Abstract

Third-harmonic generation (THG) in air in tight-focusing conditions is presented. Variation of the pulse duration supplied optimal conditions for THG by femtosecond pulses that varied in the range 1101300  fs. We show that this third-harmonic generation was caused by Kerr-induced phase variations of fundamental and harmonic beams. Various characteristics (laser intensity, focusing conditions, pulse duration, air pressure, etc.) of THG in air were analyzed to optimize this process. The THG conversion efficiency of 795  nm, 300  fs radiation was 1×103. The harmonic radiation did not show considerable disruption of its spectral and spatial distribution in tight focusing conditions for intensities as high as 5×1014W  cm2.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57-72 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Baskus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "16-fs, 1-µJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
    [Crossref]
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  11. F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Peatross, S. Baskus, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Spectral-spatial measurements of fundamental and third-harmonic light of intense 25-fs laser pulses focused in a gas cell," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 186-192 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 59-63 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Marcus, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, "Third-harmonic generation at atmospheric pressure in methane by use of intense femtosecond pulses in the tight-focusing limit," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 792-800 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y.-D. Qin, H. Yang, C.-J. Zhu, and Q. Gong, "Intense femtosecond laser-induced second-harmonic generation in atmospheric-pressure air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 581-584 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, "Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90-94 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzaewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822-3825 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. K. N. Drabovich, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "An effect of Kerr nonlinearity on the efficiency of optical harmonic generation in isotropic media," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 616-619 (1985).
  19. R. A. Ganeev, V. V. Gorbushin, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "Optical harmonic generation in media with positive dispersion," Appl. Phys. B 41, 69-71 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147-149 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of lambda = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 2508-2514 (1982).

2005 (1)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y.-D. Qin, H. Yang, C.-J. Zhu, and Q. Gong, "Intense femtosecond laser-induced second-harmonic generation in atmospheric-pressure air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 581-584 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1993 (2)

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, "Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse," JETP Lett. 58, 900-906 (1993).

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, "Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90-94 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzaewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822-3825 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, V. V. Gorbushin, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "Optical harmonic generation in media with positive dispersion," Appl. Phys. B 41, 69-71 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

K. N. Drabovich, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "An effect of Kerr nonlinearity on the efficiency of optical harmonic generation in isotropic media," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 616-619 (1985).

1982 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of lambda = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 2508-2514 (1982).

1978 (1)

L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147-149 (1978).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57-72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baskus, S.

Becker, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzaewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822-3825 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. L.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, W. V.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzaewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822-3825 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Downer, M. C.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, "Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse," JETP Lett. 58, 900-906 (1993).

Drabovich, K. N.

K. N. Drabovich, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "An effect of Kerr nonlinearity on the efficiency of optical harmonic generation in isotropic media," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 616-619 (1985).

Esarey, E.

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, "Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90-94 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, A. B.

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ferray, M.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, V. V. Gorbushin, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "Optical harmonic generation in media with positive dispersion," Appl. Phys. B 41, 69-71 (1986).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of lambda = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 2508-2514 (1982).

Gong, Q.

Y.-D. Qin, H. Yang, C.-J. Zhu, and Q. Gong, "Intense femtosecond laser-induced second-harmonic generation in atmospheric-pressure air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 581-584 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gorbushin, V. V.

R. A. Ganeev, V. V. Gorbushin, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "Optical harmonic generation in media with positive dispersion," Appl. Phys. B 41, 69-71 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gravel, J.-F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Henis, Z.

Iwasaki, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Khudaiberganov, S. T.

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of lambda = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 2508-2514 (1982).

Kim, A. V.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, "Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse," JETP Lett. 58, 900-906 (1993).

Koroteev, N. I.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kulagin, I. A.

R. A. Ganeev, V. V. Gorbushin, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "Optical harmonic generation in media with positive dispersion," Appl. Phys. B 41, 69-71 (1986).
[Crossref]

K. N. Drabovich, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "An effect of Kerr nonlinearity on the efficiency of optical harmonic generation in isotropic media," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 616-619 (1985).

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of lambda = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 2508-2514 (1982).

L'Huillier, A.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
[Crossref]

Li, X. F.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. J.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. T.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, "Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90-94 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lompre, L. A.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
[Crossref]

Loy, M. M. T.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ma, J. X.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mainfray, G.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
[Crossref]

Malcuit, M. S.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzaewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822-3825 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manus, C.

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
[Crossref]

Marcus, G.

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 59-63 (1998).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

Naumov, A. N.

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

New, G. H. C.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57-72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Obara, M.

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 59-63 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peatross, J.

Qin, Y.-D.

Y.-D. Qin, H. Yang, C.-J. Zhu, and Q. Gong, "Intense femtosecond laser-induced second-harmonic generation in atmospheric-pressure air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 581-584 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rundquist, A.

Rzaewski, K.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzaewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822-3825 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scalora, M.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, "Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse," JETP Lett. 58, 900-906 (1993).

Sheng, Z. M.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Silin, V. P.

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

Taft, G.

Tamaki, Y.

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 59-63 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tarasevitch, A. P.

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

Teng, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ting, A.

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, "Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90-94 (1993).
[Crossref]

Umstadter, D.

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, "Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90-94 (1993).
[Crossref]

Uryupin, S. A.

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

Usmanov, T.

R. A. Ganeev, V. V. Gorbushin, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "Optical harmonic generation in media with positive dispersion," Appl. Phys. B 41, 69-71 (1986).
[Crossref]

K. N. Drabovich, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "An effect of Kerr nonlinearity on the efficiency of optical harmonic generation in isotropic media," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 616-619 (1985).

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of lambda = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 2508-2514 (1982).

Vanin, E. V.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, "Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse," JETP Lett. 58, 900-906 (1993).

von der Linde, D.

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ward, J. F.

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57-72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z. Y.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y.-D. Qin, H. Yang, C.-J. Zhu, and Q. Gong, "Intense femtosecond laser-induced second-harmonic generation in atmospheric-pressure air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 581-584 (2000).
[Crossref]

Young, J. F.

L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147-149 (1978).
[Crossref]

Yu, W.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zeek, Z.

Zhang, J.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Zhu, C.-J.

Y.-D. Qin, H. Yang, C.-J. Zhu, and Q. Gong, "Intense femtosecond laser-induced second-harmonic generation in atmospheric-pressure air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 581-584 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zigler, A.

Zych, L. J.

L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147-149 (1978).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, "Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 59-63 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y.-D. Qin, H. Yang, C.-J. Zhu, and Q. Gong, "Intense femtosecond laser-induced second-harmonic generation in atmospheric-pressure air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 581-584 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, V. V. Gorbushin, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "Optical harmonic generation in media with positive dispersion," Appl. Phys. B 41, 69-71 (1986).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "3rd harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell," Europhys. Lett. 5, 601-605 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. J. Zych and J. F. Young, "Limitation of 3547 to 1182 Å conversion efficiency in Xe," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 147-149 (1978).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, "Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90-94 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

JETP Lett. (1)

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, "Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse," JETP Lett. 58, 900-906 (1993).

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

A. B. Fedotov, A. N. Naumov, V. P. Silin, S. A. Uryupin, A. M. Zheltikov, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Third-harmonic generation in a laser-pre-excited gas: the role of excited-state neutrals," Phys. Lett. A 271, 407-412 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, "Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam," Phys. Rev. 185, 57-72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzaewski, "Anomalies in optical harmonic generation using high-intensity laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822-3825 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Z. Zhao, Y. J. Li, H. Teng,Y. T. Li, Z. H. Wang, Z. L. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, J. X. Ma, W. Yu, and Z. M. Sheng, "Third-order harmonic generation by self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 67, 015401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. N. Drabovich, I. A. Kulagin, and T. Usmanov, "An effect of Kerr nonlinearity on the efficiency of optical harmonic generation in isotropic media," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 616-619 (1985).

R. A. Ganeev, I. A. Kulagin, T. Usmanov, and S. T. Khudaiberganov, "Investigation of the generation of lambda = 118.2 nm coherent radiation in rare gases," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 2508-2514 (1982).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence on intensity of TH emission for (a) 230 fs and (b) 140 fs pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I 3(p) dependence of TH output on air pressure measured for a 110 fs pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of TH emission on pulse duration for a 100 mm focal-length lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

I 3(tp ) dependence of TH output on air pressure for (a) 0.47 and (b) 0.21 mJ pulses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra of (a) TH emission and (b) fundamental radiation at several laser intensities.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial distributions of the fundamental radiation propagating through a focal spot at intensities below optical breakdown; (a) I 1 = 9 × 1013, (b) I 1 = 2 × 1014, and (c) I 1 = 3 × 1014 W cm−2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spatial shapes of TH radiation at several intensities of fundamental radiation: (a) 7 × 1013, (b) 1 × 1014, and (c) 3 × 1014 W cm−2.

Equations (4)

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E 1 z i 2 k 1 Δ E 1 = p ( N p N e p ) ( i γ 11 | E 1 | 2 E 1 + i γ 13 | E 3 | 2 E 1 + i γ 1 E 3 E 1 2 × exp ( i Δ k z ) - α 1 p | E 1 | 2 l 1 p 2 E 1 ) + i β 1 N e p E 1 ,
E 3 z i 2 k 3 Δ E 3 = p ( N p N e p ) ( i γ 31 | E 1 | 2 E 3 + i γ 33 | E 3 | 2 E 3 + i γ 3 E 1     3 × exp ( i Δ k z ) α 3 p | E 3 | 2 l 3 p 2 E 3 ) + i β 3 N e p E 3 ,
N e p t = ( N p N e p ) × ( σ 1 p | E 1 | 2 l 1 p + σ 3 p | E 3 | 2 l 3 p ) ,
Δ n = ω p     2 / 2 ω 2 ,

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