Abstract

A robust absorption spectrometer using the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) technique in a passive cavity is presented. The observed sensitivity, conceptually the detection threshold for the absorption cross section (cm2) multiplied by the concentration (cm3) and normalized by the averaging time, is measured to be 1.9×1012(1/cmHz). This high sensitivity arises from using the optical cavity to amplify the observed path length in the spectrometer while avoiding cavity resonances by careful design of the spot pattern within the cavity. The instrument is ideally suited for routine monitoring of trace gases in the near-infrared region. A spectrum showing ambient carbon monoxide at 1.57μm is presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2003

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ringdown spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw Integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6-15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 97, 25-52 (1997).

1994

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112-116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

Z. Li, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-57 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ringdown optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. Rabinowitz, B. N. Perry, and N. Levinos, "A continuously tunable sequential stokes raman laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 797-802 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

1980

1958

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. , 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

Anderson, J. G.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, R. G. T.

Z. Li, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-57 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, D. J.

Boogaarts, M. G. H.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112-116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ringdown spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chenevier, M.

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ringdown optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Engel, G. S.

G. S. Engel, "Cavity enhanced spectroscopic techniques for in situ measurement: pushing the limits of sensitivity," Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2004).

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery Numerical Recipes in C: The art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, J. C.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Harb, C. C.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ringdown spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herbelin, J. M.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jongma, R. T.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112-116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A.

Kwok, M. A.

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lapson, L.

Lehmann, K. K.

K. K. Lehmann, Math-CAD Worksheet University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (personal communication, May 2003).

K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, "The superposition principle and cavity ringdown spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263-10277 (1996).

Levinos, N.

P. Rabinowitz, B. N. Perry, and N. Levinos, "A continuously tunable sequential stokes raman laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 797-802 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-57 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

Mandlin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masser, C. S.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McKay, J. A.

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112-116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morville, J.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Keefe, A.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw Integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 97, 25-52 (1997).

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ringdown optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ringdown spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parker, D. H.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112-116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, "Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment," Appl. Opt. 40, 4904-4910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw Integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 97, 25-52 (1997).

J. B. Paul, "Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy of water clusters," Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1998).

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perry, B. N.

P. Rabinowitz, B. N. Perry, and N. Levinos, "A continuously tunable sequential stokes raman laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 797-802 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Press, W.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery Numerical Recipes in C: The art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Rabinowitz, P.

P. Rabinowitz, B. N. Perry, and N. Levinos, "A continuously tunable sequential stokes raman laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 797-802 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Reif, F.

F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics (McGraw-Hill, 1965).

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

J. Morville, D. Romanini, M. Chenevier, and A. Kachanov, "Effects of laser phase noise on the injection of a high-finesse cavity," Appl. Opt. 41, 6980-6990 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, "The superposition principle and cavity ringdown spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263-10277 (1996).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 97, 25-52 (1997).

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. , 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw Integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 97, 25-52 (1997).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ringdown spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, D. J.

Stedman, G. E.

Z. Li, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-57 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery Numerical Recipes in C: The art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. , 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Uenten, R. H.

Urevig, D. S.

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W.

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery Numerical Recipes in C: The art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

Wilke, B.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ringdown spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wodtke, A. M.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112-116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ringdown spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. Meijer, M. G. H. Boogaarts, R. T. Jongma, D. H. Parker, and A. M. Wodtke, "Coherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 112-116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, "cw Integrated cavity output spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Rabinowitz, B. N. Perry, and N. Levinos, "A continuously tunable sequential stokes raman laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 797-802 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandlin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Z. Li, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-57 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. , 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ringdown spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ringdown optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. S. Engel, "Cavity enhanced spectroscopic techniques for in situ measurement: pushing the limits of sensitivity," Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, 2004).

J. B. Paul, "Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy of water clusters," Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1998).

K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, "The superposition principle and cavity ringdown spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263-10277 (1996).

K. K. Lehmann, Math-CAD Worksheet University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (personal communication, May 2003).

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O'Keefe, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 97, 25-52 (1997).

F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics (McGraw-Hill, 1965).

W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery Numerical Recipes in C: The art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1992).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Instrument layout of a fiber-coupled near-infrared ICOS instrument. By virtue of the fiber coupling, the laser can be split into a diagnostic etalon for monitoring the frequency throughout the scan. The balance of the light couples into the optical cavity, and light escaping from the cavity is focused onto a detector. The signal from the detector is digitized and sent to the computer for processing and fitting. The only free-space optics in the system are the cavity mirrors and the condensing lens in front of the detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Traces demonstrating three different levels of the noise resulting from spurious coupling to optical resonances within the cavity. The lower trace results from a nearly on-axis alignment and is displayed at 1∕1000 of the scale of the other two traces. The middle trace is an off-axis alignment that is far from ideal, but the signal previously obscured by the spurious couplings now becomes clear. The top trace is a nearly ideal off-axis alignment that still shows some optical noise, but yields a clear absorption signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Mode spectra shown here contrast the on-axis mode structure with the off-axis mode structure showing how the free spectral range effectively collapses, thereby lowering the finesse while maintaining the same cavity time constant by effectively enlarging the cavity length. The lower panels illustrate the resultant signals from each alignment. In a successful off-axis alignment, many cavity modes should exist underneath every molecular transition, and the laser line width should be broad with regard to the free spectral range of the cavity but narrow with regard to the molecular line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Spurious couplings from a 96 cm confocal ICOS cavity with a four pass, two spot pattern coupled to a 3 MHz linewidth laser are compared with the model spectrum under the same conditions. As the laser scans through cavity modes, it couples to the modes briefly. Some modes cause strong coupling while others do not, based on the direction of the random walk of the laser field phase as the cavity mode is being scanned. The pattern and the spacing in the model data are visually identical to that in the actual data, aside from the lower right corner of the actual data where the laser stopped tuning because it had reached its current limit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Spectrum of CO in the near-infrared near 6391 wavenumbers. The CO line demonstrates a high signal-to-noise ratio consistent with claims of sensitivities of 1 .9 × 10 12 ( cm 1 / Hz ) . The spectral assignments shown are from the HITRAN database, and the fit to the data is overlaid atop the data (Ref. [20]). The noise on this signal is approximately 0.08% per point in a 110 cm cell with 42.8 ppm mirrors in 197 Torr of room air at 295 K. The data was averaged for 1 s to produce this spectrum. A small section of the spectrum has been removed due to a “sticky bit” in the analog to digital converter creating noise that overwhelms the signal where the signal traverses this bit flip.

Equations (74)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( cm 2 )
( cm 3 )
1.9 × 10 12 ( 1 / cm Hz )
1.57 μm
f c
f c = 1 2 π τ ,   where   τ = L c ( 1 R + α L ) ,
1 MHz
10 200 kHz
1 / ( 1 R )
d / f
1500 nm
FWHM las
FWHM las = 1 2 π τ las ,
τ las
σ RW = Δ t τ las ,
Δ t
Φ + d Φ
P ( Φ , t ) d Φ = 1 2 π σ R W 2 t exp ( Φ 2 2 σ R W 2 t ) d Φ .
σ = σ RW
Φ ( t )
E las ( t ) = exp ( 2 i π ν t + Φ ( t ) ) .
ν tune
Φ ( t )
E las ( t ) = exp ( 2 i π ( ν t = 0 + ν tune t / 2 ) t + Φ ( t ) )
E cav ( t ) = E cav ( t t r t ) R 2 exp [ i 2 π ( ν t = 0 + ν tune ( t t r t ) ) t r t ] + ( 1 R ) E las ( t ) ,
t r t = 2 L / c
t = 0
E cav n = E cav ( n 1 ) R 2 exp [ i 2 π ν tune ( ( n 1 ) t r t 2 ) ] + ( 1 R ) E las ( n t r t ) .
R N
3 MHz
96 cm
110 cm
R > 99.96 %
30 mW
1565 nm
3 MHz
14 kHz
4 .5 cm 1
170 cm 1 / s
132   m A
10% 15%
( 120   m A )
( σ = 0.31 mV )
300 μm
f W / Hz
10 7
10 9
41 f W / Hz
( 30 Hz 3 GHz )
25 kHz
1 kHz
500 μm
1 .9 × 10 12 ( 1 / cm Hz )
( cm 1 )
cm 2 / molecule
( molecules / cm 3 )
6 × 10 11 ( 1 / cm )
( σ = 0.72 mV )
( σ s = 0.13 mV )
( 860 mV )
( 0.015 % )
( 2.7 km )
1.9 × 10 12 ( 1 / cm Hz )
σ = 0.08 %
0.72 mV
( σ = 0.035 % )
( σ = 0.30 mV )
0.015 %
1.1 kHz
42 .8 ( ± 1 )
10 GHz
96 cm
1 .9 × 10 12 ( cm 1 / Hz )
110 cm

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