Abstract

The potential to estimate solar aerosol radiative forcing (SARF) in cloudless conditions from backscatter data measured by widespread standard lidar has been investigated. For this purpose 132 days of sophisticated ground-based Raman lidar observations (profiles of particle extinction and backscatter coefficients at 532nm wavelength) collected during two campaigns [the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) and the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX)] were analyzed. Particle extinction profiles were used as input for radiative transfer simulations with which to calculate the SARF, which then was plotted as a function of the column (i.e., height-integrated) particle backscatter coefficient (βc). A close correlation between the SARF and βc was found. SARF–βc parameterizations in the form of polynomial fits were derived that exhibit an estimated uncertainty of ±(1030)%. These parameterizations can be utilized to analyze data of upcoming lidar satellite missions and for other purposes. The EARLINET-based parameterizations can be applied to lidar measurements at mostly continental, highly industrialized sites with limited maritime influence (Europe, North America), whereas the INDOEX parameterizations rather can be employed in polluted maritime locations, e.g., coastal regions of south and east Asia.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, "Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, "Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellites," Science 308, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, "Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations--description and examples of use," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1855-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multi-year aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2003JD003538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring III, U. N. Singh, T. Itabe, and Z. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, J. H. Mather, and E. E. Clothiaux, "The k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation for a shortwave radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 109-121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

1964 (1)

A. Ångström, "The parameters of atmospheric turbidity," Tellus 16, 64-75 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, J. H. Mather, and E. E. Clothiaux, "The k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation for a shortwave radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 109-121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multi-year aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2003JD003538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Amodeo, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, "AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120 km)," Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1986).

Anderson, J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ångström, A.

A. Ångström, "The parameters of atmospheric turbidity," Tellus 16, 64-75 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multi-year aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2003JD003538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Balin, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Bergstrom, R. W.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Böckmann, C.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Boselli, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Bösenberg, J.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Browell, E. V.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cantrell, W.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Cass, G. R.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson and J. Heintzenberg, Aerosol Forcing of Climate (Wiley, 1995).

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, "AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120 km)," Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1986).

Chourdakis, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Chung, C. E.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A. D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clothiaux, E. E.

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, J. H. Mather, and E. E. Clothiaux, "The k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation for a shortwave radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 109-121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, "AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120 km)," Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1986).

Coakley, J. A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Collins, W. D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Comerón, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Conant, W. C.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cormick, M. P.

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring III, U. N. Singh, T. Itabe, and Z. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crean, K. A.

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, "Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Tomasi, F.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Diner, D. J.

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, "Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dulac, F.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eixmann, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Ferrare, R. A.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiebig, M.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiebig and J. A. Ogren, "Retrieval and climatology of the aerosol asymmetry parameter in the NOAA aerosol monitoring network," submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Franke, K.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2003JD003538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Gaitley, B. J.

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, "Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C. S.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Giehl, H.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Grigorov, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Guan, H.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hågåd, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Hartley, W. S.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson and J. Heintzenberg, Aerosol Forcing of Climate (Wiley, 1995).

Herber, A.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoff, R. M.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, "Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Howard, S.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Howell, S.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iarlori, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Ismail, S.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
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Jäkel, E.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
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Jayaraman, A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jayaweera, K.

Jonsson, H. H.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R. A.

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, "Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kandel, R.

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, "Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellites," Science 308, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, S.

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, J. H. Mather, and E. E. Clothiaux, "The k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation for a shortwave radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 109-121 (1999).
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M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
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Kiehl, J. T.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirsche, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Kneizys, F. X.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, "AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120 km)," Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1986).

Kolarov, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Konguem, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Kreipl, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Krishnamurti, T. N.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumpf, W.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Kylling, A.

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, "Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations--description and examples of use," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1855-1877 (2005).
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Larchevêque, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Leiterer, U.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lelieveld, J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Liou, K. N.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loeb, N.

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, "Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellites," Science 308, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubin, D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martonchik, J. V.

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, "Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mather, J. H.

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, J. H. Mather, and E. E. Clothiaux, "The k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation for a shortwave radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 109-121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matthey, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Matthias, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Mattis, I.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multi-year aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Mayer, B.

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, "Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations--description and examples of use," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1855-1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McFarquhar, G.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mekler, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Melfi, S. H.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

Minnis, P.

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, "Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellites," Science 308, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mironova, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Mitra, A. P.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mona, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Müller, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multi-year aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2003JD003538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Music, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Nickovic, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Novakov, T.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ogren, J. A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiebig and J. A. Ogren, "Retrieval and climatology of the aerosol asymmetry parameter in the NOAA aerosol monitoring network," submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Pandolfi, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Papayannis, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Pappalardo, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Pelon, J. R.

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring III, U. N. Singh, T. Itabe, and Z. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perez, C.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Perrone, R. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Persson, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Pilewskie, P.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
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Platt, C. M. R.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Podgorny, I. A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pommier, J.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prather, K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Priestley, K.

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, "Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellites," Science 308, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, P. K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, V.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Randall, D. A.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rasch, P.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, M. S.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
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Redemann, J.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Resendes, D. P.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Riebesell, M.

Rizi, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Rocadenbosch, F.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Rodrigues, J. A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Rupert, S.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sadourny, R.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Satheesh, S. K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Scheele, R.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schneidenbach, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Schröder, M.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, R.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Shaw, G. E.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Sheridan, P.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, "AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120 km)," Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1986).

Simeonov, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Sobolewski, P.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Stachlewska, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Stamnes, K.

Stohl, A.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoyanov, D.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Thomas, G. E.

G. E. Thomas and K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Tsaknakis, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Tsay, S. C.

Turco, R. P.

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Valero, F. P. J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Venkataraman, C.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2003JD003538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multi-year aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar," Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Wang, X.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Weiss, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Wendisch, M.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiedensohler, A.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Wielicki, B. A.

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, "Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellites," Science 308, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring III, U. N. Singh, T. Itabe, and Z. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W.

Wong, T.

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, "Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellites," Science 308, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavrtanik, M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Zerefos, C.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, "Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations--description and examples of use," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1855-1877 (2005).
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Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

M. P. McCormick, D. M. Winker, E. V. Browell, J. A. Coakley, C. S. Gardner, R. M. Hoff, G. S. Kent, S. H. Melfi, R. T. Menzies, C. M. R. Platt, D. A. Randall, and J. A. Reagan, "Scientific investigations planned for the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 205-214 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (11)

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Althausen, "Multi-year aerosol observations with dual-wavelength Raman lidar in the framework of EARLINET," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, K. A. Crean, and B. Holben, "Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Redemann, R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A. Ferrare, and E. V. Browell, "Retrieving the vertical structure of the effective aerosol complex index of refraction from a combination of aerosol in situ and remote sensing measurements during TARFOX," J. Geophys. Res. 105, (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. S. Reddy, F. Wagner, and R. Scheele, "Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, and F. Wagner, "Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: microphysical particle properties and single scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2003JD003538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, and B. Mayer, "Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004392 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, "Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 371-398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, and A. Ansmann, "Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2000JD0002002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, K. Franke, and D. Althausen, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, and U. Wandinger, "European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD001109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

S. Kato, T. P. Ackerman, J. H. Mather, and E. E. Clothiaux, "The k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation for a shortwave radiative transfer model," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 109-121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. M. Winker, J. R. Pelon, and M. P. Cormick, "The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring III, U. N. Singh, T. Itabe, and Z. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, "Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellites," Science 308, 825 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellus (1)

A. Ångström, "The parameters of atmospheric turbidity," Tellus 16, 64-75 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. J. Charlson and J. Heintzenberg, Aerosol Forcing of Climate (Wiley, 1995).

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, "AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120 km)," Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1986).

M. Fiebig and J. A. Ogren, "Retrieval and climatology of the aerosol asymmetry parameter in the NOAA aerosol monitoring network," submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

European Space Agency, "EarthCARE-Earth clouds, aerosols, and radiation explorer," Rep. ESA SP-1257 (1) (European Space Research and Technology Center, 2001), http://ravel.esrin.esa.it/docs/splowbar1257lowbar1lowbarearthcaresc.pdf (2001).

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amiridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågåd, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Konguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Perez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, "EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to establish an aerosol climatology," Report 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, 2003).

G. E. Thomas and K. Stamnes, Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scatterplot of particle optical thickness τ as a function of column particle backscatter coefficient β c (both at 532 nm wavelength). Solid curve, polynomial fit of the data [see Eq. (8); fit coefficients are given in Table 1). The symbols denote different aerosol conditions in terms of column lidar ratio S c (squares, S c > 70 sr ; triangles, 70 sr S c > 50 sr ; stars, 50 sr S c > 30 sr ; pluses, S c < 30 sr ). The data stem from EARLINET.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1 but for the INDOEX data set. Dashed line, fit results if only data with S c > 30 sr are considered.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatterplots of the albedo SARF at the TOA [(a) Δ A ; see Eq. (5)] and of the irradiance SARF at the TOA [(b) Δ F ( TOA ) ; see Eq. (6)] and at the BOA [(c) Δ F ( BOA ) ; see Eq. (7)] as a function of column-particle backscatter coefficient β c at 532 nm wavelength. Solid curves, polynomial fits of the data [see Eq. (9)]. The calculations were performed for solar zenith angle θ s = 30 ° and particle single-scattering albedo ω = 0.95 . The symbols have the same meaning as for Fig. 1. EARLINET cases are shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 but for solar zenith angle θ s = 70 ° .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but for the INDOEX data set and particle single-scattering albedo ω = 0.90 . Dashed curves, fit results if only data with S c > 30 sr are considered.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 4 but without the scatterplot points; only the parameterization curves are shown. Different input combinations have been used for the parameterization. Solid curves are computed for aerosol-particle asymmetry parameter g = 0.60 ; particle single-scattering albedo ω = 0.95 (the solid curves are identical to those in Fig. 4). The remaining curves are marked as follows: dotted curves, g = 0.65 and ω = 0.95 ; dashed curves, g = 0.55 and ω = 0.95 ; solid curves with open triangles, g = 0.60 and ω = 0.90 ; solid curves with open squares, g = 0.60 and ω = 1.00 . The data stem from EARLINET. The calculations were performed for a solar zenith angle θ s = 70 ° .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Parameterization coefficients a i , Δ A , a i , Δ F ( TOA ) , and a i , Δ F ( BOA ) ( i = 0 , 1 , 2 ) for (a)–(c) the albedo SARF at the TOA and the irradiance SARF at (d)–(f) the TOA and (g)–(i) the BOA as functions of solar zenith angle θ s . The data stem from the EARLINET data set. Solid curves, polynomial fits of the data [see Eq. (10); fit coefficients are given in the top of Table 4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 7 but for the INDOEX data set and particle single-scattering albedo ω = 0.90 . The fit coefficients are given in the top of Table 4.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fit Coefficients a i ( i = 0, 1, 2) to Parameterize Spectral Aerosol Optical Thickness τ at 532 nm Wavelength a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fit Standard Errors ϵ for the Parameterizations of Albedo SARF at the TOA, ϵΔ A , and the Irradiance SARF at the TOA, ϵΔ F (TOA) , and at the BOA, ϵΔ F (BOA)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Average Effect δ (Averaged over the β c Range Investigated) of Changes of Δ g = ±0.05 and Δω = ±0.05 on the Albedo SARF, δΔ A , and the Irradiance SARF at the TOA, δ ΔF (TOA), and the BOA, δ ΔF (BOA) a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Fit Coefficients b j , Δ A , b j , Δ F ( TOA ) , and b j , Δ F ( BOA ) ( j = 0 , , 5 ) to Parameterize Fit Coefficients a i , Δ A , a i , Δ F ( BOA ) , and a i , Δ F ( TOA ) ( i = 0 , 1 , 2 ) for the Albedo SARF at the TOA, Δ A , and the Irradiance SARF at the TOA, Δ F ( TOA ) , and at the BOA, Δ F ( BOA ) ) a

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ = α ( z ) d z .
β c = β ( z ) d z .
S c = τ / β c .
A = F ( TOA ) F ( TOA ) .
Δ A = A AP + R - A R .
Δ F ( TOA ) = [ F ( TOA ) ] R - [ F ( TOA ) ] AP + R ,
Δ F ( BOA ) = [ F ( BOA ) - F ( BOA ) ] R - [ F ( BOA ) - F ( BOA ) ] AP + R .
τ ( β c ) = i = 0 2 a i , τ β c i ,
ψ ( β c , θ s ) = i = 0 2 a i , ψ ( θ s ) β c i .
a j , ψ ( θ s ) = j = 0 5 b j , ψ θ s j .

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