Abstract

Films with specific nanoroughness were designed by “virtual coating” to yield ultrahydrophobicity while the light scatter remained below an application-relevant threshold. Examples of coating experiments demonstrate the realization of predicted properties.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Wolfram and R. Faust, Wetting, Spreading and Adhesion, J. F. Padday, ed. (Academic, London, 1978), p. 213.
  2. A. Marmur, 'Wetting on hydrophobic rough surfaces: to be heterogeneous or not to be?,' Langmuir 19, 8343-8348 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Marmur, 'The lotus effect: superhydrophobicity and metastability,' Langmuir 20, 3517-3519 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Duparré, M. Flemming, J. Steinert, and K. Reihs, 'Optical coatings with enhanced roughness for ultra-hydrophobic, low scatter applications,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3294-3298 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Duparré and G. Notni, 'Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,' in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily, ed., SPIE Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Paper Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213-231.
  6. J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, 'Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm,' Appl. Opt. 39, 5854-5864 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Flemming, K. Reihs, and A. Duparré, 'Characterization procedures for nanorough ultra-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled optical scatter,' in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5188, 246-253 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, 'Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings,' Appl. Opt. 40, 2190-2199 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. The films were manufactured by K. Reihs, SuNyx, Leverkusen, Germany.

2004 (1)

A. Marmur, 'The lotus effect: superhydrophobicity and metastability,' Langmuir 20, 3517-3519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Flemming, K. Reihs, and A. Duparré, 'Characterization procedures for nanorough ultra-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled optical scatter,' in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5188, 246-253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Marmur, 'Wetting on hydrophobic rough surfaces: to be heterogeneous or not to be?,' Langmuir 19, 8343-8348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Duparré, A.

M. Flemming, K. Reihs, and A. Duparré, 'Characterization procedures for nanorough ultra-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled optical scatter,' in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5188, 246-253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, M. Flemming, J. Steinert, and K. Reihs, 'Optical coatings with enhanced roughness for ultra-hydrophobic, low scatter applications,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3294-3298 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, 'Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings,' Appl. Opt. 40, 2190-2199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, and E. Quesnel, 'Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm,' Appl. Opt. 39, 5854-5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré and G. Notni, 'Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,' in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily, ed., SPIE Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Paper Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213-231.

Faust, R.

E. Wolfram and R. Faust, Wetting, Spreading and Adhesion, J. F. Padday, ed. (Academic, London, 1978), p. 213.

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Flemming, M.

M. Flemming, K. Reihs, and A. Duparré, 'Characterization procedures for nanorough ultra-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled optical scatter,' in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5188, 246-253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, M. Flemming, J. Steinert, and K. Reihs, 'Optical coatings with enhanced roughness for ultra-hydrophobic, low scatter applications,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3294-3298 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marmur, A.

A. Marmur, 'The lotus effect: superhydrophobicity and metastability,' Langmuir 20, 3517-3519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Marmur, 'Wetting on hydrophobic rough surfaces: to be heterogeneous or not to be?,' Langmuir 19, 8343-8348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Notni, G.

A. Duparré and G. Notni, 'Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,' in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily, ed., SPIE Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Paper Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213-231.

Quesnel, E.

Reihs, K.

M. Flemming, K. Reihs, and A. Duparré, 'Characterization procedures for nanorough ultra-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled optical scatter,' in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5188, 246-253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, M. Flemming, J. Steinert, and K. Reihs, 'Optical coatings with enhanced roughness for ultra-hydrophobic, low scatter applications,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3294-3298 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinert, J.

Wolfram, E.

E. Wolfram and R. Faust, Wetting, Spreading and Adhesion, J. F. Padday, ed. (Academic, London, 1978), p. 213.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Langmuir (2)

A. Marmur, 'Wetting on hydrophobic rough surfaces: to be heterogeneous or not to be?,' Langmuir 19, 8343-8348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Marmur, 'The lotus effect: superhydrophobicity and metastability,' Langmuir 20, 3517-3519 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Flemming, K. Reihs, and A. Duparré, 'Characterization procedures for nanorough ultra-hydrophobic surfaces with controlled optical scatter,' in Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies, A. Duparré and B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5188, 246-253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

The films were manufactured by K. Reihs, SuNyx, Leverkusen, Germany.

A. Duparré and G. Notni, 'Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,' in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily, ed., SPIE Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Paper Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213-231.

E. Wolfram and R. Faust, Wetting, Spreading and Adhesion, J. F. Padday, ed. (Academic, London, 1978), p. 213.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Forward scatter ( TS f ) measurements ( λ = 514 nm ) versus visual ranking of glass samples with gradually increasing roughness.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PSD model functions: fractal model (dashed curve); ABC model with varied parameters (solid curves).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Superimposition (black curve) of the film PSD (solid gray curve) on the substrate PSD (dashed gray curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

“Virtual” coating result for a layer with λ / 2 thickness at 532 nm : decades of TS f at 532 nm separated by iso-TS lines and I ( β ) values. Framed area: subset with I ( β ) > 0.3 and TS f < 2.2 × 10 - 3 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

“Virtual” coating result for a layer with λ / 4 thickness at 532 nm : decades of TS f at 532 nm separated by iso-TS lines and I ( β ) values. Framed area: subset with I ( β ) > 0.3 and TS f < 2.2 × 10 - 3 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AFM images ( 1 μm × 1 μm ) and PSD curves for two ZrO 2 layers (deposited under different sputter conditions).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AFM image ( 1 μm × 1 μm ) of Al 2 O 3 layer (deposited by magnetron sputtering).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ultrahydrophobicity of the Al 2 O 3 coated glass wafer.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Variation Bandwidth of Thin-Film Roughness Parameters σ × τ and τ

Equations (4)

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PSD ( f ) amplitude spectrum   A ( f ) reduced amplitude spectrum  β ( f ) = A ( f ) × f logarithmically averaged reduced amplitude   I ( β ) .
PSD ABC ( f ;  A , B , C ) = A ( 1 + B 2 f 2 ) ( C + 1 ) / 2 .
σ ABC 2 = 2 π A B 2 ( C - 1 ) , τ ABC 2 = ( C - 1 ) 2 B 2 2 π 2 C .
PSD fractal ( f ;  K , n ) = K / f n + 1 .

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