Abstract

Breath analysis can be a valuable, noninvasive tool for the clinical diagnosis of a number of pathological conditions. The detection of ammonia in exhaled breath is of particular interest for it has been linked to kidney malfunction and peptic ulcers. Pulsed cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the mid-IR region has developed into a sensitive analytical technique for trace gas analysis. A gas analyzer based on a pulsed mid-IR quantum cascade laser operating near 970cm1 has been developed for the detection of ammonia levels in breath. We report a sensitivity of 50 parts per billion with a 20 s time resolution for ammonia detection in breath with this system. The challenges and possible solutions for the quantification of ammonia in human breath by the described technique are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," in Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices III, M. Razeghi and G. J. Brown, eds., Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A (2006).

A. Lytkine, J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Characterization of a 10.3-m pulsed DFB quantum cascade laser," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 63, 947-951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Webber, M. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Fiber-amplifier-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with near-infrared tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2119-2126 (2003).

G. von Basum, H. Dahnke, D. Halmer, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, "Online recording of ethane traces in human breath via infrared laser spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 2583-2590 (2003).

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous NO and CO measurement in human breath with a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002).

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narsimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, "Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications," Appl. Phys. B 75, 391-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during haemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, "Characterization of the spectral behaviour of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer," Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. World 12, 27-33 (1999).

D. Smith, P. Spanel, and S. Davies, "Trace gases in breath of healthy volunteers when fasting and after a protein-calorie meal: a preliminary study," J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 1583-1588 (1999).

1998 (1)

P. Spanel, S. Davies, and D. Smith, "Quantification of ammonia in human breath by the selected ion flow tube analytical method using H3O+ and O2+ precursor ions," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 763-766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23, 229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Baghdassarian, O.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narsimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, "Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications," Appl. Phys. B 75, 391-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity-ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, L. M.

Boogaarts, M. G. H.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23, 229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

Dahnke, H.

G. von Basum, H. Dahnke, D. Halmer, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, "Online recording of ethane traces in human breath via infrared laser spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 2583-2590 (2003).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23, 229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davies, S.

D. Smith, P. Spanel, and S. Davies, "Trace gases in breath of healthy volunteers when fasting and after a protein-calorie meal: a preliminary study," J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 1583-1588 (1999).

P. Spanel, S. Davies, and D. Smith, "Quantification of ammonia in human breath by the selected ion flow tube analytical method using H3O+ and O2+ precursor ions," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 763-766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, G.

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, "Characterization of the spectral behaviour of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer," Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. M.

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

Gmachl, C.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, W.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during haemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grego, J.

Halmer, D.

G. von Basum, H. Dahnke, D. Halmer, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, "Online recording of ethane traces in human breath via infrared laser spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 2583-2590 (2003).

Hering, P.

G. von Basum, H. Dahnke, D. Halmer, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, "Online recording of ethane traces in human breath via infrared laser spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 2583-2590 (2003).

Holleman, I.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holler, F. G.

D. A. Skoog, F. G. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Saunders College, 1998).

Hutchinson, A. L.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, W.

A. Lytkine, J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Characterization of a 10.3-m pulsed DFB quantum cascade laser," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 63, 947-951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," in Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices III, M. Razeghi and G. J. Brown, eds., Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A (2006).

Jeffers, J.

Jongma, R. T.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
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Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23, 229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langford, N.

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, "Characterization of the spectral behaviour of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer," Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, K. K.

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Longbottom, C.

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

Lytkine, A.

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," in Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices III, M. Razeghi and G. J. Brown, eds., Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A (2006).

A. Lytkine, J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Characterization of a 10.3-m pulsed DFB quantum cascade laser," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 63, 947-951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manne, J.

A. Lytkine, J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Characterization of a 10.3-m pulsed DFB quantum cascade laser," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 63, 947-951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," in Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices III, M. Razeghi and G. J. Brown, eds., Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A (2006).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCann, P. J.

McMillan, L. C.

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity-ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miekisch, W.

J. Schubert, W. Miekisch, and G. Noldge-Schomburg, "VOC breath markers in critically ill patients: potentials and limitations," in Breath Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring, A. Amann and D. Smith, eds. (World Scientific, 2005).

Murtz, M.

G. von Basum, H. Dahnke, D. Halmer, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, "Online recording of ethane traces in human breath via infrared laser spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 2583-2590 (2003).

Namjou, K.

Narasimhan, L. R.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during haemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Narsimhan, L. R.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narsimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, "Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications," Appl. Phys. B 75, 391-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nieman, T. A.

D. A. Skoog, F. G. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Saunders College, 1998).

Noldge-Schomburg, G.

J. Schubert, W. Miekisch, and G. Noldge-Schomburg, "VOC breath markers in critically ill patients: potentials and limitations," in Breath Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring, A. Amann and D. Smith, eds. (World Scientific, 2005).

Normand, E.

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, "Characterization of the spectral behaviour of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer," Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Keefe, A.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

Patel, C. K. N.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Webber, M. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Fiber-amplifier-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with near-infrared tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2119-2126 (2003).

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narsimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, "Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications," Appl. Phys. B 75, 391-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during haemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, C.

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity-ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Potter, W.

Pushkarsky, M.

Pushkarsky, M. B.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narsimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, "Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications," Appl. Phys. B 75, 391-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, R. E.

Roller, C.

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

J. Schubert, W. Miekisch, and G. Noldge-Schomburg, "VOC breath markers in critically ill patients: potentials and limitations," in Breath Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring, A. Amann and D. Smith, eds. (World Scientific, 2005).

Selby, J. E. A.

Sivco, D. L.

Skeldon, K. D.

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

Skoog, D. A.

D. A. Skoog, F. G. Holler, and T. A. Nieman, Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Saunders College, 1998).

Smith, D.

D. Smith, P. Spanel, and S. Davies, "Trace gases in breath of healthy volunteers when fasting and after a protein-calorie meal: a preliminary study," J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 1583-1588 (1999).

P. Spanel, S. Davies, and D. Smith, "Quantification of ammonia in human breath by the selected ion flow tube analytical method using H3O+ and O2+ precursor ions," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 763-766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spanel, P.

D. Smith, P. Spanel, and S. Davies, "Trace gases in breath of healthy volunteers when fasting and after a protein-calorie meal: a preliminary study," J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 1583-1588 (1999).

P. Spanel, S. Davies, and D. Smith, "Quantification of ammonia in human breath by the selected ion flow tube analytical method using H3O+ and O2+ precursor ions," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 763-766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, O.

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," in Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices III, M. Razeghi and G. J. Brown, eds., Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A (2006).

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

A. Lytkine, J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Characterization of a 10.3-m pulsed DFB quantum cascade laser," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 63, 947-951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," in Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices III, M. Razeghi and G. J. Brown, eds., Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A (2006).

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von Basum, G.

G. von Basum, H. Dahnke, D. Halmer, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, "Online recording of ethane traces in human breath via infrared laser spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 2583-2590 (2003).

Webber, M. E.

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Webber, M. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, "Fiber-amplifier-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with near-infrared tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2119-2126 (2003).

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narsimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, "Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications," Appl. Phys. B 75, 391-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wyse, C. A.

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zalicki, P.

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, O. Baghdassarian, L. R. Narsimhan, and C. K. N. Patel, "Laser-based photoacoustic ammonia sensors for industrial applications," Appl. Phys. B 75, 391-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Pushkarsky, M. E. Webber, and C. K. N. Patel, "Ultra-sensitive ambient ammonia detection using CO2-laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 381-385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23, 229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. 97, 25-51 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity-ringdown spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (2)

G. von Basum, H. Dahnke, D. Halmer, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, "Online recording of ethane traces in human breath via infrared laser spectroscopy," J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 2583-2590 (2003).

D. Smith, P. Spanel, and S. Davies, "Trace gases in breath of healthy volunteers when fasting and after a protein-calorie meal: a preliminary study," J. Appl. Physiol. 87, 1583-1588 (1999).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

K. D. Skeldon, C. Patterson, C. A. Wyse, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, C. Longbottom, and L. C. McMillan, "The potential offered by real-time, high sensitivity monitoring of ethane in breath and some pilot studies using optical spectroscopy," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S376-S384 (2005).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Normand, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, "Characterization of the spectral behaviour of pulsed quantum cascade lasers using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer," Opt. Commun. 197, 115-120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Phys. World 12, 27-33 (1999).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during haemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Sukhorukov, A. Lytkine, J. Manne, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a pulsed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," in Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices III, M. Razeghi and G. J. Brown, eds., Proc. SPIE 6127, 61270A (2006).

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P. Spanel, S. Davies, and D. Smith, "Quantification of ammonia in human breath by the selected ion flow tube analytical method using H3O+ and O2+ precursor ions," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12, 763-766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

A. Lytkine, J. Manne, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, "Characterization of a 10.3-m pulsed DFB quantum cascade laser," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 63, 947-951 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Schubert, W. Miekisch, and G. Noldge-Schomburg, "VOC breath markers in critically ill patients: potentials and limitations," in Breath Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring, A. Amann and D. Smith, eds. (World Scientific, 2005).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of the cavity ringdown spectroscopy-based breath ammonia sensor. QC laser, quantum cascade laser mounted in an air-tight housing. TC, temperature controller; L 1 , L 2 , focusing and collimating lens, respectively; M 1 , M 2 , high reflectivity front and back mirrors, respectively; MCT, mercury–cadmium–telluride detector; MKS, mass flow meters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) NH3 line intensities near 10.3   μm taken from the HITRAN database, (b) CO 2 and H 2 O line intensities in the same spectral region also taken from the HITRAN database.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Detector response to a 30 ns long QC laser pulse injected into the empty ringdown cavity, (b) detector response to a typical ring-down event ( τ 800   ns ) after injection of a 30 ns long QC laser pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Breath spectrum as recorded with CRDS and HITRAN simulation of a sample with CO 2 (6%), H 2 O (5%), and NH 3 (300 ppb).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Water-vapor continuum measurements showing a shift in the cavity ringdown background. Measurements were taken at room temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top panel: Breath spectrum obtained by temperature tuning the laser from 966.90 to 968.39 cm 1 . The maximum of a NH 3 absorption line is located at point (a) (from HITRAN), (b) is the maximum of a CO 2 absorption line, and point (c) is at a symmetrically opposite position to that of (a) about the point (b). Bottom panel: Spectrum of ammonia at a concentration of 1 ppm obtained in the same spectral region.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calibration curves for ammonia obtained from measurements of NH3∕N2 samples at different concentrations at 967.35 and 968.05 cm 1 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ammonia concentration measurements of a simulated breath sample with a mixture of CO 2 , NH 3 , and N 2 . NH 3 and CO 2 levels were maintained at 480 ppb and 6%, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Measurements of breath taken from five subjects at approximately 11:00 a.m. (b) Breath ammonia levels of two subjects measured before and after the subjects had their lunch meal at 12:30 p.m.

Equations (5)

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τ 0 L c [ ( 1 R eff ) + α ( ν ) L ] ,
τ 0 L c ( 1 R eff ) .
α ( ν ) = τ 0 ( ν ) τ ( ν ) c τ 0 τ ( ν ) .
Γ 2 L c τ ,
Δ Γ 2 α ( ν ) L .

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