Abstract

A novel technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements in multiple points is presented. In a multipass cavity the pump and Stokes laser beams are multiply reflected and refocused into a measurement volume with an adjustable number of separated points along a line. This optical arrangement was used in a vibrational CARS setup with planar BOXCARS phase-matching configuration. The CARS spectra from spatially separated points were recorded at different heights on a CCD camera. Measurements of temperature profiles were carried out in the burned gas zone of a premixed one-dimensional flame to demonstrate the applicability of this method for temperature measurements in high-temperature regions. The ability to measure in flames with strong density gradients was demonstrated by simultaneous measurements of Q-branch spectra of N2 and CO in a Wolfhard–Parker burner flame. Interference phenomena found in multipoint spectra are discussed, and possible solutions are proposed. Merits and limitations of the technique are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, 1988).
  2. D. A. Greenhalgh, "Quantitative CARS spectroscopy," in Advances in Non-linear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, 1988).
  3. D. A. Murphy, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, and A. C. Eckbreth, "Spatially resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy from a line across a CH4 jet," Opt. Lett. 4, 167-169 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Snow, J.-B. Zheng, and R. K. Chang, "Spatially resolved multipoint coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering from N2 and O2 flows," Opt. Lett. 8, 599-601 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. H. Stufflebeam and A. C. Eckbreth, "CARS temperature and species measurements in propellant flames," in Nonintrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo and T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell House, 1994), pp. 115-131.
  6. J. Jonuscheit, A. Thumann, M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "One-dimensional vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering thermometry," Opt. Lett. 21, 1532-1534 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Jonuscheit, A. Thumann, M. Schenk, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Accuracy and precision of single-pulse one-dimensional vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering temperature measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 3253-3260 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Bood, C. Brackmann, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, "Multipoint temperature and oxygen-concentration measurements using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 1535-1537 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kurtz, "Multipoint CARS," Appl. Opt. 28, 5206-5208 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. Löfström, "An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry," Appl. Phys. B 49, 445-453 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P.-E. Bengtsson and M. Aldén, "Soot particle measurements in premixed ethylene flames using a pulsed laser method," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 959-962 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, R. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, and R. J. Santoro, "Soot inception in a methane/air diffusion flame as characterized by detailed species profiles," Combust. Flame 62, 157-181 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames," Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, "Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air," Appl. Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, M. Bacal, and F. Hillion, "Rovibrational molecular populations and negative ions in H2 and D2 magnetic multicusp discharges," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4943-4953 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. P. Boquillon, M. Péalat, P. Bouchardy, G. Collin, P. Magre, and J. P. Taran, "Spatial averaging and multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature-measurement error," Opt. Lett. 13, 722-724 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1992 (2)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. Löfström, "An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry," Appl. Phys. B 49, 445-453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Kurtz, "Multipoint CARS," Appl. Opt. 28, 5206-5208 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

1985 (2)

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, R. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, and R. J. Santoro, "Soot inception in a methane/air diffusion flame as characterized by detailed species profiles," Combust. Flame 62, 157-181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, M. Bacal, and F. Hillion, "Rovibrational molecular populations and negative ions in H2 and D2 magnetic multicusp discharges," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4943-4953 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1979 (1)

Alden, M.

Aldén, M.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. Löfström, "An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry," Appl. Phys. B 49, 445-453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson and M. Aldén, "Soot particle measurements in premixed ethylene flames using a pulsed laser method," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 959-962 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bacal, M.

M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, M. Bacal, and F. Hillion, "Rovibrational molecular populations and negative ions in H2 and D2 magnetic multicusp discharges," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4943-4953 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, T. Seeger, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous vibrational and pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for temperature and multispecies concentration measurements demonstrated in sooting flames," Appl. Opt. 41, 564-572 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bood, C. Brackmann, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, "Multipoint temperature and oxygen-concentration measurements using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 1535-1537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. Löfström, "An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry," Appl. Phys. B 49, 445-453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson and M. Aldén, "Soot particle measurements in premixed ethylene flames using a pulsed laser method," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 959-962 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

Boquillon, J. P.

Bouchardy, P.

Brackmann, C.

Chang, R. K.

Collin, G.

Dorfman, R. C.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, R. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, and R. J. Santoro, "Soot inception in a methane/air diffusion flame as characterized by detailed species profiles," Combust. Flame 62, 157-181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

D. A. Murphy, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, and A. C. Eckbreth, "Spatially resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy from a line across a CH4 jet," Opt. Lett. 4, 167-169 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, 1988).

J. H. Stufflebeam and A. C. Eckbreth, "CARS temperature and species measurements in propellant flames," in Nonintrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo and T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell House, 1994), pp. 115-131.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

D. A. Greenhalgh, "Quantitative CARS spectroscopy," in Advances in Non-linear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, 1988).

Hillion, F.

M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, M. Bacal, and F. Hillion, "Rovibrational molecular populations and negative ions in H2 and D2 magnetic multicusp discharges," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4943-4953 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jonuscheit, J.

Kröll, S.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. Löfström, "An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry," Appl. Phys. B 49, 445-453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, A.

Leipertz, A.

Löfström, C.

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. Löfström, "An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry," Appl. Phys. B 49, 445-453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

Magre, P.

Mallard, W. G.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, R. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, and R. J. Santoro, "Soot inception in a methane/air diffusion flame as characterized by detailed species profiles," Combust. Flame 62, 157-181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, L.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. H.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, R. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, and R. J. Santoro, "Soot inception in a methane/air diffusion flame as characterized by detailed species profiles," Combust. Flame 62, 157-181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. A.

Pealat, M.

M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, M. Bacal, and F. Hillion, "Rovibrational molecular populations and negative ions in H2 and D2 magnetic multicusp discharges," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4943-4953 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Péalat, M.

Santoro, R. J.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, R. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, and R. J. Santoro, "Soot inception in a methane/air diffusion flame as characterized by detailed species profiles," Combust. Flame 62, 157-181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, M.

Seeger, T.

Smyth, K. C.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, R. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, and R. J. Santoro, "Soot inception in a methane/air diffusion flame as characterized by detailed species profiles," Combust. Flame 62, 157-181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Snow, J. B.

Stufflebeam, J. H.

J. H. Stufflebeam and A. C. Eckbreth, "CARS temperature and species measurements in propellant flames," in Nonintrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo and T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell House, 1994), pp. 115-131.

Taran, J. P.

J. P. Boquillon, M. Péalat, P. Bouchardy, G. Collin, P. Magre, and J. P. Taran, "Spatial averaging and multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature-measurement error," Opt. Lett. 13, 722-724 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, M. Bacal, and F. Hillion, "Rovibrational molecular populations and negative ions in H2 and D2 magnetic multicusp discharges," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4943-4953 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thumann, A.

Zheng, J.-B.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and C. Löfström, "An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry," Appl. Phys. B 49, 445-453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, R. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, and R. J. Santoro, "Soot inception in a methane/air diffusion flame as characterized by detailed species profiles," Combust. Flame 62, 157-181 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (2)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, and S. Kröll, "Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129-140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson and M. Aldén, "Soot particle measurements in premixed ethylene flames using a pulsed laser method," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 959-962 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, M. Bacal, and F. Hillion, "Rovibrational molecular populations and negative ions in H2 and D2 magnetic multicusp discharges," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4943-4953 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (3)

J. H. Stufflebeam and A. C. Eckbreth, "CARS temperature and species measurements in propellant flames," in Nonintrusive Combustion Diagnostics, K. K. Kuo and T. P. Parr, eds. (Begell House, 1994), pp. 115-131.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, 1988).

D. A. Greenhalgh, "Quantitative CARS spectroscopy," in Advances in Non-linear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, 1988).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup of the multipoint CARS spectrometer: DM 1 , DM 2 , cavity mirrors; DM's, dichroic mirrors; L's, lenses; P's, prisms; BS, beam splitter; B, burner; ES, entrance slit; F, filter; VBS, vertical beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multipoint-cavity setup: L 1 , L 2 , achromatic lenses ( f = 255 mm ) ; DM 1 , DM 2 , dichroic mirrors; P, prism.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the McKenna burner, with the locations of the CARS measurement points indicated above the burner surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multipoint Q-branch CARS spectra of N 2 measured in an ethylene–air flame 5 mm above the surface of a McKenna burner. The spectra were measured at points (a) 1, (b) 3, and (c) 9 of Fig. 3. The plots show the experimental spectra together with residual curves from the fits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Array of Q-branch CARS spectra of N 2 obtained at nine points located above the McKenna burner surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperatures evaluated from Q-branch spectra of odd-numbered points from three series of accumulated measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Temperature distribution in the Wolfhard–Parker burner flame measured 3 mm above the burner. Top, the filled circles show the evaluated temperatures, and the dashed curve connecting them has been added to make the temperature profile appear clearly. Bottom, schematic of the burner geometry. (b) Photo of the burner and the flame.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative CO concentration measured in the Wolfhard–Parker burner flame 9 mm above the burner. The dashed curve connecting the points was added to make the concentration profile appear clearly.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Nitrogen Q-branch CARS spectrum with the interfering modulation. (b) Spectrally modulated nonresonant CARS spectrum measured in Ar . (c) Nitrogen Q-branch CARS spectrum corrected for the modulation.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M = I max - I min I max + I min .
I max χ CARS 1 2 + χ CARS 2 2 + 2 χ CARS 1 χ CARS 2 ,
I min χ CARS 1 2 + χ CARS 2 2 - 2 χ CARS 1 χ CARS 2 .
M = 2 χ CARS 1 χ CARS 2 χ CARS 1 2 + χ CARS 2 2 .
χ CARS 1 2 χ CARS 2 2 = 0.0065 0.65 % .

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