Abstract

The optogeometric properties of various sensitive thin films involved in gas sensing applications are investigated by using the m-line technique and atomic force microscopy. Variations of these optical properties are studied under butane and ozone exposure.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Meixner and U. Lampe, 'Metal oxide sensors,' Sens. Actuators B 33,198-202 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).
  3. C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Gentry and T. A. Jones, 'The role of catalysis in solid-state gas sensors,' Sens. Actuators 10, 320-324 (1986).
  5. S. Monneret, 'Coupleur à prisme à deux faisceaux pour la caractérisation d'effets non linéaires thermiques dans les couches minces,' Ph.D. dissertation (Université Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France, 1996).
  6. L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Prieto, A. Llobera, D. Gimenez, C. Domengez, A. Calle, and M. Lechuga, 'Design and analysis of silicon antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides for evanescent field sensor,' J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 966-972 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantôme, and F. Flory, 'm-lines technique: prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguides,' J. Opt. A. 2, 188-195 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. See 'Hazardous gas data,' www.intlsensor.com.
  11. W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantôme, and F. Flory, 'm-lines technique: prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguides,' J. Opt. A. 2, 188-195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, A. Llobera, D. Gimenez, C. Domengez, A. Calle, and M. Lechuga, 'Design and analysis of silicon antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides for evanescent field sensor,' J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 966-972 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Meixner and U. Lampe, 'Metal oxide sensors,' Sens. Actuators B 33,198-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. J. Gentry and T. A. Jones, 'The role of catalysis in solid-state gas sensors,' Sens. Actuators 10, 320-324 (1986).

Calle, A.

Chastaing, E.

C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dejous, C.

C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Domengez, C.

Douguchi, Y.

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

Drouard, E.

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantôme, and F. Flory, 'm-lines technique: prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguides,' J. Opt. A. 2, 188-195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, J.

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

Gentry, S. J.

S. J. Gentry and T. A. Jones, 'The role of catalysis in solid-state gas sensors,' Sens. Actuators 10, 320-324 (1986).

Gimenez, D.

Hu, W. S.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huguet-Chantôme, P.

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantôme, and F. Flory, 'm-lines technique: prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguides,' J. Opt. A. 2, 188-195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jelinek, M.

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Z. M.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. A.

S. J. Gentry and T. A. Jones, 'The role of catalysis in solid-state gas sensors,' Sens. Actuators 10, 320-324 (1986).

Kinbara, A.

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

Kusano, E.

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

Lampe, U.

H. Meixner and U. Lampe, 'Metal oxide sensors,' Sens. Actuators B 33,198-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lanc?ok, J.

M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lancok, J.

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, M.

Liu, Z. G.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Llobera, A.

Mazingue, T.

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meixner, H.

H. Meixner and U. Lampe, 'Metal oxide sensors,' Sens. Actuators B 33,198-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Monneret, S.

S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantôme, and F. Flory, 'm-lines technique: prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguides,' J. Opt. A. 2, 188-195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Monneret, 'Coupleur à prisme à deux faisceaux pour la caractérisation d'effets non linéaires thermiques dans les couches minces,' Ph.D. dissertation (Université Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France, 1996).

Mukai, T.

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

Myslik, V.

M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nanto, H.

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

Pistre, J.

C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Planade, R.

C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, F.

Rebiere, D.

C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. J.

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vrn?ata, M.

M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vyslouz?il, F.

M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. Q.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, Y.

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

Zemek, J.

M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. N.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A. (1)

S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantôme, and F. Flory, 'm-lines technique: prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguides,' J. Opt. A. 2, 188-195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, 'Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 853-857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

H. Nanto, Y. Yokoi, T. Mukai, J. Fujioka, E. Kusano, A. Kinbara, and Y. Douguchi, 'Novel gas sensor using polymer-film-coated quartz resonator for environmental monitoring,' Mater. Sci. Eng. C12, 43-48 (2000).

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Escoubas, P. Huguet-Chantôme, M. Jelinek, F. Flory, E. Drouard, J. Lancok, J. J. Simon, and T. Mazingue, 'Optical and electro-optical properties of pulsed laser deposited PLZT thin films,' Opt. Eng. 42, 3579-3584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (4)

M. Vrn̆ata, V. Myslik, F. Vyslouz̆il, M. Jelinek, J. Lanc̆ok, and J. Zemek, 'The response of tin acetyl acetylacetonate and tin dioxide-based gas sensors to hydrogen and alcohol vapours,' Sens. Actuators B 71, 24-30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Zimmermann, D. Rebiere, C. Dejous, J. Pistre, E. Chastaing, and R. Planade, 'A lone-wave gas sensor coated with functionalized polysiloxane for sensing organophosphorus compounds,' Sens. Actuators B 76, 86-94 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Gentry and T. A. Jones, 'The role of catalysis in solid-state gas sensors,' Sens. Actuators 10, 320-324 (1986).

H. Meixner and U. Lampe, 'Metal oxide sensors,' Sens. Actuators B 33,198-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Monneret, 'Coupleur à prisme à deux faisceaux pour la caractérisation d'effets non linéaires thermiques dans les couches minces,' Ph.D. dissertation (Université Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France, 1996).

See 'Hazardous gas data,' www.intlsensor.com.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Totally reflecting prism coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Testing facility for waveguide-coupling interrogation schemes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ZN28 surface morphology.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SNPDQ29 surface morphology.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Zn23114 surface morphology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ti150903 surface morphology.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

ZNIET surface morphology.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sensitivity of ZO27 to different concentrations of butane diluted in nitrogen.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sensitivity of Pd-doped SnPdQ27 to different concentrations of butane diluted in nitrogen.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sensitivity of Zn23114 to different concentrations of butane diluted in nitrogen.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sensitivity of TiO2 to different concentrations of butane diluted in nitrogen.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Sensitivity of ZNIET to different concentrations of butane diluted in nitrogen.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Sensitivity of ZO27 to different concentrations of butane diluted in air.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Shown are the m-line profiles of ZnO films. For ZO27, the signal variation is between Vmin = 650 mV and Vmax = 850 mV (see Fig. 8). The corresponding linear shift is 0.1 mm; Δθ s = 1.33 × 10−3 rad = 0.0076°.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Parameters of PLD-Deposited Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Roughness of Thin Films Measured by AFM

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optical Characterizations of Thin Films by the m -Line Technique

Tables Icon

Table 4 Variation in the Effective Index of ZnO Films

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r o t E ( ω ) = μ 0 H ( ω ) t ,
r o t H ( ω ) = D ( ω ) t + J ( ω ) ,
J ( ω ) = σ E ( ω ) ,
r o t E ( ω ) = j ω μ 0 H ( ω ) ,
r o t H ( ω ) = j ω D ( ω ) + σ E ( ω ) .
D ( ω ) = ϵ 0 ϵ r ( ω ) E ( ω ) ,
r o t H ( ω ) = j ω ϵ 0 ( ϵ r + j σ ω ϵ 0 ) E ( ω )
r o t H ( ω ) = j ω ϵ 0 n 2 E ( ω ) ,
n 2 = ϵ r = ϵ r + j σ ω ϵ 0 .
n 2 n 2 = ϵ r ,
2 × n × n = σ ω ϵ 0 .
n = { ϵ r 2 [ 1 + 1 + ( σ 2 ϵ 0 ϵ r ω ) 2 ] } 1 / 2 ,
n = σ / 2 ϵ 0 ω { ϵ r 2 [ 1 + 1 + ( σ 2 ϵ 0 ϵ r ω ) 2 ] } 1 / 2 .
N = n p   sin [ arcsin ( sin θ s n p ) + A p ] ,
Δ N = n p   cos ( θ s ) cos [ arcsin ( sin θ s n p ) + A p ] ( n p     2 sin 2 θ s ) 1 / 2 Δ θ s .
C = D m D m + D N 2 C m ,

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