Abstract

MgF2 and GdF3 materials, used for a single-layer coating at 193  nm, are deposited by a resistive-heating boat at specific substrate temperatures. Optical characteristics (transmittance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, and optical loss) and microstructures (morphology and crystalline structure) are investigated and discussed. Furthermore, MgF2 is used as a low-index material, and GdF3 is used as a high-index material for multilayer coatings. Reflectance, stress, and the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are studied. It is shown that MgF2 and GdF3 thin films, deposited on the substrate at a temperature of 300°C, obtain good quality thin films with high transmittance and little optical loss at 193  nm. For multilayer coatings, the stress mainly comes from MgF2, and the absorption comes from GdF3. Among those coatings, the sixteen-layer design, sub/(1.4L  0.6H)8∕air, shows the largest LIDT.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peirò, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, 'Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation,' Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, 'Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, 'R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,' Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, 'Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,' Superficies Vaco 9, 89-91 (1999).
  12. B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, 'Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensation of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide, and zirconium dioxide,' Fiz. Met. Metall. 28, 653 (1969).
  13. J. A. Thornton, 'Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
  14. R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, 'Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

S. Güster, D. Ristau, and S. Bosch, 'Spectrophotometric determination of absorption in the DUV/VUV spectral range for MgF2 and LaF3 thin films,' Proc. SPIE 4099, 299-310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, 'Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, 'Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,' Superficies Vaco 9, 89-91 (1999).

1996 (1)

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, 'Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, 'R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,' Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, 'Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. A. Thornton, 'Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).

1962 (1)

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, 'Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,' J. Quantum Spectrosc. 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adamik, M.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barna, P. B.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benavides, J.

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, 'Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,' Superficies Vaco 9, 89-91 (1999).

Berger, M.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, 'Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biro, R.

Bosch, S.

Carniglia, C. K.

Chaton, P.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, 'Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cook, J. G.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, 'R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,' Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Córdoba, C.

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, 'Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,' Superficies Vaco 9, 89-91 (1999).

Das, S. R.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, 'R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,' Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Demshichin, A. V.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, 'Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensation of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide, and zirconium dioxide,' Fiz. Met. Metall. 28, 653 (1969).

Dumas, L.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, 'Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Giri, A. P.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, 'Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Günster, S.

Güster, S.

S. Güster, D. Ristau, and S. Bosch, 'Spectrophotometric determination of absorption in the DUV/VUV spectral range for MgF2 and LaF3 thin films,' Proc. SPIE 4099, 299-310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hacker, E.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hart, T. T.

Hasegawa, M.

Ida, M.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, 'Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, 'Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, U.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kato, R.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, 'Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,' J. Quantum Spectrosc. 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kiriakidis, G.

Laux, S.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Mademann, U.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, E.

Matsui, E.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, 'Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,' J. Quantum Spectrosc. 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, A.

Messier, R.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, 'Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

Mitchell, D. F.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, 'R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,' Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Movchan, B. A.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, 'Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensation of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide, and zirconium dioxide,' Fiz. Met. Metall. 28, 653 (1969).

Muffato, V.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, 'Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Niisaka, S.

Otani, M.

Ouchi, C.

Paredes, O.

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, 'Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,' Superficies Vaco 9, 89-91 (1999).

Peiro, F.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, 'Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peirò, F.

Quesnel, E.

Rainer, F.

Richter, W.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Robic, J. Y.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, 'Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R. A.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, 'Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Safran, G.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saito, J.

Saito, T.

Sone, K.

Spann, J. F.

Suzuki, Y.

Taki, Y.

Y. Taki, 'Structures and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride coatings for deep ultraviolet lithography,' presented at the 7th International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes, Kanazawa, Japan, 11-13 June, 2003.

Tanaka, A.

Tikhonravov, A.

Torr, D. G.

Torr, M. R.

Uchida, Y.

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, 'Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,' J. Quantum Spectrosc. 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Weibetabrodt, P.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yousefi, G. H.

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, 'R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,' Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zukic, M.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Fiz. Met. Metall. (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, 'Study of the structure and properties of the vacuum condensation of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminium oxide, and zirconium dioxide,' Fiz. Met. Metall. 28, 653 (1969).

J. Quantum Spectrosc. (1)

Y. Uchida, R. Kato, and E. Matsui, 'Optical properties of some solids in the vacuum ultraviolet,' J. Quantum Spectrosc. 2, 589-598 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, 'Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, 'Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, 'Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques,' Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Güster, D. Ristau, and S. Bosch, 'Spectrophotometric determination of absorption in the DUV/VUV spectral range for MgF2 and LaF3 thin films,' Proc. SPIE 4099, 299-310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Superficies Vaco (1)

O. Paredes, C. Córdoba, and J. Benavides, 'Optical constants determination in thin films lead-free vitreous coatings,' Superficies Vaco 9, 89-91 (1999).

Thin Solid Films (3)

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weibetabrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, 'Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates,' Thin Solid Films 217, 7-10 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, 'Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates,' Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cook, G. H. Yousefi, S. R. Das, and D. F. Mitchell, 'R.F. magnetron deposition of calcium fluoride,' Thin Solid Films 217, 87-90 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. A. Thornton, 'Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).

Y. Taki, 'Structures and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride coatings for deep ultraviolet lithography,' presented at the 7th International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes, Kanazawa, Japan, 11-13 June, 2003.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance spectra of the substrate and of MgF2 prepared at specific substrate temperatures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance spectra of the substrate and of GdF3 prepared at specific substrate temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-section morphology of (a) sample -1M, (b) sample -4M, (c) sample -5M, (d) sample -1G, (e) sample -2G, and (f) sample -5G.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Crystalline structures of MgF2 prepared at substrate temperatures of the room, 250 ° C , and 300 ° C .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Crystalline structures of GdF3 prepared at substrate temperatures of the room, 150 ° C , and 300 ° C .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical loss, refractive index, and stress of MgF2 prepared at difference substrate temperatures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical loss, refractive index, and stress of GdF3 prepared at different substrate temperatures.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance of multilayer coatings prepared at a substrate temperature of 300 ° C .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Stress and LIDT of single-layer and multilayer coatings prepared at a substrate temperature of 300 ° C .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Electric-field intensity distributions for 193   nm of multilayer coatings.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Parameters Used to Obtain the MgF2 and GdF3 Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive Index and Extinction Coefficient of MgF2 and GdF3 Films at 193 nm

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L ( % ) = 1 T % R % .
n ( E p ) = 1 + B 0 E P + C 0 E P     2 B E P + C ,
k ( E P ) = A ( E P E g ) 2 E P     2 B E P + C ,
B 0 = 2 A ( 4 C B 2 ) 1 / 2 [ B 2 2 + E g B E g     2 + C ] ,
C 0 = 2 A ( 4 C B 2 ) 1 / 2 [ B 2 ( E g     2 + C ) 2 E g C ] .
σ = E h 2 ( 1 ν ) 6 t ( 1 R d 1 R 0 ) ,
substrate / ( L   H ) 8 / air,
substrate / ( 1.4 L   0.6 H ) 8 / air,
substrate / ( 0.6 L   1.4 H ) 8 / air .

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