Abstract

Effects of thermal annealing at 400 °C on the optical, structural, and chemical properties of TiO2 single-layer, MgF2 single-layer, and TiO2/MgF2 narrow-bandpass filters deposited by conventional electron-beam evaporation (CE) and plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD) were investigated. In the case of TiO2 films, the results show that the annealing of both CE and PIAD TiO2 films increases the refractive index slightly and the extinction coefficient and surface roughness greatly. Annealing decreases the thickness of CE TiO2 films drastically, whereas it does not vary that of PIAD TiO2 films. For PIAD MgF2 films, annealing increases the refractive index and decreases the extinction coefficient drastically. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggests that an increase in the refractive index and a decrease in the extinction coefficient for PIAD MgF2 films after annealing may be related to the enhanced concentration of MgO in the annealed PIAD MgF2 films and the changes in the chemical bonding states of Mg2p, F1s, and O1s. It is found that (TiO2/MgF2) multilayer filters, consisting of PIAD TiO2 and CE MgF2 films, are as deposited without microcracks and are also thermally stable after annealing.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, 1984).
  2. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), p. 418.
  3. W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Fu, G. Atanassov, Y. S. Dai, F. H. Tan, and Z. Q. Mo, 'Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 403-410 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-H. Woo, Y. B. Son, L. C. Moon, G. M. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Plasma ion-assisted deposition of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films,' presented at the Ninth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Optical Society of America, Tucson, Arizona, 27 June-2 July, 2004, paper MB8.
  6. S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films by plasma ion-assisted deposition,' J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 99-107 (2004).
  7. G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, 'Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,' Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. T. Brown, 'Center wavelength shift dependence on substrate coefficient of thermal expansion for optical thin-film interference filters deposited by ion-beam sputtering,' Appl. Opt. 43, 4506-4511 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, 'Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coating grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,' Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, 'Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 97-105 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, 'Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films,' Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.-H. Ye, N. Gu, H.-Q. Zhang, P. P. Chen, and X.-L. Tan, 'Influence of annealing on the surface topography of MgF2: an atomic force microscopic study,' Thin Solid Films 346, 230-233 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. W. Zhao, B. K. Tay, L. Huang, S. P. Lau, and J. X. Gao, 'Influence of thermal annealing on optical properties and structure of aluminum oxide thin film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc,' Opt. Mater. 27, 465-469 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Gong, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, 'Annealing effects on structure and laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 353-358 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Niederwald, 'Low-temperature deposition of optical coating using ion assistance,' Thin Solid Films 377-378, 21-26 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Kawamata, T. Shouzu, and N. Mitamura, 'K-M-S (keep-molecules sputtering) deposition of optical MgF2 thin films,' Vacuum 51, 559-564 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S.-H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Influence of Ar ion-beam assistance and annealing temperatures on properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,' Thin Solid Films 475, 155-159 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Mardare, 'Optical constants of heat-treated TiO2 thin films,' Mater. Sci. Eng. B 95, 83-87 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Cardenas and S. Sjoberg, 'Investigation of the titanium dioxide-aqueous solution interface using XPS and cryogenics,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 1104-1108 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Siokou, D. Kefalas, and S. Ntais, 'XPS study of hydrated MgCl2 impregnated on flat SiO2/Si(100) Mo and Au substrates,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 472-477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol, and K. D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1992), pp. 213-242.
  24. D. Gäbler, S. Laux, N. Kaiser, and H. Bernitzki, 'Low stress and shift free optical coatings for ultra-high precision surface,' presented at the Eighth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Banff, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, paper MD5.

2005 (1)

S.-H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Influence of Ar ion-beam assistance and annealing temperatures on properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,' Thin Solid Films 475, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, 'Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films,' Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Zhao, B. K. Tay, L. Huang, S. P. Lau, and J. X. Gao, 'Influence of thermal annealing on optical properties and structure of aluminum oxide thin film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc,' Opt. Mater. 27, 465-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films by plasma ion-assisted deposition,' J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 99-107 (2004).

J. T. Brown, 'Center wavelength shift dependence on substrate coefficient of thermal expansion for optical thin-film interference filters deposited by ion-beam sputtering,' Appl. Opt. 43, 4506-4511 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, 'Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Gong, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, 'Annealing effects on structure and laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 353-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cardenas and S. Sjoberg, 'Investigation of the titanium dioxide-aqueous solution interface using XPS and cryogenics,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 1104-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Siokou, D. Kefalas, and S. Ntais, 'XPS study of hydrated MgCl2 impregnated on flat SiO2/Si(100) Mo and Au substrates,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 472-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Mardare, 'Optical constants of heat-treated TiO2 thin films,' Mater. Sci. Eng. B 95, 83-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, 'Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coating grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,' Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Niederwald, 'Low-temperature deposition of optical coating using ion assistance,' Thin Solid Films 377-378, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y.-H. Ye, N. Gu, H.-Q. Zhang, P. P. Chen, and X.-L. Tan, 'Influence of annealing on the surface topography of MgF2: an atomic force microscopic study,' Thin Solid Films 346, 230-233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, 'Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,' Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Kawamata, T. Shouzu, and N. Mitamura, 'K-M-S (keep-molecules sputtering) deposition of optical MgF2 thin films,' Vacuum 51, 559-564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. K. Fu, G. Atanassov, Y. S. Dai, F. H. Tan, and Z. Q. Mo, 'Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 403-410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atanassov, G.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, 'Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,' Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Fu, G. Atanassov, Y. S. Dai, F. H. Tan, and Z. Q. Mo, 'Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 403-410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H. K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernitzki, H.

D. Gäbler, S. Laux, N. Kaiser, and H. Bernitzki, 'Low stress and shift free optical coatings for ultra-high precision surface,' presented at the Eighth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Banff, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, paper MD5.

Bomben, K. D.

J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol, and K. D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1992), pp. 213-242.

Brett, M. J.

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, 'Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films,' Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. T.

Cardenas, J.

J. Cardenas and S. Sjoberg, 'Investigation of the titanium dioxide-aqueous solution interface using XPS and cryogenics,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 1104-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. P.

Y.-H. Ye, N. Gu, H.-Q. Zhang, P. P. Chen, and X.-L. Tan, 'Influence of annealing on the surface topography of MgF2: an atomic force microscopic study,' Thin Solid Films 346, 230-233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colgan, M. J.

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, 'Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films,' Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. S.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, 'Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,' Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Fu, G. Atanassov, Y. S. Dai, F. H. Tan, and Z. Q. Mo, 'Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 403-410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Djurfors, B.

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, 'Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films,' Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Gong, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, 'Annealing effects on structure and laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 353-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J. K.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, 'Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,' Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Fu, G. Atanassov, Y. S. Dai, F. H. Tan, and Z. Q. Mo, 'Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 403-410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gäbler, D.

D. Gäbler, S. Laux, N. Kaiser, and H. Bernitzki, 'Low stress and shift free optical coatings for ultra-high precision surface,' presented at the Eighth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Banff, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, paper MD5.

Gao, J. X.

Z. W. Zhao, B. K. Tay, L. Huang, S. P. Lau, and J. X. Gao, 'Influence of thermal annealing on optical properties and structure of aluminum oxide thin film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc,' Opt. Mater. 27, 465-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H.

Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Gong, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, 'Annealing effects on structure and laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 353-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, N.

Y.-H. Ye, N. Gu, H.-Q. Zhang, P. P. Chen, and X.-L. Tan, 'Influence of annealing on the surface topography of MgF2: an atomic force microscopic study,' Thin Solid Films 346, 230-233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Honggang, F.

J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, 'Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Z. W. Zhao, B. K. Tay, L. Huang, S. P. Lau, and J. X. Gao, 'Influence of thermal annealing on optical properties and structure of aluminum oxide thin film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc,' Opt. Mater. 27, 465-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

S.-H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Influence of Ar ion-beam assistance and annealing temperatures on properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,' Thin Solid Films 475, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films by plasma ion-assisted deposition,' J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 99-107 (2004).

S.-H. Woo, Y. B. Son, L. C. Moon, G. M. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Plasma ion-assisted deposition of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films,' presented at the Ninth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Optical Society of America, Tucson, Arizona, 27 June-2 July, 2004, paper MB8.

Ito, T.

N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ivey, D. G.

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, 'Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films,' Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D.

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, 'Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coating grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,' Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeoung, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jo, S. J.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

D. Gäbler, S. Laux, N. Kaiser, and H. Bernitzki, 'Low stress and shift free optical coatings for ultra-high precision surface,' presented at the Eighth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Banff, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, paper MD5.

Kang, G. M.

S.-H. Woo, Y. B. Son, L. C. Moon, G. M. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Plasma ion-assisted deposition of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films,' presented at the Ninth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Optical Society of America, Tucson, Arizona, 27 June-2 July, 2004, paper MB8.

Kawamata, K.

K. Kawamata, T. Shouzu, and N. Mitamura, 'K-M-S (keep-molecules sputtering) deposition of optical MgF2 thin films,' Vacuum 51, 559-564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kefalas, D.

A. Siokou, D. Kefalas, and S. Ntais, 'XPS study of hydrated MgCl2 impregnated on flat SiO2/Si(100) Mo and Au substrates,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 472-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Influence of Ar ion-beam assistance and annealing temperatures on properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,' Thin Solid Films 475, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films by plasma ion-assisted deposition,' J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 99-107 (2004).

Kogoma, M.

N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

Z. W. Zhao, B. K. Tay, L. Huang, S. P. Lau, and J. X. Gao, 'Influence of thermal annealing on optical properties and structure of aluminum oxide thin film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc,' Opt. Mater. 27, 465-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laux, S.

D. Gäbler, S. Laux, N. Kaiser, and H. Bernitzki, 'Low stress and shift free optical coatings for ultra-high precision surface,' presented at the Eighth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Banff, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, paper MD5.

Lee, S. J.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liqiang, J.

J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), p. 418.

Mardare, D.

D. Mardare, 'Optical constants of heat-treated TiO2 thin films,' Mater. Sci. Eng. B 95, 83-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masubuchi, N.

N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitamura, N.

K. Kawamata, T. Shouzu, and N. Mitamura, 'K-M-S (keep-molecules sputtering) deposition of optical MgF2 thin films,' Vacuum 51, 559-564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mo, Z. Q.

J. K. Fu, G. Atanassov, Y. S. Dai, F. H. Tan, and Z. Q. Mo, 'Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 403-410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, L. C.

S.-H. Woo, Y. B. Son, L. C. Moon, G. M. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Plasma ion-assisted deposition of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films,' presented at the Ninth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Optical Society of America, Tucson, Arizona, 27 June-2 July, 2004, paper MB8.

Mori, N.

N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moulder, J. F.

J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol, and K. D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1992), pp. 213-242.

Niederwald, H.

H. Niederwald, 'Low-temperature deposition of optical coating using ion assistance,' Thin Solid Films 377-378, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ntais, S.

A. Siokou, D. Kefalas, and S. Ntais, 'XPS study of hydrated MgCl2 impregnated on flat SiO2/Si(100) Mo and Au substrates,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 472-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ooki, S.

N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peiro, F.

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, 'Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coating grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,' Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, 1984).

Quesnel, E.

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, 'Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coating grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,' Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, 'Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coating grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,' Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Gong, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, 'Annealing effects on structure and laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 353-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shouzu, T.

K. Kawamata, T. Shouzu, and N. Mitamura, 'K-M-S (keep-molecules sputtering) deposition of optical MgF2 thin films,' Vacuum 51, 559-564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siokou, A.

A. Siokou, D. Kefalas, and S. Ntais, 'XPS study of hydrated MgCl2 impregnated on flat SiO2/Si(100) Mo and Au substrates,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 472-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sjoberg, S.

J. Cardenas and S. Sjoberg, 'Investigation of the titanium dioxide-aqueous solution interface using XPS and cryogenics,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 1104-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sobol, P. E.

J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol, and K. D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1992), pp. 213-242.

Son, Y. B.

S.-H. Woo, Y. B. Son, L. C. Moon, G. M. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Plasma ion-assisted deposition of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films,' presented at the Ninth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Optical Society of America, Tucson, Arizona, 27 June-2 July, 2004, paper MB8.

Song, K. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stickle, W. F.

J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol, and K. D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1992), pp. 213-242.

Tan, F. H.

J. K. Fu, G. Atanassov, Y. S. Dai, F. H. Tan, and Z. Q. Mo, 'Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 403-410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tan, X.-L.

Y.-H. Ye, N. Gu, H.-Q. Zhang, P. P. Chen, and X.-L. Tan, 'Influence of annealing on the surface topography of MgF2: an atomic force microscopic study,' Thin Solid Films 346, 230-233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tannaka, A.

N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

Z. W. Zhao, B. K. Tay, L. Huang, S. P. Lau, and J. X. Gao, 'Influence of thermal annealing on optical properties and structure of aluminum oxide thin film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc,' Opt. Mater. 27, 465-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turlo, J.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, 'Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,' Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Gong, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, 'Annealing effects on structure and laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 353-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weimin, C.

J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S.-H.

S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films by plasma ion-assisted deposition,' J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 99-107 (2004).

S.-H. Woo, Y. B. Son, L. C. Moon, G. M. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Plasma ion-assisted deposition of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films,' presented at the Ninth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Optical Society of America, Tucson, Arizona, 27 June-2 July, 2004, paper MB8.

Wu, M.-S.

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, 'Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiaojun, S.

J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yaoguo, D.

J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ye, N. Gu, H.-Q. Zhang, P. P. Chen, and X.-L. Tan, 'Influence of annealing on the surface topography of MgF2: an atomic force microscopic study,' Thin Solid Films 346, 230-233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, 'Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.-Q.

Y.-H. Ye, N. Gu, H.-Q. Zhang, P. P. Chen, and X.-L. Tan, 'Influence of annealing on the surface topography of MgF2: an atomic force microscopic study,' Thin Solid Films 346, 230-233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, 'Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Gong, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, 'Annealing effects on structure and laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 353-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z. W.

Z. W. Zhao, B. K. Tay, L. Huang, S. P. Lau, and J. X. Gao, 'Influence of thermal annealing on optical properties and structure of aluminum oxide thin film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc,' Opt. Mater. 27, 465-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, D.-M.

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, 'Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zili, X.

J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

Y.-Q. Hou, D.-M. Zhuang, G. Zhang, M. Zhao, and M.-S. Wu, 'Influence of annealing temperature on the properties of titanium oxide thin film,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 218, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Gong, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, 'Annealing effects on structure and laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5/SiO2 dielectric mirrors,' Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 353-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Kim, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films by plasma ion-assisted deposition,' J. Korean Phys. Soc. 45, 99-107 (2004).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. K. Fu, G. Atanassov, Y. S. Dai, F. H. Tan, and Z. Q. Mo, 'Single films and heat mirrors produced by plasma ion assisted deposition,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 403-410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

J. Liqiang, S. Xiaojun, C. Weimin, X. Zili, D. Yaoguo, and F. Honggang, 'The preparation and characterization of nanoparticle TiO2-Ti films and their photocatalytic activity,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 615-623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

D. Mardare, 'Optical constants of heat-treated TiO2 thin films,' Mater. Sci. Eng. B 95, 83-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

Z. W. Zhao, B. K. Tay, L. Huang, S. P. Lau, and J. X. Gao, 'Influence of thermal annealing on optical properties and structure of aluminum oxide thin film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc,' Opt. Mater. 27, 465-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (2)

J. Cardenas and S. Sjoberg, 'Investigation of the titanium dioxide-aqueous solution interface using XPS and cryogenics,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 1104-1108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Siokou, D. Kefalas, and S. Ntais, 'XPS study of hydrated MgCl2 impregnated on flat SiO2/Si(100) Mo and Au substrates,' Surf. Sci. 532-535, 472-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (8)

S.-H. Kim and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Influence of Ar ion-beam assistance and annealing temperatures on properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,' Thin Solid Films 475, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeoung, S. H. Choi, S. J. Jo, H. K. Baik, S. J. Lee, and K. M. Song, 'Optical properties and microstructure of CeO2-SiO2 composite thin films,' Thin Solid Films 468, 28-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Niederwald, 'Low-temperature deposition of optical coating using ion assistance,' Thin Solid Films 377-378, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Mori, S. Ooki, N. Masubuchi, A. Tannaka, M. Kogoma, and T. Ito, 'Effects of postannealing in ozone environment on opto-electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 thin films,' Thin Solid Films 411, 6-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Colgan, B. Djurfors, D. G. Ivey, and M. J. Brett, 'Effects of annealing on titanium dioxide structured films,' Thin Solid Films 466, 92-96 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Ye, N. Gu, H.-Q. Zhang, P. P. Chen, and X.-L. Tan, 'Influence of annealing on the surface topography of MgF2: an atomic force microscopic study,' Thin Solid Films 346, 230-233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, 'Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition,' Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and D. Ristau, 'Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coating grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,' Thin Solid Films 360, 133-138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

K. Kawamata, T. Shouzu, and N. Mitamura, 'K-M-S (keep-molecules sputtering) deposition of optical MgF2 thin films,' Vacuum 51, 559-564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S.-H. Woo, Y. B. Son, L. C. Moon, G. M. Kang, and C. K. Hwangbo, 'Plasma ion-assisted deposition of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films,' presented at the Ninth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Optical Society of America, Tucson, Arizona, 27 June-2 July, 2004, paper MB8.

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, 1984).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics, 2001), p. 418.

J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol, and K. D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1992), pp. 213-242.

D. Gäbler, S. Laux, N. Kaiser, and H. Bernitzki, 'Low stress and shift free optical coatings for ultra-high precision surface,' presented at the Eighth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings, Banff, Canada, 15-20 July, 2001, paper MD5.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance spectra of the as-deposited and annealed TiO 2 films: (a) TiO 2 film deposited by CE and (b) TiO 2 films deposited by PIAD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance spectra of the as-deposited and annealed MgF 2 films: (a) MgF 2 films deposited by CE and (b) MgF 2 films deposited by PIAD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index and extinction coefficient of the as-deposited and annealed TiO 2 and MgF2 films at 550 nm : (a) TiO 2 films and (b) MgF 2 films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XRD patterns of the as-deposited and annealed TiO 2 and MgF 2 films: (a) TiO 2 films and (b) MgF 2 films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XPS spectra of the as-deposited and annealed MgF 2 films: (a) Mg 2 p peak and (b) F 1 s peak.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

XPS O 1 s spectra of the as-deposited and annealed MgF 2 films: (a) as-deposited CE MgF 2 film, (b) annealed CE MgF 2 film, (c) as-deposited PIAD MgF 2 film, (d) annealed PIAD MgF 2 film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Concentration of the as-deposited and annealed MgF 2 films: (a) MgO and (b) H 2 O .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmittance of the as-deposited and annealed NBPFs: (a) CC-NBPF, consisting of CE TiO 2 and CE MgF2 films; (b) PC-NBPF, consisting of PIAD TiO 2 and CE MgF 2 films.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface figure of the as-deposited and annealed NBPFs: (a) as-deposited CC-NBPF, consisting of CE TiO 2 and CE MgF 2 films; (b) annealed CC-NBPF; (c) as-deposited PC-NBPF, consisting of PIAD TiO 2 and CE MgF 2 films; (d) annealed PC-NBPF.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cross-sectional morphology of the as-deposited and annealed 13 layer NBPFs: (a) as-deposited CC-NBPF, consisting of CE TiO 2 and CE MgF 2 films; (b) annealed CC-NBPF; (c) as-deposited PC-NBPF, consisting of PIAD TiO 2 and CE MgF 2 films; (d) annealed PC-NBPF.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Parameters for TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Constants a and Physical Thickness of As-Deposited and Annealed TiO2 and MgF2 Films Deposited at 550 nm by CE and PIAD

Tables Icon

Table 3 Crystalline Size and Surface Roughness of As-Deposited and Annealed TiO2 and MgF2 Thin Films Deposited by CE and PIAD

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