Abstract

By employing a commercially available high-voltage switch in a time-gating circuit to drive a channel photomultiplier (CPM), the afterpulse rates are significantly reduced in the time window to collect fluorescence >200  ns after the pulsed laser excitation. The CPM, kept deactivated under normal conditions (normally off), is turned on immediately after the passage of the laser pulse by shifting the voltage applied to the photocathode by 150  V to collect the fluorescence. When the detection system is used as part of a laser-induced fluorescence instrument to measure atmospheric OH radicals with the photon-counting method, the background signal is reduced by more than a factor of 10 as compared with our previous case where a conventional dynode-gated photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used, while the sensitivity toward the fluorescence is almost unchanged. A detection limit as low as 2×105  radicals  cm3 or 0.008 parts per trillion by volume is achieved for OH, with an integration time of 1 min and a signal-to-noise ratio of 2, enabling sensitive detection of the important radical in the atmosphere. This system is a superior choice with higher sensitivity and cost effectiveness as compared with the gated PMTs utilizing a microchannel plate as an electron multiplier, and could also be used effectively in light detection and ranging (lidar) instruments, where a delayed scattering signal would be efficiently discriminated from afterpulses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. P. Bristow, "Suppression of afterpulsing in photomultipliers by gating the photocathode," Appl. Opt. 41, 4975-4987 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. J. Creasey, P. A. Halford-Maw, D. E. Heard, J. E. Spence, and B. J. Whitaker, "Fast photomultiplier tube gating system for photon counting applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4068-4073 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. G. Ballard, "Normally on fast-gain switch for photomultiplier tubes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1473-1475 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, and B. G. Barisas, "Normally on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifact for use in transient luminescence measurements, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454-5458 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Matsumi, M. Kono, T. Ichikawa, K. Takahashi, and Y. Kondo, "Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of tropospheric OH radicals," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 75, 711-717 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, J. Schäfer, A. Kraus, and H. Pätz, "Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8246, doi:10.1029/2001JD001393 (2003).
  8. W. J. Bloss, T. J. Gravestock, D. E. Heard, T. Ingham, G. P. Johnson, and J. D. Lee, "Application of a compact all solid-state laser system to the in situ detection of atmospheric OH, HO2, NO and IO by laser-induced fluorescence," J. Environ. Monit. 5, 21-28 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, "Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere," Chem. Rev. 103, 5163-5198 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring tropospheric HOx radicals: instrumentation and calibrations," J. Atmos. Chem. 38, 73-110 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, J. Schäfer, A. Kraus, and H. Pätz, "Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8246, doi:10.1029/2001JD001393 (2003).

W. J. Bloss, T. J. Gravestock, D. E. Heard, T. Ingham, G. P. Johnson, and J. D. Lee, "Application of a compact all solid-state laser system to the in situ detection of atmospheric OH, HO2, NO and IO by laser-induced fluorescence," J. Environ. Monit. 5, 21-28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, "Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere," Chem. Rev. 103, 5163-5198 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. Matsumi, M. Kono, T. Ichikawa, K. Takahashi, and Y. Kondo, "Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of tropospheric OH radicals," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 75, 711-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Bristow, "Suppression of afterpulsing in photomultipliers by gating the photocathode," Appl. Opt. 41, 4975-4987 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring tropospheric HOx radicals: instrumentation and calibrations," J. Atmos. Chem. 38, 73-110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. J. Creasey, P. A. Halford-Maw, D. E. Heard, J. E. Spence, and B. J. Whitaker, "Fast photomultiplier tube gating system for photon counting applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4068-4073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, and B. G. Barisas, "Normally on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifact for use in transient luminescence measurements, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454-5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. G. Ballard, "Normally on fast-gain switch for photomultiplier tubes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1473-1475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, H.

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring tropospheric HOx radicals: instrumentation and calibrations," J. Atmos. Chem. 38, 73-110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, S. G.

S. G. Ballard, "Normally on fast-gain switch for photomultiplier tubes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1473-1475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Barisas, B. G.

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, and B. G. Barisas, "Normally on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifact for use in transient luminescence measurements, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454-5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bloss, W. J.

W. J. Bloss, T. J. Gravestock, D. E. Heard, T. Ingham, G. P. Johnson, and J. D. Lee, "Application of a compact all solid-state laser system to the in situ detection of atmospheric OH, HO2, NO and IO by laser-induced fluorescence," J. Environ. Monit. 5, 21-28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bristow, M. P.

Brune, W. H.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Creasey, D. J.

D. J. Creasey, P. A. Halford-Maw, D. E. Heard, J. E. Spence, and B. J. Whitaker, "Fast photomultiplier tube gating system for photon counting applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4068-4073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, P.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faloona, I. C.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frame, C. L.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gavriloaiei, T.

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gravestock, T. J.

W. J. Bloss, T. J. Gravestock, D. E. Heard, T. Ingham, G. P. Johnson, and J. D. Lee, "Application of a compact all solid-state laser system to the in situ detection of atmospheric OH, HO2, NO and IO by laser-induced fluorescence," J. Environ. Monit. 5, 21-28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halford-Maw, P. A.

D. J. Creasey, P. A. Halford-Maw, D. E. Heard, J. E. Spence, and B. J. Whitaker, "Fast photomultiplier tube gating system for photon counting applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4068-4073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harder, H.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hazen, N. L.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heard, D. E.

D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, "Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere," Chem. Rev. 103, 5163-5198 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Bloss, T. J. Gravestock, D. E. Heard, T. Ingham, G. P. Johnson, and J. D. Lee, "Application of a compact all solid-state laser system to the in situ detection of atmospheric OH, HO2, NO and IO by laser-induced fluorescence," J. Environ. Monit. 5, 21-28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Creasey, P. A. Halford-Maw, D. E. Heard, J. E. Spence, and B. J. Whitaker, "Fast photomultiplier tube gating system for photon counting applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4068-4073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, and B. G. Barisas, "Normally on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifact for use in transient luminescence measurements, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454-5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hirokawa, J.

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring tropospheric HOx radicals: instrumentation and calibrations," J. Atmos. Chem. 38, 73-110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofzumahaus, A.

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, J. Schäfer, A. Kraus, and H. Pätz, "Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8246, doi:10.1029/2001JD001393 (2003).

Holland, F.

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, J. Schäfer, A. Kraus, and H. Pätz, "Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8246, doi:10.1029/2001JD001393 (2003).

Ichikawa, T.

Y. Matsumi, M. Kono, T. Ichikawa, K. Takahashi, and Y. Kondo, "Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of tropospheric OH radicals," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 75, 711-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ingham, T.

W. J. Bloss, T. J. Gravestock, D. E. Heard, T. Ingham, G. P. Johnson, and J. D. Lee, "Application of a compact all solid-state laser system to the in situ detection of atmospheric OH, HO2, NO and IO by laser-induced fluorescence," J. Environ. Monit. 5, 21-28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, G. P.

W. J. Bloss, T. J. Gravestock, D. E. Heard, T. Ingham, G. P. Johnson, and J. D. Lee, "Application of a compact all solid-state laser system to the in situ detection of atmospheric OH, HO2, NO and IO by laser-induced fluorescence," J. Environ. Monit. 5, 21-28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajii, Y.

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring tropospheric HOx radicals: instrumentation and calibrations," J. Atmos. Chem. 38, 73-110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanaya, Y.

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring tropospheric HOx radicals: instrumentation and calibrations," J. Atmos. Chem. 38, 73-110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kleffmann, J.

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

Y. Matsumi, M. Kono, T. Ichikawa, K. Takahashi, and Y. Kondo, "Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of tropospheric OH radicals," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 75, 711-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kono, M.

Y. Matsumi, M. Kono, T. Ichikawa, K. Takahashi, and Y. Kondo, "Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of tropospheric OH radicals," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 75, 711-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koppmann, R.

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, A.

F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, J. Schäfer, A. Kraus, and H. Pätz, "Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8246, doi:10.1029/2001JD001393 (2003).

Lee, J. D.

W. J. Bloss, T. J. Gravestock, D. E. Heard, T. Ingham, G. P. Johnson, and J. D. Lee, "Application of a compact all solid-state laser system to the in situ detection of atmospheric OH, HO2, NO and IO by laser-induced fluorescence," J. Environ. Monit. 5, 21-28 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesher, R. L.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Londo, T. R.

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, and B. G. Barisas, "Normally on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifact for use in transient luminescence measurements, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454-5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, M.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsumi, Y.

Y. Matsumi, M. Kono, T. Ichikawa, K. Takahashi, and Y. Kondo, "Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of tropospheric OH radicals," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 75, 711-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, J.

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pätz, H.

F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, J. Schäfer, A. Kraus, and H. Pätz, "Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8246, doi:10.1029/2001JD001393 (2003).

Pilling, M. J.

D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, "Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere," Chem. Rev. 103, 5163-5198 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahman, N. A.

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, and B. G. Barisas, "Normally on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifact for use in transient luminescence measurements, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454-5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, L.

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sadanaga, Y.

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring tropospheric HOx radicals: instrumentation and calibrations," J. Atmos. Chem. 38, 73-110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, J.

F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, J. Schäfer, A. Kraus, and H. Pätz, "Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8246, doi:10.1029/2001JD001393 (2003).

Schlosser, E.

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, U. K.

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, U. K. Sharma, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, "Nighttime observation of the HO2 radical by an LIF-based instrument at Oki Island, Japan, and its possible origins," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2179-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siese, M.

J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, R. Koppmann, L. Rupp, E. Schlosser, M. Siese, and A. Wahner, "Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L05818, doi:10.1029/2005GL022524 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simpas, J. B.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spence, J. E.

D. J. Creasey, P. A. Halford-Maw, D. E. Heard, J. E. Spence, and B. J. Whitaker, "Fast photomultiplier tube gating system for photon counting applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 4068-4073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

Y. Matsumi, M. Kono, T. Ichikawa, K. Takahashi, and Y. Kondo, "Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of tropospheric OH radicals," Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 75, 711-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. Ren, and W. H. Brune, "A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: characteristics and calibration," J. Atmos. Chem. 47, 139-167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wahner, A.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the LIF cell used in this study: (a) top view and (b) side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the gating circuit for the CPM. CHV-30N is a high-voltage supply provided by Perkin-Elmer Optoelectronics. A TTL (transistor-transistor logic) gate pulse is inputted to drive the high-voltage (HV) switch. In the lower left corner, two voltage diagrams under two conditions (normally off and when switched on) are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Timing chart regarding the laser pulse. From top to bottom, the timings of the TTL pulse to drive the high-voltage (HV) switch, the produced HV pulse, and the negative TTL pulse for photon counting. (b) The HV pulse is shown with an extended time window to show its slow fall off.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal profiles of the measured afterpulse rates for the three detectors. CPM (C1982P), circles; 9235QB, squares; and R2256P, triangles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diurnal variations of the OH radical concentrations observed at Rishiri Island on 23–28 September 2003. Each 10 min data point is shown, which is an average of several (typically three or four) 1 min data points.

Equations (1)

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[ OH ] min = ( S / N ) 1 m + 1 n S B G P C P t ,

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