Abstract

A flexible and fast Monte Carlo-based model of diffuse reflectance has been developed for the extraction of the absorption and scattering properties of turbid media, such as human tissues. This method is valid for a wide range of optical properties and is easily adaptable to existing probe geometries, provided a single phantom calibration measurement is made. A condensed Monte Carlo method was used to speed up the forward simulations. This model was validated by use of two sets of liquid-tissue phantoms containing Nigrosin or hemoglobin as absorbers and polystyrene spheres as scatterers. The phantoms had a wide range of absorption (020cm1) and reduced scattering coefficients (733cm1). Mie theory and a spectrophotometer were used to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the phantoms. The diffuse reflectance spectra of the phantoms were measured over a wavelength range of 350850  nm. It was found that optical properties could be extracted from the experimentally measured diffuse reflectance spectra with an average error of 3% or less for phantoms containing hemoglobin and 12% or less for phantoms containing Nigrosin.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Gregory M. Palmer and Nirmala Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms: erratum," Appl. Opt. 46, 6847-6847 (2007)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-46-27-6847

References

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  1. G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van-Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, and P. K. Gupta, "Measurement of optical transport properties of normal and malignant human breast tissue," Appl. Opt. 40, 176-184 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. S. Prahl, "Mie scattering program," Oregon Medical Laser Center (2005), available at http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/mie/index.html.
  15. X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, "Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells," Biophys. J. 14, 439-453 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, "Dependence of tissue optical properties of solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200-211 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model of diffuse reflectance. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis," Appl. Opt. 45, 1072-1078 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, and J. P. Freyer, "Characterizing mammalian cells and cell phantoms by polarized backscattering fiber-optic measurements," Appl. Opt. 40, 5114-5123 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, H. J. Sterenborg, M. P. Bard, and S. A. Burgers, "In vivo measurement of the local optical properties of tissue by use of differential path-length spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 1087-1089 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, and J. P. Freyer, "Characterizing mammalian cells and cell phantoms by polarized backscattering fiber-optic measurements," Appl. Opt. 40, 5114-5123 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, S. K. Mohanty, S. K. Majumder, and P. K. Gupta, "Measurement of optical transport properties of normal and malignant human breast tissue," Appl. Opt. 40, 176-184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1996 (2)

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, "Dependence of tissue optical properties of solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200-211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, "Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells," Biophys. J. 14, 439-453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Amelink, A.

Backman, V.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van-Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bard, M. P.

Beauvoit, B.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, "Dependence of tissue optical properties of solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200-211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. L.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua and C. Depeursinge, "Monte Carlo study of diffuse reflectance at source-detector separations close to one transport mean free path," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2935-2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boone, C. W.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Breslin, T. M.

Brock, R. S.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brunsting, A.

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, "Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells," Biophys. J. 14, 439-453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgers, S. A.

Chance, B.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, "Dependence of tissue optical properties of solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200-211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charvet, I.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.-F.

W.-F. Cheong, "Appendix to chapter 8: Summary of optical properties," in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A.J.Welch and M.J. C. v.Gemert, eds. (Plenum, 1995), pp. 275-303.

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dassel, A. C. M.

de Mul, F. F. M.

Depeursinge, C.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua and C. Depeursinge, "Monte Carlo study of diffuse reflectance at source-detector separations close to one transport mean free path," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2935-2945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van-Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, J. C.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Foster, T. H.

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, "Hemoglobin oxygen saturations in phantoms and in vivo from measurements of steady-state diffuse reflectance at a single, short source-detector separation," Med. Phys. 31, 1949-1959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

Gall, J. A.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, N.

Gilchrist, K. W.

Gopal, V.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Graaff, R.

Gupta, P. K.

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. H.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Jacobs, K. M.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Kalashnikov, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kienle, A.

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, M.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, "Dependence of tissue optical properties of solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200-211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koelink, M. H.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, "Dependence of tissue optical properties of solute-induced changes in refractive index and osmolarity," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200-211 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Q.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Majumder, S. K.

Manoharan, R.

Marquet, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matchette, L. S.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meda, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanty, S. K.

Mourant, J. R.

Mueller, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mullaney, P. F.

A. Brunsting and P. F. Mullaney, "Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells," Biophys. J. 14, 439-453 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ory, G.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

Patterson, M. S.

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, "Determination of the optical properties of turbid media from a single Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2221-2227 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S.

S. Prahl, "Mie scattering program," Oregon Medical Laser Center (2005), available at http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/mie/index.html.

Ramanujam, N.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model of diffuse reflectance. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis," Appl. Opt. 45, 1072-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, "Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223-236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. Ghislain, M.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

Thueler, P.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van-Dam, J.

Vermeulen, B.

P. Thueler, I. Charvet, F. Bevilacqua, M. St. Ghislain, G. Ory, P. Marquet, P. Meda, B. Vermeulen, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo endoscopic tissue diagnostics based on spectroscopic absorption, scattering, and phase function properties," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 495-503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Forward and (b) inverse models of diffuse reflectance. Input boxes are gray, and output boxes are gray with a bold outline.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the probe geometry used in this study, with the gray central region containing the collection fibers and the surrounding white region containing the illumination fibers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of the calibrated measured and modeled diffuse reflectance spectra for four phantoms from phantom set 1 containing hemoglobin as the absorber (the phantom with no absorber added was used as the reference phantom) for the case in which (a) the Monte Carlo (MC) forward model and (b) the diffusion equation for a semi-infinite medium were used to generate the modeled spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatter plots of the extracted versus expected (a) absorption coefficients (μ a ) and (b) reduced scattering coefficients (μ s ′) for all wavelengths for all target–reference phantom combinations from phantom set 1. Note that each of the phantoms was used as a reference phantom to extract the optical properties of every other phantom.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the fiber configuration used in the derivation of Eq. (3), with the illumination fiber on the left and the collection fiber on the right.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Summary of Methods for Extracting Optical Properties a

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Table 2 Means and Ranges of the Reduced Scattering Coefficient (μ s ′) for Each of the Phantoms in Phantom Sets 1 and 2 over the Wavelength Range of 350–850 nm a

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Table 3 Means and Ranges of the Absorption Coefficient (μ a ) for Each of the Phantoms in Phantom Sets 1 and 2 over the Wavelength Range of 350–850 nm

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Table 4 Mean rms Percent Errors in the Reduced Scattering Coefficients (μs′) and Absorption Coefficients (μ a ) for All Target–Reference Phantom Combinations in Phantom Set 1 for Each Wavelength Regime

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Table 5 Mean rms Percent Errors in the Reduced Scattering Coefficients (μ s ′) and Absorption Coefficients (μ a ) for All Target–Reference Phantom Combinations in Phantom Set 1, Provided for a Range of Refractive Index Mismatches

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W exit,new = W exit,sim ( μ s , new μ s , new + μ a , new μ s , sim + μ a , sim μ s , sim ) N ,
r t ,new = r t ,sim ( μ s , sim + μ a , sim μ s , new + μ a , new ) .
1 π 2 r i 2 max ( r i , s r t r c ) min ( r i , s r t + r c ) ( s x ) cos 1 [ s 2 + ( s x ) 2 r i     2 2 ( s x ) s ]                   × cos 1 [ r t       2 + ( s x ) 2 r i       2 2 ( s x ) r t ] d x ,
p = 1 π    cos 1 ( r t 2 + s 2 + r c 2 2 s r t ) , s r c < r t < s + r c ,
p = 0 , otherwise .
p = 1 2 r i 1 π l b u b cos - 1 [ r t     2 + ( s x ) 2 r c     2 2 ( s x ) r t ] d x ,
p = 1 π r i     2 1 π l b u b ( s x ) cos 1 [ s 2 + ( s x ) 2 r i     2 2 ( s x ) s ] cos 1 [ r t     2 + ( s x ) 2 r c     2 2 ( s x ) r t ] d x ,

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