Abstract

A method based on pulsed digital holographic interferometry for the measurement of dynamic deformations of a surface by using a moving system is presented. The measuring system may move with a speed of several meters per minute and can measure deformation of the surface with an accuracy of better than 50nm. The deformation is obtained by comparison of the wavefronts recorded at different times with different laser pulses produced by a Nd:YAG laser. The effect due to the movement of the measuring system is compensated for by digital processing of the different holograms. The system is well suited for on-line surveillance of a dynamic process such as laser welding and friction stir welding. Experimental results are presented, and the advantages of the method are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. T. Cathey, Optical Information Processing and Holography (Wiley, 1974), Chap. 9.
  2. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971), Chap. 5.
  3. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, 1979).
  4. R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1989), Chap. 3.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, "Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367-374 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. C. Wagner, S. Seebacher, W. Osten, and W. Jüptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of lensless Fourier holograms in optical metrology," Appl. Opt. 38, 4812-4820 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, "Digital double pulse-TV-holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199-219 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, "Digital holographic interferometry," in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 6, pp. 337-362.
  11. G. Pedrini, Ph. Froening, H. J. Tiziani, and M. E. Gusev, "Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses a two-wavelength method," Appl. Opt. 38, 3460-3467 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, A. K. Aggarwal, and M. E. Gusev, "Highly sensitive pulsed digital holography for built-in defect analysis with a laser excitation," Appl. Opt. 40, 100-103 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, "Pulsed digital holographic interferometry for dynamic measurement of rotating objects with an optical derotator," Appl. Opt. 40, 5106-5110 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, M. Cywiak, B. Barrientos, and G. Pedrini, "New method for optical object derotation," Opt. Commun. 203, 249-253 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Green, "Pulsed TV holography combined with digital speckle photography restores lost interference phase," Appl. Opt. 40, 2304-2309 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. L. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, "Derivatives obtained directly from displacement data," Opt. Commun. 11, 427-432 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, and F. Mendoza Santoyo, "Simultaneous three-dimensional dynamic deformation measurements with pulsed digital holography," Appl. Opt. 38, 7056-7062 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, M. Cywiak, B. Barrientos, and G. Pedrini, "New method for optical object derotation," Opt. Commun. 203, 249-253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

1999 (3)

1997 (1)

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, "Digital double pulse-TV-holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199-219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, "Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367-374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Y. L. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, "Derivatives obtained directly from displacement data," Opt. Commun. 11, 427-432 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars, "Direct phase determination in hologram interferometry with use of digitally recorded holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2011-2015 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Aggarwal, A. K.

Barrientos, B.

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, M. Cywiak, B. Barrientos, and G. Pedrini, "New method for optical object derotation," Opt. Commun. 203, 249-253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burckhard, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971), Chap. 5.

Cathey, W. T.

W. T. Cathey, Optical Information Processing and Holography (Wiley, 1974), Chap. 9.

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971), Chap. 5.

Cywiak, M.

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, M. Cywiak, B. Barrientos, and G. Pedrini, "New method for optical object derotation," Opt. Commun. 203, 249-253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Froening, Ph.

Green, P.

Gusev, M. E.

Ina, H.

Jones, R.

R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1989), Chap. 3.

Jüptner, W.

Kobayashi, S.

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971), Chap. 5.

Mendoza Santoyo, F.

Molin, N.-E.

Osten, W.

Pedrini, G.

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, M. Cywiak, B. Barrientos, and G. Pedrini, "New method for optical object derotation," Opt. Commun. 203, 249-253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, A. K. Aggarwal, and M. E. Gusev, "Highly sensitive pulsed digital holography for built-in defect analysis with a laser excitation," Appl. Opt. 40, 100-103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, "Pulsed digital holographic interferometry for dynamic measurement of rotating objects with an optical derotator," Appl. Opt. 40, 5106-5110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, and F. Mendoza Santoyo, "Simultaneous three-dimensional dynamic deformation measurements with pulsed digital holography," Appl. Opt. 38, 7056-7062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Froening, H. J. Tiziani, and M. E. Gusev, "Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses a two-wavelength method," Appl. Opt. 38, 3460-3467 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, "Digital double pulse-TV-holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199-219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, "Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367-374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, "Derivatives obtained directly from displacement data," Opt. Commun. 11, 427-432 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, "Digital holographic interferometry," in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 6, pp. 337-362.

Perez-Lopez, C.

Saldner, H. O.

Schedin, S.

Schnars, U.

Seebacher, S.

Stetson, K. A.

Takeda, M.

Tiziani, H.

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, "Digital double pulse-TV-holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199-219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, 1979).

Wagner, C.

Wykes, C.

R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1989), Chap. 3.

Zou, Y.

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, "Digital double pulse-TV-holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199-219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. L.

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, "Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367-374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, "Derivatives obtained directly from displacement data," Opt. Commun. 11, 427-432 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, "Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367-374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, M. Cywiak, B. Barrientos, and G. Pedrini, "New method for optical object derotation," Opt. Commun. 203, 249-253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, "Derivatives obtained directly from displacement data," Opt. Commun. 11, 427-432 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, "Digital double pulse-TV-holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199-219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, "Digital holographic interferometry," in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 6, pp. 337-362.

W. T. Cathey, Optical Information Processing and Holography (Wiley, 1974), Chap. 9.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971), Chap. 5.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, 1979).

R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1989), Chap. 3.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical arrangement fixed to the moving platform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical arrangement for pulsed digital holographic interferometry: a, distance between the object and the imaging lens; b, distance between the lens and the CCD; c, distance between the aperture and the lens; f, focal length; v, speed of displacement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Procedure for calculating the phase from a sequence of digital holograms recorded by using a pulse laser. FFT, fast Fourier transform; IFFT, inverse FFT.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Problem of the aperture size: (a) x–z plane view and (b) x–y plane view.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image shift in the sensor plane due to the translation of the observing system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Method for calculating the shift from two digital holograms.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase shift due to the displacement of the measuring system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Strategy for compensation for unwanted effects.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plate vibrating at 1385 Hz observed by a moving head (field investigated, 21 mm × 29 mm ). (a) Object and shaker, (b) sketch of the setup used, (c) phase map obtained after compensation for the movement ( 1.2 m / min , ΔL = 1 mm ) , (d) same phase map filtered, (d) phase map obtained when the measuring head is not moving.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Object submitted to thermal loading and observed by the moving head ( 1.4 m / min ) : (a) image of the lead object (field investigated, 21 mm × 29 mm ), (b–e) 4 of the 100 phase maps obtained during the cooling process.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Plate vibrating at 1385 Hz and observed by the moving head (field investigated, 21 mm × 29 mm : (a) phase map with unwanted fringes due to the rotation, (b) phase map for compensation, (c) phase map obtained after compensation for unwanted fringes.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Arrangement for the 3D measurement of the object surface.

Equations (4)

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I H ( x , y ) = R H ( x , y ) 2 + U H ( x , y ) 2 + R H ( x , y ) U H * ( x , y ) + R H * ( x , y ) U H ( x , y ) ,
ϕ Hw ( m Δ x , n Δ y ) = arctan Im [ U H ( m Δ x , n Δ y ) ] Re [ U H ( m Δ x , n Δ y ) ] ,
Δ s = Δ l - Δ L = θ b .
Δϕ shift = 2 π × Δ L / ( λ f ) ,

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