Abstract

The single and multiple scattering and absorption properties of hexagonal ice columns with different degrees of particle orientation are modeled in the solar spectral range by means of a ray-tracing single-scattering code and a Monte Carlo radiative-transfer code. The scattering properties are most sensitive to particle orientation for the solar zenith angles of 50° (asymmetry parameter) and 90° (single-scattering albedo). Provided that the ice columns are horizontally oriented, the usual assumption of random orientation leads to an overestimation (underestimation) of the reflected (transmitted) solar broadband radiation at high Sun elevation and to an underestimation (overestimation) at medium solar zenith angles. The orientation effect is more (less) pronounced in scattering and transmission (absorption) for smaller ice crystals.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. R. Rossow, "Satellite observation of radiation and clouds to diagnose energy exchanges in the climate," in Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System, Series I5, E. Raschke and D. Jacob, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1993), pp. 123-141.
  2. T. Chen, W. B. Rossow, and Y. Zhang, "Radiative effects of cloud-type variations," J. Clim. 52, 3512-3522 (2000).
  3. A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, "Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals," J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813-2825 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Macke, P. N. Francis, G. M. McFarquhar, and S. Kinne, "The role of ice-particle shapes and size distributions in the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2874-2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Zhang, A. Macke, and F. Albers, "Effect of crystal size spectrum and crystal shape on stratiform cirrus radiative forcing," Atmos. Res. 52, 59-75 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. McFarquhar, P. Yang, A. Macke, and J. B. Baran, "A new parameterization of single-scattering radiative properties for tropical anvils using observed ice crystal size and shape distributions," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2458-2478 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Schlimme, A. Macke, and J. Reichardt, "The impact of ice crystal shapes, size distributions and spatial structures of cirrus clouds on solar radiative fluxes," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2274-2283 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Takano and N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, part II: Theory and computation of multiple scattering in an anisotropic medium," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 20-36 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K.-D. Rockwitz, "Scattering properties of horizontally oriented ice crystal columns in cirrus clouds. Part 1," Appl. Opt. 28, 4103-4110 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Masuda and H. Ishimoto, "Influence of particle orientation on retrieving cirrus cloud properties by use of total and polarized reflectances from satellite measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 85, 183-193 (2004).
  12. V. Noel, G. Ledanois, H. Chepfer, and P. H. Flamant, "Computation of a single-scattering matrix for nonspherical particles randomly or horizontally oriented in space," Appl. Opt. 40, 4365-4375 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Macke, D. Mitchell, and L. von Bremen, "Monte Carlo radiative-transfer-calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds," Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237-241 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. H. Auer, Jr., and D. L. Veal, "The dimension of ice crystals in natural clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 919-926 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).
  16. J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "The influence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,311-23,316 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Scheirer and A. Macke, "Cloud inhomogeneity and broadband solar fluxes," J. Geophys. Res. 108/D19, 4599, doi:10.1029/2002JD003321 (2003).
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  20. J. Hallett, W. P. Arnott, M. P. Bailey, and J. T. Hallett, "Ice crystals in cirrus," in Cirrus, D.K.Lynch, K.Sassen, D.O'C.Starr, and G.Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 41-77.
  21. T. C. Foster and J. Hallett, "The alignment of ice crystals in changing electric fields," Atmos. Res. 62, 149-169 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2005

I. Schlimme, A. Macke, and J. Reichardt, "The impact of ice crystal shapes, size distributions and spatial structures of cirrus clouds on solar radiative fluxes," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2274-2283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Scheirer and A. Macke, "Cloud inhomogeneity and broadband solar fluxes," J. Geophys. Res. 108/D19, 4599, doi:10.1029/2002JD003321 (2003).

2002

T. C. Foster and J. Hallett, "The alignment of ice crystals in changing electric fields," Atmos. Res. 62, 149-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. McFarquhar, P. Yang, A. Macke, and J. B. Baran, "A new parameterization of single-scattering radiative properties for tropical anvils using observed ice crystal size and shape distributions," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2458-2478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

T. Chen, W. B. Rossow, and Y. Zhang, "Radiative effects of cloud-type variations," J. Clim. 52, 3512-3522 (2000).

1999

Y. Zhang, A. Macke, and F. Albers, "Effect of crystal size spectrum and crystal shape on stratiform cirrus radiative forcing," Atmos. Res. 52, 59-75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, D. Mitchell, and L. von Bremen, "Monte Carlo radiative-transfer-calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds," Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237-241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Macke, P. N. Francis, G. M. McFarquhar, and S. Kinne, "The role of ice-particle shapes and size distributions in the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2874-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, "Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals," J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813-2825 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "The influence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,311-23,316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

W. R. Rossow, "Satellite observation of radiation and clouds to diagnose energy exchanges in the climate," in Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System, Series I5, E. Raschke and D. Jacob, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1993), pp. 123-141.

1989

Y. Takano and N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, part II: Theory and computation of multiple scattering in an anisotropic medium," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 20-36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K.-D. Rockwitz, "Scattering properties of horizontally oriented ice crystal columns in cirrus clouds. Part 1," Appl. Opt. 28, 4103-4110 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. H. Auer, Jr., and D. L. Veal, "The dimension of ice crystals in natural clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 919-926 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Albers, F.

Y. Zhang, A. Macke, and F. Albers, "Effect of crystal size spectrum and crystal shape on stratiform cirrus radiative forcing," Atmos. Res. 52, 59-75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Albers, F. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Arnott, W. P.

J. Hallett, W. P. Arnott, M. P. Bailey, and J. T. Hallett, "Ice crystals in cirrus," in Cirrus, D.K.Lynch, K.Sassen, D.O'C.Starr, and G.Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 41-77.

Auer, A. H.

A. H. Auer, Jr., and D. L. Veal, "The dimension of ice crystals in natural clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 919-926 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, M. P.

J. Hallett, W. P. Arnott, M. P. Bailey, and J. T. Hallett, "Ice crystals in cirrus," in Cirrus, D.K.Lynch, K.Sassen, D.O'C.Starr, and G.Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 41-77.

Baran, J. B.

G. McFarquhar, P. Yang, A. Macke, and J. B. Baran, "A new parameterization of single-scattering radiative properties for tropical anvils using observed ice crystal size and shape distributions," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2458-2478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Brogniez, G. H.

H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "The influence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,311-23,316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, W. B. Rossow, and Y. Zhang, "Radiative effects of cloud-type variations," J. Clim. 52, 3512-3522 (2000).

Chepfer, H. H.

V. Noel, G. Ledanois, H. Chepfer, and P. H. Flamant, "Computation of a single-scattering matrix for nonspherical particles randomly or horizontally oriented in space," Appl. Opt. 40, 4365-4375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Debois, M. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Flamant, P. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Flamant, P. H.

V. Noel, G. Ledanois, H. Chepfer, and P. H. Flamant, "Computation of a single-scattering matrix for nonspherical particles randomly or horizontally oriented in space," Appl. Opt. 40, 4365-4375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foster, T. C.

T. C. Foster and J. Hallett, "The alignment of ice crystals in changing electric fields," Atmos. Res. 62, 149-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fouquart, Y. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Francis, P. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Francis, P. N.

A. Macke, P. N. Francis, G. M. McFarquhar, and S. Kinne, "The role of ice-particle shapes and size distributions in the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2874-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gayet, J. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Hallett, J.

T. C. Foster and J. Hallett, "The alignment of ice crystals in changing electric fields," Atmos. Res. 62, 149-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hallett, W. P. Arnott, M. P. Bailey, and J. T. Hallett, "Ice crystals in cirrus," in Cirrus, D.K.Lynch, K.Sassen, D.O'C.Starr, and G.Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 41-77.

Hallett, J. T.

J. Hallett, W. P. Arnott, M. P. Bailey, and J. T. Hallett, "Ice crystals in cirrus," in Cirrus, D.K.Lynch, K.Sassen, D.O'C.Starr, and G.Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 41-77.

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Isaka, H. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Ishimoto, H.

K. Masuda and H. Ishimoto, "Influence of particle orientation on retrieving cirrus cloud properties by use of total and polarized reflectances from satellite measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 85, 183-193 (2004).

Jonas, P. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Kandel, R. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Kinne, S.

A. Macke, P. N. Francis, G. M. McFarquhar, and S. Kinne, "The role of ice-particle shapes and size distributions in the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2874-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ledanois, G. H.

Liou, N.

Y. Takano and N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, part II: Theory and computation of multiple scattering in an anisotropic medium," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 20-36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Macke, A.

I. Schlimme, A. Macke, and J. Reichardt, "The impact of ice crystal shapes, size distributions and spatial structures of cirrus clouds on solar radiative fluxes," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2274-2283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Scheirer and A. Macke, "Cloud inhomogeneity and broadband solar fluxes," J. Geophys. Res. 108/D19, 4599, doi:10.1029/2002JD003321 (2003).

G. McFarquhar, P. Yang, A. Macke, and J. B. Baran, "A new parameterization of single-scattering radiative properties for tropical anvils using observed ice crystal size and shape distributions," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2458-2478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, A. Macke, and F. Albers, "Effect of crystal size spectrum and crystal shape on stratiform cirrus radiative forcing," Atmos. Res. 52, 59-75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, D. Mitchell, and L. von Bremen, "Monte Carlo radiative-transfer-calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds," Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237-241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, P. N. Francis, G. M. McFarquhar, and S. Kinne, "The role of ice-particle shapes and size distributions in the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2874-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, "Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals," J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813-2825 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "The influence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,311-23,316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, K.

K. Masuda and H. Ishimoto, "Influence of particle orientation on retrieving cirrus cloud properties by use of total and polarized reflectances from satellite measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 85, 183-193 (2004).

McFarquhar, G.

G. McFarquhar, P. Yang, A. Macke, and J. B. Baran, "A new parameterization of single-scattering radiative properties for tropical anvils using observed ice crystal size and shape distributions," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2458-2478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McFarquhar, G. M.

A. Macke, P. N. Francis, G. M. McFarquhar, and S. Kinne, "The role of ice-particle shapes and size distributions in the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2874-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "The influence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,311-23,316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D.

A. Macke, D. Mitchell, and L. von Bremen, "Monte Carlo radiative-transfer-calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds," Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237-241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J.

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, "Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals," J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813-2825 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noel, V. H.

Pelon, J. H.

H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quante, M. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Raschke, E.

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, "Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals," J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813-2825 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, E. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Reichardt, J.

I. Schlimme, A. Macke, and J. Reichardt, "The impact of ice crystal shapes, size distributions and spatial structures of cirrus clouds on solar radiative fluxes," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2274-2283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rockwitz, K.-D.

Rossow, W. B.

T. Chen, W. B. Rossow, and Y. Zhang, "Radiative effects of cloud-type variations," J. Clim. 52, 3512-3522 (2000).

Rossow, W. R.

W. R. Rossow, "Satellite observation of radiation and clouds to diagnose energy exchanges in the climate," in Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System, Series I5, E. Raschke and D. Jacob, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1993), pp. 123-141.

Sauvage, L. H.

H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scheirer, R.

R. Scheirer and A. Macke, "Cloud inhomogeneity and broadband solar fluxes," J. Geophys. Res. 108/D19, 4599, doi:10.1029/2002JD003321 (2003).

Schlimme, I.

I. Schlimme, A. Macke, and J. Reichardt, "The impact of ice crystal shapes, size distributions and spatial structures of cirrus clouds on solar radiative fluxes," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2274-2283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ström, J. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Stuhlmann, R. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Sundquist, H. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Takano, Y.

Y. Takano and N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, part II: Theory and computation of multiple scattering in an anisotropic medium," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 20-36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Trouillet, V. H.

H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Veal, D. L.

A. H. Auer, Jr., and D. L. Veal, "The dimension of ice crystals in natural clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 919-926 (1970).
[CrossRef]

von Bremen, L.

A. Macke, D. Mitchell, and L. von Bremen, "Monte Carlo radiative-transfer-calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds," Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237-241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. K.

P. K. Wang, Ice Microdynamics (Academic, 2002).

Wendling, P. F.

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

Yang, P.

G. McFarquhar, P. Yang, A. Macke, and J. B. Baran, "A new parameterization of single-scattering radiative properties for tropical anvils using observed ice crystal size and shape distributions," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2458-2478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

T. Chen, W. B. Rossow, and Y. Zhang, "Radiative effects of cloud-type variations," J. Clim. 52, 3512-3522 (2000).

Y. Zhang, A. Macke, and F. Albers, "Effect of crystal size spectrum and crystal shape on stratiform cirrus radiative forcing," Atmos. Res. 52, 59-75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Res.

T. C. Foster and J. Hallett, "The alignment of ice crystals in changing electric fields," Atmos. Res. 62, 149-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, A. Macke, and F. Albers, "Effect of crystal size spectrum and crystal shape on stratiform cirrus radiative forcing," Atmos. Res. 52, 59-75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

G. McFarquhar, P. Yang, A. Macke, and J. B. Baran, "A new parameterization of single-scattering radiative properties for tropical anvils using observed ice crystal size and shape distributions," J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2458-2478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Schlimme, A. Macke, and J. Reichardt, "The impact of ice crystal shapes, size distributions and spatial structures of cirrus clouds on solar radiative fluxes," J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 2274-2283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, J. Mueller, and E. Raschke, "Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystals," J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813-2825 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, P. N. Francis, G. M. McFarquhar, and S. Kinne, "The role of ice-particle shapes and size distributions in the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 2874-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takano and N. Liou, "Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, part II: Theory and computation of multiple scattering in an anisotropic medium," J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 20-36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Auer, Jr., and D. L. Veal, "The dimension of ice crystals in natural clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 919-926 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim.

T. Chen, W. B. Rossow, and Y. Zhang, "Radiative effects of cloud-type variations," J. Clim. 52, 3512-3522 (2000).

J. Geophys. Res.

A. Macke, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, "The influence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23,311-23,316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Scheirer and A. Macke, "Cloud inhomogeneity and broadband solar fluxes," J. Geophys. Res. 108/D19, 4599, doi:10.1029/2002JD003321 (2003).

Mon. Weather Rev.

H. Chepfer, G. Brogniez, L. Sauvage, P. H. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and J. Pelon, "Remote sensing of cirrus radiative parameters during EUCREX'94. Case study of 17 April 1994. Part II: Microphysical models," Mon. Weather Rev. 127, 504-518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Earth B

A. Macke, D. Mitchell, and L. von Bremen, "Monte Carlo radiative-transfer-calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds," Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237-241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering in planetary atmospheres," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Masuda and H. Ishimoto, "Influence of particle orientation on retrieving cirrus cloud properties by use of total and polarized reflectances from satellite measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 85, 183-193 (2004).

E. Raschke, F. Albers, G. Brogniez, M. Debois, P. Flamant, P. Francis, Y. Fouquart, J. F. Gayet, H. Isaka, P. Jonas, R. Kandel, M. Quante, J. Ström, R. Stuhlmann, H. Sundquist, and P. Wendling, "European Cloud and Radiation Experiment," EUCREX Final Report, Project EV5V-CT92-0130 EUCREX-2, Tech. Rep. GKSS 97/E/8 (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 1997) (available from GKSS Research Center, Postfach 1160, D-21494 Geesthacht, Germany).

P. K. Wang, Ice Microdynamics (Academic, 2002).

J. Hallett, W. P. Arnott, M. P. Bailey, and J. T. Hallett, "Ice crystals in cirrus," in Cirrus, D.K.Lynch, K.Sassen, D.O'C.Starr, and G.Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 41-77.

W. R. Rossow, "Satellite observation of radiation and clouds to diagnose energy exchanges in the climate," in Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System, Series I5, E. Raschke and D. Jacob, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1993), pp. 123-141.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Definition of the orientation and tilt of a column.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering phase function P s ) versus scattering angle Θ s and maximum tilt angle Θtilt for columns at λ = 0.55 μm and Θ0 = 40°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Asymmetry parameter g versus solar zenith angle Θtilt and column length lc for λ = 0.55, 1.48 μm and for Θ0 = 20°, 40°, 60°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Asymmetry parameter g versus solar zenith angle Θ0 and maximum tilt angle Θtilt for a mean column size distribution Nm (r) at λ = 0.55, 1.48 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-scattering albedo ω0 versus maximum tilt angle Θtilt and column length lc for λ = 0.55, 1.48 μm and for Θ0 = 20°, 40°, 60°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single-scattering albedo ω0 versus solar zenith angle Θ0 and maximum tilt angle Θtilt for a mean column size distribution Nm (r) at λ = 0.55, 1.48 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative radiant flux density (percent) versus the solar zenith angle Θ0 and the maximum tilt angle Θtilt for column size distributions Ns (r) and Nb (r) and for optical thickness τ = 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absolute differences ΔX in reflected (X = R), absorbed (X = A), and transmitted (X = T) solar broadband fluxes in W m−2, with gray scales, from white for |ΔX| ≈ 0 W m−2 to black for |ΔX| ≈ 150 W m−2.

Equations (108)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

19.6   W m 2
+ 30.5   W   m 2
Θ tilt
Θ tilt = 0 °
Θ tilt = 90 °
ϕ K
χ K
Θ K [ 0 ° , Θ tilt ]
Θ K = 0 °
Θ K = Θ tilt
Θ 0
P ( Θ s )
λ [ λ ( 0.2 , 4.0 μ m ) ]
Θ 0
Θ tilt
r ( shape ,
λ , Θ 0 , Θ tilt )
N m ( r )
f [ N ( r ) , shape , λ , Θ 0 , Θ tilt ] = d r f ( r ) N ( r ) d r N ( r ) .
r eff
r eff = d r r 3 N ( r ) d r r 2 N ( r )
N m ( r )
51.39 μ m
λ = 0.55 μ m
m = 1.310990
3.1100000× 10 9 i
λ = 1.48 μ m
( m = 1.291884 + 4.7595688× 10 4 i )
λ = 0.55 μ m
Θ s
Θ tilt
Θ 0 = 40 °
Θ s = 23 °
Θ s = 28 °
( Θ tilt = 1 ° )
Θ 0 = 40 °
A = 60 °
Θ s = δ ( Θ 0 , A > 60 ° ) > 22 °
δ 22 °
Θ 0
Θ 0 = 40 °
g diff
g = cos Θ s = 4 π cos Θ s P ( Θ s ) 4 π d Ω s ,
= ( 2 ω 0 1 ) g rt + g diff 2 ω 0 ,
l c
( λ = 0.55
1.48 μ m
( Θ 0 = 20 °
λ = 1.48 μ m
Θ 0 = 50 °
g rt
g diff
g diff
λ = 1.48 μ m
Θ 0
Θ tilt = 90 °
( Θ tilt = 1 ° )
ω 0
ω 0
ω 0
Θ tilt
l c
λ = 0.55 μ m
λ = 1.48 μ m
ω 0
λ = 0.55 μ m
λ = 0.55 μ m
λ = 1.48 μ m
Θ 0 = 90 °
Θ tilt = 0 °
Θ 0 = 50 °
Θ tilt = 0 °
Θ 0 = 90 °
Θ 0 = 50 °
( Θ tilt = 1 ° )
ω 0
ω 0
Θ tilt = 90 °
9000   m
r eff = 24.57 μ m
N s ( r )
r eff = 405.84 μ m
N b ( r )
Θ 0
Θ tilt
τ = 2
τ eff = τ / cos ( Θ 0 )
( Θ 0 , Θ tilt ) = ( 50 ° , 1 ° )
( Θ tilt = 1 ° )
N b ( r )
Δ X = X ( Θ tilt = 90 ° ) X ( Θ tilt = 1 ° )
( X = R )
( X = A )
( X = T )
τ = 4
τ = 8
N s ( r )
τ = 12
104   W   m 2
Θ 0 = 50 °
Θ 0 = 50 °
Θ 0 = 90 °
τ = 12
155   W   m 2
41   W   m 2
25   W   m 2
25   W   m 2
Δ X

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