Abstract

Single-shot thermometry with dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy that employs amplified spontaneous emission from a broadband modeless dye laser has been examined. Evaluation of single-shot spectra of air, N2,    and    O2 showed an improved temperature precision at room temperature compared with the precision obtained with a conventional dye laser. A comparison was also made between the use of single-mode and multimode Nd:YAG lasers as sources for narrowband radiation, and in all cases the single-mode Nd:YAG laser resulted in higher precision. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, 1996).
  2. D. A. Greenhalgh, "Quantitative CARS spectroscopy," in Advances in Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R.J. H.Clark and R.E.Hester, eds. (Wiley, 1988), pp. 193-251.
  3. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, "Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction," Appl. Opt. 25, 4493-4500 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. C. Eckbreth and T. J. Anderson, "Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump-Stokes spectral separation," Opt. Lett. 5, 496-498 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Non-intrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," ASME report 99-GT-114 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1999), pp. 1-9.
  7. M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940-945 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Ewart, "A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable laser," Opt. Commun. 55, 124-126 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Snowdon, S. M. Skippon, and P. Ewart, "Improved precision of single-shot temperature measurements by broadband CARS by use of a modeless dye laser," Appl. Opt. 30, 1008-1010 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, and T. Parameswaran, "Noise in single-shot broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy that employs a modeless dye laser," Appl. Opt. 33, 8295-8301 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. F. Kaminski and P. Ewart, "Multiplex H2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry with a modeless laser," Appl. Opt. 36, 731-734 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. W. Hahn, C. W. Park, and S. N. Park, "Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with a modeless dye laser," Appl. Opt. 36, 6722-6728 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, "A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466-2477 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modeling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. I. Inter-branch interference effect," Appl. Phys. B 75, 763-769 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, and D. Nilsson, "Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination," Appl. Opt. 28, 3206-3219 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, "Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air," Appl Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, and A. M. Jacobi, "Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13-26 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Kröll and D. Sandell, "Influence of laser-mode statistics on noise in nonlinear-optical processes--application to single-shot broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1910-1926 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. A. Greenhalgh and S. T. Whittley, "Mode noise in broadband CARS spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 24, 907-913 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940-945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modeling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. I. Inter-branch interference effect," Appl. Phys. B 75, 763-769 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, and A. M. Jacobi, "Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13-26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, "Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air," Appl Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, "A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466-2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (2)

1985 (2)

Afzelius, M.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940-945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modeling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. I. Inter-branch interference effect," Appl. Phys. B 75, 763-769 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, "A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466-2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, and D. Nilsson, "Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination," Appl. Opt. 28, 3206-3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, "Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction," Appl. Opt. 25, 4493-4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Non-intrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," ASME report 99-GT-114 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1999), pp. 1-9.

Anderson, T. J.

Bengtsson, P.-E.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940-945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modeling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. I. Inter-branch interference effect," Appl. Phys. B 75, 763-769 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, "A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466-2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, and D. Nilsson, "Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination," Appl. Opt. 28, 3206-3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, "Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction," Appl. Opt. 25, 4493-4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Non-intrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," ASME report 99-GT-114 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1999), pp. 1-9.

Berger, H.

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bonamy, J.

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, "A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466-2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Non-intrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," ASME report 99-GT-114 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1999), pp. 1-9.

Brackmann, C.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaussard, F.

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dreier, T.

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

Edner, H.

Ewart, P.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

D. A. Greenhalgh and S. T. Whittley, "Mode noise in broadband CARS spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 24, 907-913 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Greenhalgh, "Quantitative CARS spectroscopy," in Advances in Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R.J. H.Clark and R.E.Hester, eds. (Wiley, 1988), pp. 193-251.

Hahn, J. W.

Jacobi, A. M.

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, and A. M. Jacobi, "Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13-26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, C. F.

Kearney, S. P.

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, and A. M. Jacobi, "Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13-26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, S.

Leipertz, A.

T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, "Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air," Appl Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucht, R. P.

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, and A. M. Jacobi, "Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13-26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, "A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466-2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, D.

Parameswaran, T.

Park, C. W.

Park, S. N.

Sandell, D.

Sawchuk, R. A.

Seeger, T.

T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, "Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air," Appl Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skippon, S. M.

Snelling, D. R.

Snowdon, P.

Whittley, S. T.

Appl Opt. (1)

T. Seeger and A. Leipertz, "Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air," Appl Opt. 35, 2665-2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modeling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. I. Inter-branch interference effect," Appl. Phys. B 75, 763-769 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. Bood, J. Bonamy, F. Chaussard, H. Berger, and T. Dreier, "Dual-broadband rotational CARS modelling of nitrogen at pressures up to 9 MPa. II. Rotational Raman line widths," Appl. Phys. B 75, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. (1)

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, and A. M. Jacobi, "Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)," Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13-26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, "A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466-2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940-945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13-R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Ewart, "A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable laser," Opt. Commun. 55, 124-126 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

D. A. Greenhalgh, "Quantitative CARS spectroscopy," in Advances in Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R.J. H.Clark and R.E.Hester, eds. (Wiley, 1988), pp. 193-251.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Non-intrusive temperature and oxygen concentration measurements in a catalytic combustor using rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy," ASME report 99-GT-114 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1999), pp. 1-9.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ten consecutive single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS spectra recorded in O2 at T = 294 K and P = 0.1 MPa. The signal has been normalized to the highest peak intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average noise on the rotational Raman peaks and corresponding standard deviation of the evaluated temperatures of 300 single shots in different gases at T = 294 K and P = 0.1 MPa. Open squares and open triangles correspond to use of a conventional dye laser with a MM and a SM Nd:YAG laser, respectively. Filled squares and filled triangles correspond to a modeless dye laser with MM and SM Nd:YAG lasers, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Standard deviation of the temperature of 300 single-shot spectra recorded in O2 at T = 294, P = 0.1 MPa, and several signal levels (filled squares). The signal level is defined as the average count of the maximum peak for a series of 300 spectra. A comparison is also made with theoretically generated single-shot spectra of oxygen for two cases: inclusion of photon shot noise only (filled circles) and inclusion of photon shot noise, dark noise, and read-out noise (open circles).

Equations (1)

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σ ( I ) I = 1 2 π 1 / 2 ( Ω Γ r ) 1 / 2 ,

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