Abstract

We investigate experimentally the influence of the grating reflectivity, grating resolution, and diode facet antireflection (AR) coating on the intrinsic linewidth of an external-cavity diode laser built with a diffraction grating in a Littrow configuration. Grating lasers at 399, 780, and 852nm are determined to have typical linewidths between 250 and 600   kHz from measurements of their frequency noise power spectral densities. The linewidths are little affected by the presence of an AR coating on the diode facet but narrow as the grating reflectivity and grating resolution are increased, with the resolution exerting a greater effect. We also use frequency noise measurements to characterize a laser mount with improved mechanical stability.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, "Using diode lasers for atomic physics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1-20 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Patrick and C. E. Wieman, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser using simultaneous optical feedback from a diffraction grating and a narrowband Fabry-Perot cavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2593-2595 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Saito, O. Nilsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Oscillation center frequency tuning, quantum FM noise, and direct frequency modulation characteristics in external grating loaded semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 961-970 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Patzak, H. Olesen, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, "Spectral linewidth reduction in semiconductor lasers by an external cavity with weak optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 19, 938-940 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, "Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback configurations," Electron. Lett. 19, 1026-1027 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Agrawal, "Line narrowing in a single-mode injection laser due to external optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 468-471 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. H. Henry, "Theory of spontaneous emission noise in open resonators and its application to lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 288-297 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Sun, S. Menhart, and A. Adams, "Calculation of spectral linewidth reduction of external-cavity strong-feedback semiconductor lasers," Appl. Opt. 33, 4771-4775 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, "Simple formula giving spectrum-narrowing ratio of semiconductor-laser output obtained by optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 18, 10-11 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "The relation of line narrowing and chirp reduction resulting from the coupling of a semiconductor laser to a passive resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1401-1409 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Tromborg, H. Olesen, X. Pan, and S. Saito, "Transmission line description of optical feedback and injection locking for Fabry-Perot and DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1875-1889 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, "Spectral characteristics of external-cavity controlled semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44-59 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, "10 kHz linewidth 1.5 μm InGaAsP external cavity laser with 55 nm tuning range," Electron. Lett. 19, 110-112 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Wyatt, "Spectral linewidth of external cavity semiconductor lasers with strong, frequency-selective feedback," Electron. Lett. 21, 658-659 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. O. Binder, G. D. Cormack, and A. Somani, "Intermodal tuning characteristics of an InGaAsP laser with optical feedback from an external-grating reflector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1191-1199 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Genty, A. Gröhn, H. Talvitie, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Analysis of the linewidth of a grating-feedback GaAlAs laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1193-1198 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Genty, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Measurements of linewidth variations within external-cavity modes of a grating-cavity laser," Opt. Commun. 203, 295-300 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. D. Henning, "Linewidth broadening in semiconductor lasers due to mode competition noise," Electron. Lett. 19, 935-936 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Talvitie, A. Pietiläinen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Ikonen, "Passive frequency and intensity stabilization of extended-cavity diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1-7 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Audoin, "Frequency metrology," in Metrology and Fundamental Constants, corso 68 of International School of Physics Enrico Fermi, A. F. Milone, P. Giacomo, and F. Leschiutta, eds. (North-Holland, 1980), pp. 169-222.
  23. H. Li and H. R. Telle, "Efficient frequency noise reduction of GaAlAs semiconductor lasers by optical feedback from an external high-finesse resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257-264 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Laurila, T. Joutsenoja, R. Hernberg, and M. Kuittinen, "Tunable external-cavity diode laser at 650 nm based on a transmission diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 41, 5632-5637 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. Kiguchi, A. Uematsu, M. Kitano, and H. Ogura, "Grating external cavity diode lasers with broad tunable range and narrow spectral linewidth for high-resolution spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , Part 1 35, 5890-5895 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. L. Corwin, Z.-T. Lu, C. F. Hand, R. J. Epstein, and C. E. Wieman, "Frequency-stabilized diode laser with the Zeeman shift in an atomic vapor," Appl. Opt. 37, 3295-3298 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Dahmani, L. Hollberg, and R. Drullinger, "Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers by resonant optical feedback," Opt. Lett. 12, 876-878 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, "Fundamental line broadening of single-mode (GaAl) As diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 511-513 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, "Littrow' configuration tunable external cavity diode laser with fixed direction output beam," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477-4479 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. Genty, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Measurements of linewidth variations within external-cavity modes of a grating-cavity laser," Opt. Commun. 203, 295-300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Laurila, T. Joutsenoja, R. Hernberg, and M. Kuittinen, "Tunable external-cavity diode laser at 650 nm based on a transmission diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 41, 5632-5637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, "Littrow' configuration tunable external cavity diode laser with fixed direction output beam," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477-4479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Genty, A. Gröhn, H. Talvitie, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Analysis of the linewidth of a grating-feedback GaAlAs laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1193-1198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

H. Talvitie, A. Pietiläinen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Ikonen, "Passive frequency and intensity stabilization of extended-cavity diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Kiguchi, A. Uematsu, M. Kitano, and H. Ogura, "Grating external cavity diode lasers with broad tunable range and narrow spectral linewidth for high-resolution spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , Part 1 35, 5890-5895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1991 (2)

H. Patrick and C. E. Wieman, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser using simultaneous optical feedback from a diffraction grating and a narrowband Fabry-Perot cavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2593-2595 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, "Using diode lasers for atomic physics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1-20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. O. Binder, G. D. Cormack, and A. Somani, "Intermodal tuning characteristics of an InGaAsP laser with optical feedback from an external-grating reflector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1191-1199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

H. Li and H. R. Telle, "Efficient frequency noise reduction of GaAlAs semiconductor lasers by optical feedback from an external high-finesse resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257-264 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

B. Dahmani, L. Hollberg, and R. Drullinger, "Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers by resonant optical feedback," Opt. Lett. 12, 876-878 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "The relation of line narrowing and chirp reduction resulting from the coupling of a semiconductor laser to a passive resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1401-1409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Tromborg, H. Olesen, X. Pan, and S. Saito, "Transmission line description of optical feedback and injection locking for Fabry-Perot and DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1875-1889 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. H. Henry, "Theory of spontaneous emission noise in open resonators and its application to lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 288-297 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Wyatt, "Spectral linewidth of external cavity semiconductor lasers with strong, frequency-selective feedback," Electron. Lett. 21, 658-659 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, "Line narrowing in a single-mode injection laser due to external optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 468-471 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (4)

R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, "10 kHz linewidth 1.5 μm InGaAsP external cavity laser with 55 nm tuning range," Electron. Lett. 19, 110-112 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Henning, "Linewidth broadening in semiconductor lasers due to mode competition noise," Electron. Lett. 19, 935-936 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, H. Olesen, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, "Spectral linewidth reduction in semiconductor lasers by an external cavity with weak optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 19, 938-940 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, "Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback configurations," Electron. Lett. 19, 1026-1027 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, "Simple formula giving spectrum-narrowing ratio of semiconductor-laser output obtained by optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 18, 10-11 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Saito, O. Nilsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Oscillation center frequency tuning, quantum FM noise, and direct frequency modulation characteristics in external grating loaded semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 961-970 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, "Fundamental line broadening of single-mode (GaAl) As diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 511-513 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, "Spectral characteristics of external-cavity controlled semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44-59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, "Line narrowing in a single-mode injection laser due to external optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 468-471 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Audoin, C.

C. Audoin, "Frequency metrology," in Metrology and Fundamental Constants, corso 68 of International School of Physics Enrico Fermi, A. F. Milone, P. Giacomo, and F. Leschiutta, eds. (North-Holland, 1980), pp. 169-222.

Binder, J. O.

J. O. Binder, G. D. Cormack, and A. Somani, "Intermodal tuning characteristics of an InGaAsP laser with optical feedback from an external-grating reflector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1191-1199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cormack, G. D.

J. O. Binder, G. D. Cormack, and A. Somani, "Intermodal tuning characteristics of an InGaAsP laser with optical feedback from an external-grating reflector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1191-1199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Dahmani, B.

Devlin, W. J.

R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, "10 kHz linewidth 1.5 μm InGaAsP external cavity laser with 55 nm tuning range," Electron. Lett. 19, 110-112 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R.

Epstein, R. J.

Esslinger, T.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, M. W.

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, "Fundamental line broadening of single-mode (GaAl) As diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 511-513 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, "Spectral characteristics of external-cavity controlled semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44-59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

G. Genty, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Measurements of linewidth variations within external-cavity modes of a grating-cavity laser," Opt. Commun. 203, 295-300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, A. Gröhn, H. Talvitie, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Analysis of the linewidth of a grating-feedback GaAlAs laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1193-1198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gröhn, A.

G. Genty, A. Gröhn, H. Talvitie, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Analysis of the linewidth of a grating-feedback GaAlAs laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1193-1198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hand, C. F.

Hänsch, T. W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hawthorn, C. J.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, "Littrow' configuration tunable external cavity diode laser with fixed direction output beam," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477-4479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henning, I. D.

I. D. Henning, "Linewidth broadening in semiconductor lasers due to mode competition noise," Electron. Lett. 19, 935-936 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "The relation of line narrowing and chirp reduction resulting from the coupling of a semiconductor laser to a passive resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1401-1409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, "Theory of spontaneous emission noise in open resonators and its application to lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 288-297 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259-264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hernberg, R.

Hollberg, L.

Ikonen, E.

H. Talvitie, A. Pietiläinen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Ikonen, "Passive frequency and intensity stabilization of extended-cavity diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joutsenoja, T.

Kaivola, M.

G. Genty, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Measurements of linewidth variations within external-cavity modes of a grating-cavity laser," Opt. Commun. 203, 295-300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, A. Gröhn, H. Talvitie, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Analysis of the linewidth of a grating-feedback GaAlAs laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1193-1198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "The relation of line narrowing and chirp reduction resulting from the coupling of a semiconductor laser to a passive resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1401-1409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kiguchi, T.

T. Kiguchi, A. Uematsu, M. Kitano, and H. Ogura, "Grating external cavity diode lasers with broad tunable range and narrow spectral linewidth for high-resolution spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , Part 1 35, 5890-5895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, "Simple formula giving spectrum-narrowing ratio of semiconductor-laser output obtained by optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 18, 10-11 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kitano, M.

T. Kiguchi, A. Uematsu, M. Kitano, and H. Ogura, "Grating external cavity diode lasers with broad tunable range and narrow spectral linewidth for high-resolution spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , Part 1 35, 5890-5895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

König, W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Laurila, T.

Li, H.

H. Li and H. R. Telle, "Efficient frequency noise reduction of GaAlAs semiconductor lasers by optical feedback from an external high-finesse resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257-264 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.-T.

Ludvigsen, H.

G. Genty, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Measurements of linewidth variations within external-cavity modes of a grating-cavity laser," Opt. Commun. 203, 295-300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, A. Gröhn, H. Talvitie, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Analysis of the linewidth of a grating-feedback GaAlAs laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1193-1198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Talvitie, A. Pietiläinen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Ikonen, "Passive frequency and intensity stabilization of extended-cavity diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menhart, S.

Mooradian, A.

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, "Fundamental line broadening of single-mode (GaAl) As diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 511-513 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, "Spectral characteristics of external-cavity controlled semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 44-59 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, "Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback configurations," Electron. Lett. 19, 1026-1027 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, H. Olesen, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, "Spectral linewidth reduction in semiconductor lasers by an external cavity with weak optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 19, 938-940 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, O.

S. Saito, O. Nilsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Oscillation center frequency tuning, quantum FM noise, and direct frequency modulation characteristics in external grating loaded semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 961-970 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, H.

T. Kiguchi, A. Uematsu, M. Kitano, and H. Ogura, "Grating external cavity diode lasers with broad tunable range and narrow spectral linewidth for high-resolution spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , Part 1 35, 5890-5895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, "Simple formula giving spectrum-narrowing ratio of semiconductor-laser output obtained by optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 18, 10-11 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Olesen, H.

B. Tromborg, H. Olesen, X. Pan, and S. Saito, "Transmission line description of optical feedback and injection locking for Fabry-Perot and DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1875-1889 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, "Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback configurations," Electron. Lett. 19, 1026-1027 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, H. Olesen, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, "Spectral linewidth reduction in semiconductor lasers by an external cavity with weak optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 19, 938-940 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.

B. Tromborg, H. Olesen, X. Pan, and S. Saito, "Transmission line description of optical feedback and injection locking for Fabry-Perot and DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1875-1889 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H.

H. Patrick and C. E. Wieman, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser using simultaneous optical feedback from a diffraction grating and a narrowband Fabry-Perot cavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2593-2595 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Patzak, E.

E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, "Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback configurations," Electron. Lett. 19, 1026-1027 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, H. Olesen, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, "Spectral linewidth reduction in semiconductor lasers by an external cavity with weak optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 19, 938-940 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pietiläinen, A.

H. Talvitie, A. Pietiläinen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Ikonen, "Passive frequency and intensity stabilization of extended-cavity diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, L.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

B. Tromborg, H. Olesen, X. Pan, and S. Saito, "Transmission line description of optical feedback and injection locking for Fabry-Perot and DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1875-1889 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, "Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback configurations," Electron. Lett. 19, 1026-1027 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, H. Olesen, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, "Spectral linewidth reduction in semiconductor lasers by an external cavity with weak optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 19, 938-940 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Saito, O. Nilsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Oscillation center frequency tuning, quantum FM noise, and direct frequency modulation characteristics in external grating loaded semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 961-970 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, "Littrow' configuration tunable external cavity diode laser with fixed direction output beam," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477-4479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Somani, A.

J. O. Binder, G. D. Cormack, and A. Somani, "Intermodal tuning characteristics of an InGaAsP laser with optical feedback from an external-grating reflector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1191-1199 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugimura, A.

E. Patzak, H. Olesen, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, "Spectral linewidth reduction in semiconductor lasers by an external cavity with weak optical feedback," Electron. Lett. 19, 938-940 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, "Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback configurations," Electron. Lett. 19, 1026-1027 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

Talvitie, H.

G. Genty, A. Gröhn, H. Talvitie, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Analysis of the linewidth of a grating-feedback GaAlAs laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1193-1198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Talvitie, A. Pietiläinen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Ikonen, "Passive frequency and intensity stabilization of extended-cavity diode lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

H. Li and H. R. Telle, "Efficient frequency noise reduction of GaAlAs semiconductor lasers by optical feedback from an external high-finesse resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 257-264 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tromborg, B.

B. Tromborg, H. Olesen, X. Pan, and S. Saito, "Transmission line description of optical feedback and injection locking for Fabry-Perot and DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1875-1889 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Uematsu, A.

T. Kiguchi, A. Uematsu, M. Kitano, and H. Ogura, "Grating external cavity diode lasers with broad tunable range and narrow spectral linewidth for high-resolution spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , Part 1 35, 5890-5895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K. P.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, "Littrow' configuration tunable external cavity diode laser with fixed direction output beam," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477-4479 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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K. L. Corwin, Z.-T. Lu, C. F. Hand, R. J. Epstein, and C. E. Wieman, "Frequency-stabilized diode laser with the Zeeman shift in an atomic vapor," Appl. Opt. 37, 3295-3298 (1998).
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[CrossRef]

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S. Saito, O. Nilsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Oscillation center frequency tuning, quantum FM noise, and direct frequency modulation characteristics in external grating loaded semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 961-970 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
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R. Wyatt and W. J. Devlin, "10 kHz linewidth 1.5 μm InGaAsP external cavity laser with 55 nm tuning range," Electron. Lett. 19, 110-112 (1983).
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[CrossRef]

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L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117, 541-549 (1995).
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G. Genty, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, "Measurements of linewidth variations within external-cavity modes of a grating-cavity laser," Opt. Commun. 203, 295-300 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

H. Patrick and C. E. Wieman, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser using simultaneous optical feedback from a diffraction grating and a narrowband Fabry-Perot cavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2593-2595 (1991).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Tuning behavior of laser wavelength with current, for optimized (open circles) and nonoptimized (filled triangles) feedback, measured for an 852   nm laser diode with an AR coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the setup used to measure laser frequency noise. Components such as attenuators are not drawn. The polarization of the laser light is out of the plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Total (open circles) and amplitude (filled triangles) spectral noise densities of an 852   nm AR-coated laser assembled with a 1200 mm−1 grating of reflectivity R G 1 = 0.21 . For the frequency noise, 1 V / Hz corresponds to 156 MHz / Hz . For the amplitude noise, 1 V / Hz corresponds to a fractional noise of 0.94 / H z .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Calculated profiles of 1200 and 1800 mm 1 gratings, overlapped with diode-chip modes and external-cavity modes spaced by frequency intervals determined from Fig. 1. The passive external-cavity mode spectrum is calculated for a grating of reflectivity R G 1 = 0.61 and diode back facet reflectivity R 1 = 0.85 . The diode chip mode spectrum is calculated for an AR-coated ( R 2 = 10 4 ) diode with a regenerative gain parameterized by the material absorption coefficient α L = 45 cm 1 (Ref. [29]).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of linewidth versus current injected into the diode laser. The laser jumps to a different longitudinal cavity mode near 52   mA .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Schematic of mount B. The four nylon pull screws that attach the two aluminum blocks to each other are not drawn.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Frequency noise power spectral densities for mount B (open circles) and mount A (filled triangles) lasers. Mount B only has a strong mechanical resonance at 500   Hz , whereas mount A has mechanical resonances at 2   kHz .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Rms jitters of lasers assembled both with mount B (open circles for unlocked and solid curve for locked) and mount A (filled triangles for unlocked and dashed curve for locked) versus integration bandwidth f. The rms jitter is given by Δ ν jitter ( f ) = [ 0 f ( S ( f ) ) 2 d f ] 1 / 2 .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linewidths of 852 nm Lasers for Different Gratings in the Littrow Configuration a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Linewidths of Both Non-AR- and AR-Coated 780 nm Lasers a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Best Achieved Linewidths a

Equations (1)

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Δ ν = π S 0 2 .

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