate-control performance of (a) non-PID autotuning (Inficon) and (b) BU control (set point, 5 Å∕s).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Deposition-rate-control performance of (a) MFG tuning and (b) BU tuning (set point, 5.3 Å∕s).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of arcing: open-loop SiO2 deposition showing rate variations correlated to frequent arcs (constant power setting, 15%; high voltage, −8 kV).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the control performance for a conventional e-gun (left) and the VPT antiarcing scheme (right). Both are under Inficon proportional-integral (PI) integral of time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE) tuning at a 5 Å∕s set point.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical performance comparison of two filters made with the original control approach (dashed-dotted curve) and the improved control approach (solid curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface-scan profile of samples with (a) the original control and (b) the improved BU control. Horizontal resolution, 0.01 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral transmittance of HR coatings at 1054 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized SiO2 layer thickness of typical HR coating runs.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Depleted silica-source surface radial scans.

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