Abstract

The spectral characteristics of an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as well as its responsivity to the rf driving signal and sensitivity to temperature changes are experimentally investigated and quantified using a diode-laser-based interrogation system. A spectroscopic technique, exploiting the rf frequency modulation of the laser beam and the phase-sensitive detection of the AOTF transmission, has been used for this purpose. That allows for the generation of a dispersivelike signal, which serves as a reference for tracking any wavelength change of the filter's peak with high resolution. The possibility of using the integrated AOTF as a spectrum analyzer with this interrogation scheme for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensing is also discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).
  2. D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, J. J. Johnson, and K.-W. Cheung, "Integrated-optic acoustically-tunable filters for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1151-1159 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Smith and Z. Bao, "Technology and applications of the integrated acousto-optic filter," in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference on Industrial Applications in Power Systems, Computer Science and Telecommunications (MELECON 96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 100-107.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Gupta, D. R. Suhre, and M. Gottlieb, "Long-wave infrared imager with an 8-cm−1 passband acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 44, 094601 (2005).
  5. N. Gupta, "Acousto-optic-tunable-filter-based spectropolarimetric imagers for medical diagnostic applications-instrument design point of view," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051802 (2005).
  6. X. Wang, D. E. Vaughan, V. Pelekhaty, and J. Crisp, "A novel miniature spectrometer using an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3653-3656 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, and J. P. Dakin, "Simultaneous monitoring fibre gratings with a single acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 1228-1229 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, N. C. Eaton, and J. P. Dakin, "Electronic tracking system for multiplexed fibre grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1006-1007 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J. L. Archambault, L. Reeckie, and J. P. Dakin, "Novel interrogating system for fibre Bragg grating sensors using an acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 29, 1510-1511 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).
  11. M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, "Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391-396 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Y. S. Cheng, J. Zhu, and M. C. Y. Pau, "Characterization of a noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filter and its resolution enhancement as a near-infrared spectrometer," Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 350-355 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. R. Suhre and N. Gupta, "Acousto-optic tunable filter sidelobe analysis and reduction with telecentric confocal optics," Appl. Opt. 44, 5797-5801 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. D. Tron and G. C. Huang, "Characterization of the collinear beam acousto-tunable filter and its comparison with the noncollinear and the integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 38, 1143-1148 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Mendis, A. Mitchell, I. Belski, M. Austin, and O. A. Peverini, "Design, realisation and analysis of an apodised, film-loaded acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. B 73, 489-493 (2001).
  16. M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, "A high-resolution integrated optical spectrometer with applications to fibre sensor signal processing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173-178 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 32, 145-152 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. Silver, "Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods," Appl. Opt. 31, 707-717 (1992), and references therein.
  19. D. A. Smith, A. D'Alessandro, H. Herrmann, and J. E. Baran, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2001

H. Mendis, A. Mitchell, I. Belski, M. Austin, and O. A. Peverini, "Design, realisation and analysis of an apodised, film-loaded acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. B 73, 489-493 (2001).

A. Y. S. Cheng, J. Zhu, and M. C. Y. Pau, "Characterization of a noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filter and its resolution enhancement as a near-infrared spectrometer," Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 350-355 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. D. Tron and G. C. Huang, "Characterization of the collinear beam acousto-tunable filter and its comparison with the noncollinear and the integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 38, 1143-1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, "Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391-396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, and J. P. Dakin, "Simultaneous monitoring fibre gratings with a single acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 1228-1229 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, "A high-resolution integrated optical spectrometer with applications to fibre sensor signal processing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, N. C. Eaton, and J. P. Dakin, "Electronic tracking system for multiplexed fibre grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1006-1007 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

X. Wang, D. E. Vaughan, V. Pelekhaty, and J. Crisp, "A novel miniature spectrometer using an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3653-3656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J. L. Archambault, L. Reeckie, and J. P. Dakin, "Novel interrogating system for fibre Bragg grating sensors using an acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 29, 1510-1511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, A. D'Alessandro, H. Herrmann, and J. E. Baran, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, J. J. Johnson, and K.-W. Cheung, "Integrated-optic acoustically-tunable filters for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1151-1159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).

1983

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 32, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J. L. Archambault, L. Reeckie, and J. P. Dakin, "Novel interrogating system for fibre Bragg grating sensors using an acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 29, 1510-1511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Austin, M.

H. Mendis, A. Mitchell, I. Belski, M. Austin, and O. A. Peverini, "Design, realisation and analysis of an apodised, film-loaded acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. B 73, 489-493 (2001).

Bao, Z.

D. A. Smith and Z. Bao, "Technology and applications of the integrated acousto-optic filter," in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference on Industrial Applications in Power Systems, Computer Science and Telecommunications (MELECON 96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 100-107.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baran, J. E.

D. A. Smith, A. D'Alessandro, H. Herrmann, and J. E. Baran, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, J. J. Johnson, and K.-W. Cheung, "Integrated-optic acoustically-tunable filters for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1151-1159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Belski, I.

H. Mendis, A. Mitchell, I. Belski, M. Austin, and O. A. Peverini, "Design, realisation and analysis of an apodised, film-loaded acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. B 73, 489-493 (2001).

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 32, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, A. Y. S.

Cheung, K.-W.

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, J. J. Johnson, and K.-W. Cheung, "Integrated-optic acoustically-tunable filters for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1151-1159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, J.

X. Wang, D. E. Vaughan, V. Pelekhaty, and J. Crisp, "A novel miniature spectrometer using an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3653-3656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, and J. P. Dakin, "Simultaneous monitoring fibre gratings with a single acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 1228-1229 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, "Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391-396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, N. C. Eaton, and J. P. Dakin, "Electronic tracking system for multiplexed fibre grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1006-1007 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J. L. Archambault, L. Reeckie, and J. P. Dakin, "Novel interrogating system for fibre Bragg grating sensors using an acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 29, 1510-1511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D'Alessandro, A.

D. A. Smith, A. D'Alessandro, H. Herrmann, and J. E. Baran, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dunphy, J.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, "A high-resolution integrated optical spectrometer with applications to fibre sensor signal processing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dunphy, J. R.

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

Eaton, N. C.

H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, N. C. Eaton, and J. P. Dakin, "Electronic tracking system for multiplexed fibre grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1006-1007 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

Frangen, J.

J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).

Geiger, H.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, and J. P. Dakin, "Simultaneous monitoring fibre gratings with a single acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 1228-1229 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, "Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391-396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, N. C. Eaton, and J. P. Dakin, "Electronic tracking system for multiplexed fibre grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1006-1007 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J. L. Archambault, L. Reeckie, and J. P. Dakin, "Novel interrogating system for fibre Bragg grating sensors using an acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 29, 1510-1511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gottlieb, M.

N. Gupta, D. R. Suhre, and M. Gottlieb, "Long-wave infrared imager with an 8-cm−1 passband acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 44, 094601 (2005).

Gupta, N.

D. R. Suhre and N. Gupta, "Acousto-optic tunable filter sidelobe analysis and reduction with telecentric confocal optics," Appl. Opt. 44, 5797-5801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gupta, "Acousto-optic-tunable-filter-based spectropolarimetric imagers for medical diagnostic applications-instrument design point of view," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051802 (2005).

N. Gupta, D. R. Suhre, and M. Gottlieb, "Long-wave infrared imager with an 8-cm−1 passband acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 44, 094601 (2005).

Herrmann, H.

D. A. Smith, A. D'Alessandro, H. Herrmann, and J. E. Baran, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).

Huang, G. C.

C. D. Tron and G. C. Huang, "Characterization of the collinear beam acousto-tunable filter and its comparison with the noncollinear and the integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 38, 1143-1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inserra Imparato, S.

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

Johnson, J. J.

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, J. J. Johnson, and K.-W. Cheung, "Integrated-optic acoustically-tunable filters for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1151-1159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 32, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 32, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

Mendis, H.

H. Mendis, A. Mitchell, I. Belski, M. Austin, and O. A. Peverini, "Design, realisation and analysis of an apodised, film-loaded acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. B 73, 489-493 (2001).

Mitchell, A.

H. Mendis, A. Mitchell, I. Belski, M. Austin, and O. A. Peverini, "Design, realisation and analysis of an apodised, film-loaded acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. B 73, 489-493 (2001).

Ortiz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 32, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pau, M. C. Y.

Pelekhaty, V.

X. Wang, D. E. Vaughan, V. Pelekhaty, and J. Crisp, "A novel miniature spectrometer using an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3653-3656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peverini, O. A.

H. Mendis, A. Mitchell, I. Belski, M. Austin, and O. A. Peverini, "Design, realisation and analysis of an apodised, film-loaded acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. B 73, 489-493 (2001).

Reeckie, L.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J. L. Archambault, L. Reeckie, and J. P. Dakin, "Novel interrogating system for fibre Bragg grating sensors using an acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 29, 1510-1511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).

Seibert, H.

J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).

Signorazzi, M.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, "A high-resolution integrated optical spectrometer with applications to fibre sensor signal processing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

Silver, J. A.

J. A. Silver, "Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods," Appl. Opt. 31, 707-717 (1992), and references therein.

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, A. D'Alessandro, H. Herrmann, and J. E. Baran, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, J. J. Johnson, and K.-W. Cheung, "Integrated-optic acoustically-tunable filters for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1151-1159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith and Z. Bao, "Technology and applications of the integrated acousto-optic filter," in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference on Industrial Applications in Power Systems, Computer Science and Telecommunications (MELECON 96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 100-107.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohler, W.

J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).

Strake, E.

J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).

Suhre, D. R.

D. R. Suhre and N. Gupta, "Acousto-optic tunable filter sidelobe analysis and reduction with telecentric confocal optics," Appl. Opt. 44, 5797-5801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gupta, D. R. Suhre, and M. Gottlieb, "Long-wave infrared imager with an 8-cm−1 passband acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 44, 094601 (2005).

Tron, C. D.

C. D. Tron and G. C. Huang, "Characterization of the collinear beam acousto-tunable filter and its comparison with the noncollinear and the integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 38, 1143-1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vannucci, A.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, "A high-resolution integrated optical spectrometer with applications to fibre sensor signal processing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

Varasi, M.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, "A high-resolution integrated optical spectrometer with applications to fibre sensor signal processing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

Vaughan, D. E.

X. Wang, D. E. Vaughan, V. Pelekhaty, and J. Crisp, "A novel miniature spectrometer using an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3653-3656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Volanthen, M.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, and J. P. Dakin, "Simultaneous monitoring fibre gratings with a single acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 1228-1229 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voto, C.

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

Wang, X.

X. Wang, D. E. Vaughan, V. Pelekhaty, and J. Crisp, "A novel miniature spectrometer using an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3653-3656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, "Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391-396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, and J. P. Dakin, "Simultaneous monitoring fibre gratings with a single acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 1228-1229 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, N. C. Eaton, and J. P. Dakin, "Electronic tracking system for multiplexed fibre grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1006-1007 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J. L. Archambault, L. Reeckie, and J. P. Dakin, "Novel interrogating system for fibre Bragg grating sensors using an acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 29, 1510-1511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

H. Mendis, A. Mitchell, I. Belski, M. Austin, and O. A. Peverini, "Design, realisation and analysis of an apodised, film-loaded acousto-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. B 73, 489-493 (2001).

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 32, 145-152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. A. Smith, A. D'Alessandro, H. Herrmann, and J. E. Baran, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Electron. Lett.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, and J. P. Dakin, "Simultaneous monitoring fibre gratings with a single acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 1228-1229 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Geiger, M. G. Xu, N. C. Eaton, and J. P. Dakin, "Electronic tracking system for multiplexed fibre grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1006-1007 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J. L. Archambault, L. Reeckie, and J. P. Dakin, "Novel interrogating system for fibre Bragg grating sensors using an acousto-optic tunable filter," Electron. Lett. 29, 1510-1511 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, J. J. Johnson, and K.-W. Cheung, "Integrated-optic acoustically-tunable filters for WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1151-1159 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, "Modeling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acousto-optic tunable filter," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 391-396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. Varasi, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, and J. Dunphy, "A high-resolution integrated optical spectrometer with applications to fibre sensor signal processing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 173-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. D. Tron and G. C. Huang, "Characterization of the collinear beam acousto-tunable filter and its comparison with the noncollinear and the integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 38, 1143-1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Frangen, H. Herrmann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, and E. Strake, "Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter," in Proc. SPIE 1141, 149-153 (1989).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

X. Wang, D. E. Vaughan, V. Pelekhaty, and J. Crisp, "A novel miniature spectrometer using an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3653-3656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. A. Smith and Z. Bao, "Technology and applications of the integrated acousto-optic filter," in Proceedings of the Eighth Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference on Industrial Applications in Power Systems, Computer Science and Telecommunications (MELECON 96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 100-107.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gupta, D. R. Suhre, and M. Gottlieb, "Long-wave infrared imager with an 8-cm−1 passband acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Eng. 44, 094601 (2005).

N. Gupta, "Acousto-optic-tunable-filter-based spectropolarimetric imagers for medical diagnostic applications-instrument design point of view," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051802 (2005).

J. R. Dunphy, P. Ferraro, S. Inserra Imparato, G. Meltz, M. Signorazzi, A. Vannucci, M. Varasi, and C. Voto, "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors," U.S. patent 5,493,390 (20 February 1996).

J. A. Silver, "Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods," Appl. Opt. 31, 707-717 (1992), and references therein.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup. DFB, distributed feedback; MO, microscope objective; DC, directional coupler; VCO, voltage-controlled oscillator; PD, photodiode; and IAOTF, integrated AOTF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AOTF curves, observed by the FM technique, for different tuning frequencies ( T AOTF = 23.948 ° C ) . The signals were noise filtered within a detection bandwidth of 5   kHz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shift resulting from Fig. 2 has an almost perfect linear dependence on the rf frequency step ( 3 .59 ± 0 .02   nm / MHz ) . The uncertainty in the center determination is represented by the horizontal bars.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AOTF transmission spectrum at three different temperatures. A large shift of the center as well as a change in the line shape is clearly visible between the curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linear shift of the AOTF center wavelength measured by phase-sensitive demodulation of the transmitted power for temperatures 23.674 ° C , 23.948 ° C , and 24 .268   ° C . The slope value is ( 0.616 ± 0.004 ) nm / ° C .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Linear tuning response of the AOTF at four different Peltier-controlled temperatures: 23.820 °C (square symbols), 23.674 ° C (circles), 24 .103   ° C (triangles), 24 .268   ° C (rhombuses). The slope values are all in good agreement within three standard deviations. The wavelength shift uncertainty is contained in the point size.

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