Abstract

Tunable diode laser absorption measurements at high pressures by use of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) require large modulation depths for optimum detection of molecular absorption spectra blended by collisional broadening or dense spacing of the rovibrational transitions. Diode lasers have a large and nonlinear intensity modulation when the wavelength is modulated over a large range by injection-current tuning. In addition to this intensity modulation, other laser performance parameters are measured, including the phase shift between the frequency modulation and the intensity modulation. Following published theory, these parameters are incorporated into an improved model of the WMS signal. The influence of these nonideal laser effects is investigated by means of wavelength-scanned WMS measurements as a function of bath gas pressure on rovibrational transitions of water vapor near 1388nm. Lock-in detection of the magnitude of the 2f signal is performed to remove the dependence on detection phase. We find good agreement between measurements and the improved model developed for the 2f component of the WMS signal. The effects of the nonideal performance parameters of commercial diode lasers are especially important away from the line center of discrete spectra, and these contributions become more pronounced for 2f signals with the large modulation depths needed for WMS at elevated pressures.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. G. Allen, "Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545-562 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 39, 4444-4450 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, and R. K. Hanson, "Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 479-498.
  5. H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperature in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. T. Cassidy and J. Reid, "Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 21, 1185-1190 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. T. Cassidy and L. J. Bonnell, "Trace gas detection with short-external-cavity InGaAsP diode laser transmitter modules operating at 1.58 µm," Appl. Opt. 27, 2688-2693 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. S. Bomse, A. S. Stanton, and J. A. Silver, "Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser," Appl. Opt. 31, 718-731 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, "Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845-852 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Wang, M. Maiorov, D. S. Baer, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. C. Connolly, and R. K. Hanson, "In situ combustion measurements of CO with diode-laser absorption near 2.3 µm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5579-5589 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. V. H. Wilson, "Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276-3285 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Arndt, "Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522-2524 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Reid and D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. C. Philippe and R. K. Hanson, "Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows," Appl. Opt. 32, 6090-6103 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Kluczynski, A. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. Theory," Appl. Opt. 40, 783-793 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Kluczynski, A. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. II. Experiment," Appl. Opt. 40, 794-804 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, "Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "A multiplexed diode laser sensor based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration of H2O and CH4," presented at the Fourth Joint Meeting of the U.S. Section of the Combustion Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., 20-23 March 2005.
  21. J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows," Appl. Phys. B 78, 503-511 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. C. Hovde, J. T. Hodges, G. E. Scace, and J. A. Silver, "Wavelength-modulation laser hydrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor gases," Appl. Opt. 40, 829-839 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Aizawa, "Diode-laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy for quantitative in situ measurements of temperature and OH radical concentration in combustion gases," Appl. Opt. 40, 4894-4903 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, "Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5803-5815 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra," Appl. Opt. 43, 6500-6509 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. http://www.nel-world.com/products/photonics/gaslowbarsensing.html.
  27. S. Schilt and L. Thevenaz, "Experimental method based on wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for the characterization of semiconductor lasers under direct modulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 4446-4453 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Available at http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/hitran/.
  30. X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Precision measurements of linestrength, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of H2O transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for measurement of gas temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine."
  31. X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR water vapor transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).
  32. T. Iseki, H. Tai, and K. Kimura, "A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594-602 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperature in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, "Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

2000 (4)

T. Iseki, H. Tai, and K. Kimura, "A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594-602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Maiorov, D. S. Baer, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. C. Connolly, and R. K. Hanson, "In situ combustion measurements of CO with diode-laser absorption near 2.3 µm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5579-5589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 39, 4444-4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, "Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845-852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, "Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5803-5815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. G. Allen, "Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545-562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

J. Reid and D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. Arndt, "Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522-2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

G. V. H. Wilson, "Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276-3285 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, T.

Allen, M. A.

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, and R. K. Hanson, "Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 479-498.

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, "Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545-562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

Arndt, R.

R. Arndt, "Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522-2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Baer, D. S.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Maiorov, D. S. Baer, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. C. Connolly, and R. K. Hanson, "In situ combustion measurements of CO with diode-laser absorption near 2.3 µm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5579-5589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. A.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bomse, D. S.

Bonnell, L. J.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, S. G.

M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "A multiplexed diode laser sensor based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration of H2O and CH4," presented at the Fourth Joint Meeting of the U.S. Section of the Combustion Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., 20-23 March 2005.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J. C.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, V.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperature in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernholtz, T.

Fernholz, T.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, E. R.

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, and R. K. Hanson, "Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 479-498.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

Gharavi, M.

M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "A multiplexed diode laser sensor based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration of H2O and CH4," presented at the Fourth Joint Meeting of the U.S. Section of the Combustion Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., 20-23 March 2005.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows," Appl. Phys. B 78, 503-511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra," Appl. Opt. 43, 6500-6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Maiorov, D. S. Baer, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. C. Connolly, and R. K. Hanson, "In situ combustion measurements of CO with diode-laser absorption near 2.3 µm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5579-5589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Philippe and R. K. Hanson, "Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows," Appl. Opt. 32, 6090-6103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, and R. K. Hanson, "Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 479-498.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Precision measurements of linestrength, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of H2O transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for measurement of gas temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine."

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR water vapor transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

Hodges, J. T.

Hovde, D. C.

Iseki, T.

T. Iseki, H. Tai, and K. Kimura, "A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594-602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows," Appl. Phys. B 78, 503-511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra," Appl. Opt. 43, 6500-6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Precision measurements of linestrength, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of H2O transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for measurement of gas temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine."

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR water vapor transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).

Jenkins, T. P.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Julhall, P. A.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

Kane, D. J.

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, "Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845-852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, K.

T. Iseki, H. Tai, and K. Kimura, "A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594-602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kindle, H. S.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

Kluczynski, P.

Labrie, D.

J. Reid and D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Li, H.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

Lindberg, A.

Liu, J. T. C.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra," Appl. Opt. 43, 6500-6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows," Appl. Phys. B 78, 503-511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

Liu, X.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR water vapor transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Precision measurements of linestrength, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of H2O transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for measurement of gas temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine."

Maiorov, M.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philippe, L. C.

Reid, J.

D. T. Cassidy and J. Reid, "Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 21, 1185-1190 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reid and D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

Rieker, G. B.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scace, G. E.

Schilt, S.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. S.

Tai, H.

T. Iseki, H. Tai, and K. Kimura, "A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594-602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, H.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperature in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

Tittel, F. K.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wehe, S. D.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

Wilson, G. V. H.

G. V. H. Wilson, "Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276-3285 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Precision measurements of linestrength, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of H2O transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for measurement of gas temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine."

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR water vapor transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (15)

D. T. Cassidy and J. Reid, "Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 21, 1185-1190 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Bomse, A. S. Stanton, and J. A. Silver, "Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser," Appl. Opt. 31, 718-731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Philippe and R. K. Hanson, "Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows," Appl. Opt. 32, 6090-6103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, "Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5803-5815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, and F. K. Tittel, "Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 39, 4444-4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Maiorov, D. S. Baer, D. Z. Garbuzov, J. C. Connolly, and R. K. Hanson, "In situ combustion measurements of CO with diode-laser absorption near 2.3 µm," Appl. Opt. 39, 5579-5589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, A. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. Theory," Appl. Opt. 40, 783-793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, A. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. II. Experiment," Appl. Opt. 40, 794-804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hovde, J. T. Hodges, G. E. Scace, and J. A. Silver, "Wavelength-modulation laser hydrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor gases," Appl. Opt. 40, 829-839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Aizawa, "Diode-laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy for quantitative in situ measurements of temperature and OH radical concentration in combustion gases," Appl. Opt. 40, 4894-4903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, and V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperature in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Cassidy and L. J. Bonnell, "Trace gas detection with short-external-cavity InGaAsP diode laser transmitter modules operating at 1.58 µm," Appl. Opt. 27, 2688-2693 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, "Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt and L. Thevenaz, "Experimental method based on wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for the characterization of semiconductor lasers under direct modulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 4446-4453 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra," Appl. Opt. 43, 6500-6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. Reid and D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows," Appl. Phys. B 78, 503-511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. V. H. Wilson, "Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276-3285 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. Arndt, "Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation," J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522-2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (4)

T. Iseki, H. Tai, and K. Kimura, "A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 594-602 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, "Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545-562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, "Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845-852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, "Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, and R. K. Hanson, "Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 479-498.

M. Gharavi and S. G. Buckley, "A multiplexed diode laser sensor based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature and concentration of H2O and CH4," presented at the Fourth Joint Meeting of the U.S. Section of the Combustion Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., 20-23 March 2005.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Julhall, and H. S. Kindle are preparing a manuscript to be called "A diode laser sensor for rapid, sensitive measurements of gas temperature and water vapor concentration at high temperatures and pressures."

http://www.nel-world.com/products/photonics/gaslowbarsensing.html.

Available at http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/hitran/.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Precision measurements of linestrength, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of H2O transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for measurement of gas temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine."

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR water vapor transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature during the compression stroke of an IC-engine," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral simulation of 1% H 2 O in air at 1000 K , 1 cm path length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic for determining FM∕IM phase shift: Solid curve, reference laser intensity (without etalon); +, fringe centers determined from the interference signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured FM∕IM phase shift ψ 1 of a typical DFB diode laser at (a) different modulation depths and (b) different modulation frequencies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Best 1 f and (b) best 2 f fit to the laser IM in Fig. 2 (modulation frequency of f = 50 kHz , modulation depth of a = 0.65 cm - 1 ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linear laser IM amplitude versus modulation depth for the laser used in this study. Modulation frequency of f = 50 kHz . A best linear fit to the measured data is shown as well.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Nonlinear IM amplitude versus modulation depth for the laser used in this study. Modulation frequency of f = 50 kHz . A best quadratic fit to the measured data is shown as well.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nonlinear term phase shift ψ 2 versus modulation depth for the laser used in this study.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for validating the improved 2 f model. NI-DAQ, National Instruments data acquisition.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral simulation of water vapor in air: T = 296 K , L = 100.5 cm .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured and simulated 2 f spectra at T = 296 K , P = 1 atm , L = 100.5 cm . Test gas, 0.10 % H 2 O in air.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured and simulated 2 f spectra: T = 296 K , P = 10 atm , L = 100.5 cm . Test gas, 0.15 % H 2 O in air.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simulated 1 f spectra (normalized by the 1 f signal without absorption) of 1 % H 2 O in air at T = 1000 K , 1 cm path length (modulation depth of a = 0.65 cm - 1 ).

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ν ( t ) = ν ¯ + a cos ( ω t ) ,
I 0 ( t ) = I ¯ 0 [ 1 + i 0 cos ( ωt + ψ 1 ) 1 f term + i 2 cos ( 2 ωt + ψ 2 ) ]. 2 f term
τ ( ν ) = ( I t I 0 ) ν = exp [ - α ( ν ) ] .
τ ( ν ) = exp [ - α ( ν ) ] 1 - α ( ν ) = 1 - P χ i L j S j φ j ,
- α [ ν ¯ + a cos ( ω t ) ] = k = 0 H k ( ν ¯ , a ) cos ( k ω t ) ,
H 0 ( ν ¯ , a ) = - P χ i L 2 π - π π j S j φ j ( ν ¯ + a cos θ ) d θ ,
H k ( ν ¯ , a ) = - P χ i L π - π π j S j φ j ( ν ¯ + a cos θ ) cos k θd θ .
X 2 f = G I 0 ¯ 2 [ H 2 + i 0 2 ( H 1 + H 3 ) cos ψ 1 + i 2 ( 1 + H 0 + H 4 2 ) cos ψ 2 ] ,
Y 2 f = - G I 0 ¯ 2 [ i 0 2 ( H 1 - H 3 ) sin ψ 1 + i 2 ( 1 + H 0 - H 4 2 ) sin ψ 2 ] ,
R 2 f = X 2 f 2 + Y 2 f 2 .
X 2 f 0 = G I 0 ¯ 2 i 2 cos ψ 2 ,
Y 2 f 0 = - G I 0 ¯ 2 i 2  sin  ψ 2 ,
R 2 f 0 = 1 2 G I 0 ¯ i 2 .
S 2 f = [ ( X 2 f - X 2 f 0 ) 2 + ( Y 2 f - Y 2 f 0 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 = G I 0 ¯ 2 { [ H 2 + i 0 2 ( H 1 + H 3 ) cos ψ 1 + i 2 ( H 0 + H 4 2 ) cos ψ 2 ] 2 + [ i 0 2 ( H 1 - H 3 ) sin ψ 1 + i 2 ( H 0 - H 4 2 ) sin ψ 2 ] 2 } 1 / 2 .
S 2 f = G I 0 ¯ 2 { [ H 2 + i 0 2 ( H 1 + H 3 ) cos ψ 1 ] 2 + [ i 0 2     ( H 1 - H 3 ) sin ψ 1 ] 2 } 1 / 2 .
S 2 f = G I 0 ¯ 2 | H 2 - i 0 2 ( H 1 + H 3 ) | .
R 1 f = G I 0 ¯ 2 { [ H 1 + i 0 ( 1 + H 0 + H 2 2 ) cos ψ 1 + i 2 2 ( H 1 + H 3 ) cos ψ 2 ] 2 + [ i 0 ( 1 + H 0 - H 2 2 ) sin ψ 1 + i 2 2 ( H 1 - H 3 ) sin ψ 2 ] 2 } 1 / 2 .
R 1 f = G I 0 ¯ 2 i 0 [ 1 - P χ i L f ( T , P ) ] .
R 1 f 0 = 1 2 G I 0 ¯ i 0 .
I 0 ( t ) / I 0 ¯ = 1 + 0.634 cos ( 2 π f t + 1.21 π ) + 0.014 cos ( 4 πft + 1.31 π ) .
C = S 2 f R 1 f 1 i 0 { [ H 2 + i 0 2 ( H 1 + H 3 ) cos ψ 1 + i 2 ( H 0 + H 4 2 ) cos ψ 2 ] 2 + [ i 0 2 ( H 1 - H 3 ) sin ψ 1 + i 2 ( H 0 - H 4 2 ) sin ψ 2 ] 2 } 1 / 2 .

Metrics