Abstract

We present a new retrieval model designed to analyze the observations of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which is on board the ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT). The new geo-fit multitarget retrieval model (GMTR) implements the geo-fit two-dimensional inversion for the simultaneous retrieval of several targets including a set of atmospheric constituents that are not considered by the ground processor of the MIPAS experiment. We describe the innovative solutions adopted in the inversion algorithm and the main functionalities of the corresponding computer code. The performance of GMTR is compared with that of the MIPAS ground processor in terms of accuracy of the retrieval products. Furthermore, we show the capability of GMTR to resolve the horizontal structures of the atmosphere. The new retrieval model is implemented in an optimized computer code that is distributed by the European Space Agency as “open source” in a package that includes a full set of auxiliary data for the retrieval of 28 atmospheric targets.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, "Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing," Appl. Opt. 39, 1323-1340 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Carlotti, "Global-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning atmospheric measurements," Appl. Opt. 27, 3250-3254 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, "Geo-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements," Appl. Opt. 40, 1872-1885 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani and M. Ridolfi, "Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84, 141-157 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Ridolfi, L. Magnani, M. Carlotti, and B. M. Dinelli, "MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 1-11 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, "Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders," Appl. Opt. 41, 3665-3673 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Carlotti and B. Carli, "Approach to the design and Data Analysis of a limb-scanning experiment," Appl. Opt. 33, 3237-3249 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).
  10. "World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84)," http://www.wgs84.com/ (UK), http://Earthinfo.nga.mil/GandG/puborder.html (USA).
  11. J. T. Houghton, The Physics of Atmospheres, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1986).
  12. L. L. Strow, H. E. Motteler, R. G. Benson, S. E. Hannon, and S. De Souza-Machado, "Fast computation of monochromatic infrared atmospheric transmittance using compressed look-up tables," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 481-493 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Morris, "Generation of compressed cross-section look-up tables for NRT MIPAS retrievals," Technical Rep. PO-TN-OXF-GS-0011 for ESA study 11886/96/NL/GS (ESA, 1997).
    [PubMed]
  14. R. Wells, "Generation of optimized spectral grids," Technical Rep. PO-TN-OXF-GS-0010 for ESA study 11886/96/NL/GS. (ESA, 1997).

2004 (1)

M. Ridolfi, L. Magnani, M. Carlotti, and B. M. Dinelli, "MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 1-11 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani and M. Ridolfi, "Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84, 141-157 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

L. L. Strow, H. E. Motteler, R. G. Benson, S. E. Hannon, and S. De Souza-Machado, "Fast computation of monochromatic infrared atmospheric transmittance using compressed look-up tables," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 481-493 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1988 (1)

Alpaslan, D.

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani and M. Ridolfi, "Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84, 141-157 (2003).
[Crossref]

Benson, R. G.

L. L. Strow, H. E. Motteler, R. G. Benson, S. E. Hannon, and S. De Souza-Machado, "Fast computation of monochromatic infrared atmospheric transmittance using compressed look-up tables," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 481-493 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Carli, B.

Carlotti, M.

De Souza-Machado, S.

L. L. Strow, H. E. Motteler, R. G. Benson, S. E. Hannon, and S. De Souza-Machado, "Fast computation of monochromatic infrared atmospheric transmittance using compressed look-up tables," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 481-493 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dinelli, B. M.

M. Ridolfi, L. Magnani, M. Carlotti, and B. M. Dinelli, "MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 1-11 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani and M. Ridolfi, "Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84, 141-157 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, "Geo-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements," Appl. Opt. 40, 1872-1885 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Hoepfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, "Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing," Appl. Opt. 39, 1323-1340 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dudhia, A.

Flaud, J.-M.

Hannon, S. E.

L. L. Strow, H. E. Motteler, R. G. Benson, S. E. Hannon, and S. De Souza-Machado, "Fast computation of monochromatic infrared atmospheric transmittance using compressed look-up tables," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 481-493 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hoepfner, M.

Houghton, J. T.

J. T. Houghton, The Physics of Atmospheres, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1986).

Jay, V. L.

Magnani, L.

M. Ridolfi, L. Magnani, M. Carlotti, and B. M. Dinelli, "MIPAS-ENVISAT limb-sounding measurements: trade-off study for improvement of horizontal resolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 1-11 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani and M. Ridolfi, "Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84, 141-157 (2003).
[Crossref]

Morris, P.

P. Morris, "Generation of compressed cross-section look-up tables for NRT MIPAS retrievals," Technical Rep. PO-TN-OXF-GS-0011 for ESA study 11886/96/NL/GS (ESA, 1997).
[PubMed]

Morris, P. E.

Motteler, H. E.

L. L. Strow, H. E. Motteler, R. G. Benson, S. E. Hannon, and S. De Souza-Machado, "Fast computation of monochromatic infrared atmospheric transmittance using compressed look-up tables," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 481-493 (1998).
[Crossref]

Raspollini, P.

Ridolfi, M.

Robinson, D. K.

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, "Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders," Appl. Opt. 41, 3665-3673 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000).
[Crossref]

Stiller, G.

Strow, L. L.

L. L. Strow, H. E. Motteler, R. G. Benson, S. E. Hannon, and S. De Souza-Machado, "Fast computation of monochromatic infrared atmospheric transmittance using compressed look-up tables," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 481-493 (1998).
[Crossref]

von Clarmann, T.

Wells, R.

R. Wells, "Generation of optimized spectral grids," Technical Rep. PO-TN-OXF-GS-0010 for ESA study 11886/96/NL/GS. (ESA, 1997).

Wells, R. J.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

L. L. Strow, H. E. Motteler, R. G. Benson, S. E. Hannon, and S. De Souza-Machado, "Fast computation of monochromatic infrared atmospheric transmittance using compressed look-up tables," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 481-493 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. M. Dinelli, D. Alpaslan, M. Carlotti, L. Magnani and M. Ridolfi, "Multitarget retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84, 141-157 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

"World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84)," http://www.wgs84.com/ (UK), http://Earthinfo.nga.mil/GandG/puborder.html (USA).

J. T. Houghton, The Physics of Atmospheres, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1986).

P. Morris, "Generation of compressed cross-section look-up tables for NRT MIPAS retrievals," Technical Rep. PO-TN-OXF-GS-0011 for ESA study 11886/96/NL/GS (ESA, 1997).
[PubMed]

R. Wells, "Generation of optimized spectral grids," Technical Rep. PO-TN-OXF-GS-0010 for ESA study 11886/96/NL/GS. (ESA, 1997).

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-dimensional discretization of the atmosphere and ray tracing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elements of a two-dimensional discretization of the atmosphere with elliptical geometry. Three levels and two radii of the atmospheric discretization are represented with a highly distorted scale. The clove delimited by red contours is crossed by the path of a line of sight. The Cartesian reference frame and the position of the North pole (N) are also reported.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ESD of the temperature retrieved with the new retrieval model (panel a) and with the ORM (panel b). The gray bands correspond to regions of the atmosphere in which the presence of clouds invalidates the observations. The white strip across the full altitude range in panel (b) corresponds to a limb scan on which the ORM retrieval does not converge.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Total error of the retrieved temperature. Same format of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ESD of the retrieved H2O VMR. Same format of Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Total error of the retrieved H2O VMR. Same format of Fig. 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieved NO2 VMR values in a region around the crossing of the South terminator. Panel (a): the separation between the retrieved profiles is about 5° (an altitude profile was retrieved in correspondence of each measured limb scan). Panel (b): the separation between the retrieved profiles is 3.6°. The retrieval grid points are marked with open diamonds.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Computing time required by the “main targets” analysis vs the number of used CPUs of a linux cluster.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Computing Time (min)

Equations (6)

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y = ( K T S n       1 K ) 1 K T S n       1 n ,
χ 2 = n T S n     1 n .
χ R       2 = χ 2 ( m n )
V y = ( K T S n     1 K ) 1 .
S = p = 1 N B p [ 1 exp ( τ p ) ] ( k = p + 1 N exp ( τ k , p ) ) ,
τ p = g = 1 N gas c g , p col g , p + c cont p col air p .

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