Abstract

Hollow-core waveguides consisting of a glass capillary tube with an internal reflective coating are capable of delivering pulse energies of tens of millijoules with improved focusability compared to step index fibers of similar core diameter. We demonstrate the capability of these fibers to deliver high-power Q-switched pulses at the fundamental (1064  nm), second (532  nm), and third (355  nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser, both in terms of peak power and beam quality delivered. In terms of peak power delivery, the primary limitation is the occurrence of bend-induced optical damage to the reflective coating. The damage mechanism and the influential factors are analyzed, in particular, the dependence upon the number of guided modes, core diameter, coating thicknesses, and input polarization alignment.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, J. P. Parry, D. P. Towers, Y. Matsuura, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, and D. P. Hand, "Hollow-core waveguides for particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1119-1125 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005 (4)

Y. Hagiwara, A. Hongo, and M. Obara, "Ablation processing of biomedical materials with double-pulse femto-second laser through hollow fiber," in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, Proc SPIE 5714, 283-289 (2005).

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, J. P. Parry, D. P. Towers, Y. Matsuura, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, and D. P. Hand, "Hollow-core waveguides for particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1119-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. S. J. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, "Improved hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 4582-4588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Yalin, M. DeFoort, B. Willson, Y. Matsuura, and M. Miyagi, "Use of hollow-core fibers to deliver nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses to form sparks in gases," Opt. Lett. 30, 2083-2085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Jermy, T. Noel, and W. G. Doherty, "Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the thickness of fuel films on the combustion chamber surface of a gasoline SI engine," presented at the 12th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics Lisbon (2004), http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/lxlaser2004/pdf/paper_17_2.pdf.

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, A. Kuhn, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fiber optic beam delivery of nano-second Nd:YAG laser pulses for micro-machining," in Proceedings ICALEO Laser Microfabrication Conference (Laser Institute of America, 1999), pp. 204-218.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic band-gap guidance in optical fibres," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

M. Miyagi and S. Kawakami, "Design theory of dielectric coated circular metallic waveguide for infrared transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116-126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," AT&T Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Arai, T.

Arai, Y.

Ashida, H.

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic band-gap guidance in optical fibres," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, P.

R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, A. Kuhn, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fiber optic beam delivery of nano-second Nd:YAG laser pulses for micro-machining," in Proceedings ICALEO Laser Microfabrication Conference (Laser Institute of America, 1999), pp. 204-218.

Bouwmans, G.

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic band-gap guidance in optical fibres," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choy, K. L.

J. P. Feist, A. L. Heyes, K. L. Choy, and J. R. Nicholls, "Thermographic phosphor thermometry: recent development for applications in gas turbines," in Optical Methods for Data Processing in Heat and Fluid Flow, C. C. Greated and J. M. Buick, eds. (IMechE, 2002).

Couny, F.

Danilov, O. B.

DeFoort, M.

Degnan, J. J.

Doherty, W. G.

M. C. Jermy, T. Noel, and W. G. Doherty, "Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the thickness of fuel films on the combustion chamber surface of a gasoline SI engine," presented at the 12th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics Lisbon (2004), http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/lxlaser2004/pdf/paper_17_2.pdf.

Drlik, P.

Engeness, T. D.

Entwistle, J. D.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feist, J. P.

J. P. Feist, A. L. Heyes, K. L. Choy, and J. R. Nicholls, "Thermographic phosphor thermometry: recent development for applications in gas turbines," in Optical Methods for Data Processing in Heat and Fluid Flow, C. C. Greated and J. M. Buick, eds. (IMechE, 2002).

Fink, Y.

Greated, C. A.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hagiwara, Y.

Y. Hagiwara, A. Hongo, and M. Obara, "Ablation processing of biomedical materials with double-pulse femto-second laser through hollow fiber," in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, Proc SPIE 5714, 283-289 (2005).

Hand, D. P.

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. S. J. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, "Improved hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 4582-4588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, J. P. Parry, D. P. Towers, Y. Matsuura, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, and D. P. Hand, "Hollow-core waveguides for particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1119-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, A. Kuhn, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fiber optic beam delivery of nano-second Nd:YAG laser pulses for micro-machining," in Proceedings ICALEO Laser Microfabrication Conference (Laser Institute of America, 1999), pp. 204-218.

Haste, M. J.

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, J. P. Parry, D. P. Towers, Y. Matsuura, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, and D. P. Hand, "Hollow-core waveguides for particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1119-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heyes, A. L.

J. P. Feist, A. L. Heyes, K. L. Choy, and J. R. Nicholls, "Thermographic phosphor thermometry: recent development for applications in gas turbines," in Optical Methods for Data Processing in Heat and Fluid Flow, C. C. Greated and J. M. Buick, eds. (IMechE, 2002).

Hongo, A.

Y. Hagiwara, A. Hongo, and M. Obara, "Ablation processing of biomedical materials with double-pulse femto-second laser through hollow fiber," in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, Proc SPIE 5714, 283-289 (2005).

Ibanescu, M.

Ioritani, N.

Iwai, K.

Jacobs, S. A.

Jelinkova, H.

Jermy, M. C.

M. C. Jermy, T. Noel, and W. G. Doherty, "Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the thickness of fuel films on the combustion chamber surface of a gasoline SI engine," presented at the 12th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics Lisbon (2004), http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/lxlaser2004/pdf/paper_17_2.pdf.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Jones, J. D. C.

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. S. J. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, "Improved hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 4582-4588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, A. Kuhn, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fiber optic beam delivery of nano-second Nd:YAG laser pulses for micro-machining," in Proceedings ICALEO Laser Microfabrication Conference (Laser Institute of America, 1999), pp. 204-218.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kading, O.

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, T.

Kawakami, S.

M. Miyagi and S. Kawakami, "Design theory of dielectric coated circular metallic waveguide for infrared transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116-126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kohler, O.

Konov, V. V.

A. M. Prokhorov, V. V. Konov, I. Ursu, and I. N. Mihailescu, "Semi-infinite metal target," in Laser Heating of Metals (IOP, 1990), pp. 42-43.

Kuhn, A.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, A. Kuhn, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fiber optic beam delivery of nano-second Nd:YAG laser pulses for micro-machining," in Proceedings ICALEO Laser Microfabrication Conference (Laser Institute of America, 1999), pp. 204-218.

Maier, R. R. J.

R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, A. Kuhn, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fiber optic beam delivery of nano-second Nd:YAG laser pulses for micro-machining," in Proceedings ICALEO Laser Microfabrication Conference (Laser Institute of America, 1999), pp. 204-218.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," AT&T Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Matsuura, Y.

Matthias, E.

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mihailescu, I. N.

A. M. Prokhorov, V. V. Konov, I. Ursu, and I. N. Mihailescu, "Semi-infinite metal target," in Laser Heating of Metals (IOP, 1990), pp. 42-43.

Miyagi, M.

Nemec, M.

Neske, E.

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, J. R.

J. P. Feist, A. L. Heyes, K. L. Choy, and J. R. Nicholls, "Thermographic phosphor thermometry: recent development for applications in gas turbines," in Optical Methods for Data Processing in Heat and Fluid Flow, C. C. Greated and J. M. Buick, eds. (IMechE, 2002).

Nito, K.

Noel, T.

M. C. Jermy, T. Noel, and W. G. Doherty, "Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the thickness of fuel films on the combustion chamber surface of a gasoline SI engine," presented at the 12th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics Lisbon (2004), http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/lxlaser2004/pdf/paper_17_2.pdf.

Obara, M.

Y. Hagiwara, A. Hongo, and M. Obara, "Ablation processing of biomedical materials with double-pulse femto-second laser through hollow fiber," in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers V, Proc SPIE 5714, 283-289 (2005).

Okagami, Y.

Parry, J. P.

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, J. P. Parry, D. P. Towers, Y. Matsuura, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, and D. P. Hand, "Hollow-core waveguides for particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1119-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petzoldt, S.

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. M. Prokhorov, V. V. Konov, I. Ursu, and I. N. Mihailescu, "Semi-infinite metal target," in Laser Heating of Metals (IOP, 1990), pp. 42-43.

Reichling, M.

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rubinov, Y. A.

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. S. J.

Saito, S.

Sato, S.

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," AT&T Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

Shephard, J. D.

Shi, Y.-W.

Siegel, J.

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Skurk, H.

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Sosnov, E. N.

Stephens, T. J.

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, J. P. Parry, D. P. Towers, Y. Matsuura, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, and D. P. Hand, "Hollow-core waveguides for particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1119-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sulc, J.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

R. R. J. Maier, D. P. Hand, A. Kuhn, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fiber optic beam delivery of nano-second Nd:YAG laser pulses for micro-machining," in Proceedings ICALEO Laser Microfabrication Conference (Laser Institute of America, 1999), pp. 204-218.

Takada, G.

Towers, D. P.

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, J. P. Parry, D. P. Towers, Y. Matsuura, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, and D. P. Hand, "Hollow-core waveguides for particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1119-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ursu, I.

A. M. Prokhorov, V. V. Konov, I. Ursu, and I. N. Mihailescu, "Semi-infinite metal target," in Laser Heating of Metals (IOP, 1990), pp. 42-43.

Weisberg, O.

Willson, B.

Yalin, A. P.

Yamamoto, Y.

Zavoral, M.

Zintchenko, M. I.

Appl. Opt. (4)

AT&T Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, "Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers," AT&T Tech. J. 43, 1783-1809 (1964).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Miyagi and S. Kawakami, "Design theory of dielectric coated circular metallic waveguide for infrared transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116-126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, "Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 239-245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, J. P. Parry, D. P. Towers, Y. Matsuura, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, and D. P. Hand, "Hollow-core waveguides for particle image velocimetry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1119-1125 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic band-gap guidance in optical fibres," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. Matthias, J. Siegel, S. Petzoldt, M. Reichling, H. Skurk, O. Kading, and E. Neske, "In-situ investigation of laser ablation of thin films," Thin Solid Films 254, 139-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. M. Prokhorov, V. V. Konov, I. Ursu, and I. N. Mihailescu, "Semi-infinite metal target," in Laser Heating of Metals (IOP, 1990), pp. 42-43.

M. C. Jermy, T. Noel, and W. G. Doherty, "Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the thickness of fuel films on the combustion chamber surface of a gasoline SI engine," presented at the 12th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics Lisbon (2004), http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/lxlaser2004/pdf/paper_17_2.pdf.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Launch arrangement used for damage tests.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used to measure the damage threshold as a function of the angle for a glass slide with a silver coating similar to that used in the hollow waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Damage threshold function of the angle of incidence on a planar sample with a reflective silver coating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output profile from a hollow waveguide with an input lens of focal length: (a) 88   mm , (b) 125   mm , (c) 250   mm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for testing short sections of the waveguide using different focal length launch optics.

Tables (9)

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Table 1 M 2 and Calculated NA for 1064 and 532 nm Waveguides

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Table 2 M 2 and Calculated NA for 532 nm Waveguides with an Improved Coating

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Table 3 M 2 and Calculated NA for 355 nm Waveguides

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Table 4 Damage Threshold for 1064 and 532 nm Waveguides

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Table 5 Damage Threshold for 532 nm Waveguides with an Improved Coating

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Table 6 Damage Threshold for 355 nm Waveguides

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Table 7 Transmission Efficiency through a 540 μm Waveguide for a Different Input Lens

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Table 8 Damage Threshold of a 540 μm Waveguide for Different Launch Lenses

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Table 9 Damage Threshold for Different Polarization Alignments

Equations (1)

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w 0 α 0 = M 2 λ π ,

Metrics