Abstract

We describe a way to display three-dimensional images by integral imaging using an ordinary projector. We first explain a method that uses a large-aperture converging lens, then we explain the proposed method that uses two sets of lens array. Based on the principle of this new approach, front projection as well as rear projection is possible. Only a proper viewing area can be formed on the optical screen by this method, which improves the brightness of images on the screen. The projector itself does not need an additional optical system. We report on the results of an experiment carried out to confirm the validity of the proposed method.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Lippmann, "La photographic intergrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
  2. B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).
  3. M. McCormick, "Integral 3D imaging for broadcast," in Proceedings of the Second International Display Workshop, T. Hatada, ed. (Institute of Television Engineers, 1995), pp. 77-80.
  4. F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38(6), 1072-1077 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system," Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, J. Arai, and F. Okano, "Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display," Appl. Opt. 44, 4475-4483 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, "High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector," Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.-S. Jang, Y.-S. Oh, and B. Javidi, "Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display," Opt. Express 12, 557-563 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Real-time all-optical three-dimensional integral imaging projector," Appl. Opt. 41, 4866-4869 (2002).
  11. Y. Jeong, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Reflection-type integral imaging scheme for displaying three-dimensional images," Opt. Lett. 27, 704-706 (2002).
  12. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional projection integral imaging using micro-convex-mirror arrays," Opt. Express 12, 1077-1083 (2004).
  13. L. Yang, M. McCormick, and N. Davies, "Discussion of the optic of a new 3-D imaging system," Appl. Opt. 27, 4529-4534 (1988).
  14. N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Okano and J. Arai, "Optical shifter for a three-dimensional image by use of a gradient-index lens array," Appl. Opt. 41, 4140-4147 (2002).
  16. S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system," Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method," Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 461-467 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).
  20. J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).
  21. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, J. Arai, and F. Okano, "Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display," Appl. Opt. 44, 4475-4483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method," Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional projection integral imaging using micro-convex-mirror arrays," Opt. Express 12, 1077-1083 (2004).

J.-S. Jang, Y.-S. Oh, and B. Javidi, "Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display," Opt. Express 12, 557-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system," Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, "High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector," Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).

2002 (3)

1999 (1)

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38(6), 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

1994 (1)

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. Yang, M. McCormick, and N. Davies, "Discussion of the optic of a new 3-D imaging system," Appl. Opt. 27, 4529-4534 (1988).

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, "La photographic intergrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Arai, J.

J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system," Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, J. Arai, and F. Okano, "Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display," Appl. Opt. 44, 4475-4483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).

F. Okano and J. Arai, "Optical shifter for a three-dimensional image by use of a gradient-index lens array," Appl. Opt. 41, 4140-4147 (2002).

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38(6), 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

Brewin, M.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, N.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, M. McCormick, and N. Davies, "Discussion of the optic of a new 3-D imaging system," Appl. Opt. 27, 4529-4534 (1988).

Dohi, T.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, "High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector," Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, M.

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method," Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hata, N.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, "High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector," Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system," Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, H.

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38(6), 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

Isono, H.

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

Iwahara, M.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, "High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector," Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. S.

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional projection integral imaging using micro-convex-mirror arrays," Opt. Express 12, 1077-1083 (2004).

J.-S. Jang, Y.-S. Oh, and B. Javidi, "Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display," Opt. Express 12, 557-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Real-time all-optical three-dimensional integral imaging projector," Appl. Opt. 41, 4866-4869 (2002).

Javidi, B.

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional projection integral imaging using micro-convex-mirror arrays," Opt. Express 12, 1077-1083 (2004).

J.-S. Jang, Y.-S. Oh, and B. Javidi, "Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display," Opt. Express 12, 557-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Real-time all-optical three-dimensional integral imaging projector," Appl. Opt. 41, 4866-4869 (2002).

B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

Jeong, Y.

Jung, S.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Reflection-type integral imaging scheme for displaying three-dimensional images," Opt. Lett. 27, 704-706 (2002).

Kim, J.

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method," Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, J. Arai, and F. Okano, "Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display," Appl. Opt. 44, 4475-4483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

Lee, B.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method," Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system," Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Reflection-type integral imaging scheme for displaying three-dimensional images," Opt. Lett. 27, 704-706 (2002).

Liao, H.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, "High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector," Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, "La photographic intergrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

McCormick, M.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, M. McCormick, and N. Davies, "Discussion of the optic of a new 3-D imaging system," Appl. Opt. 27, 4529-4534 (1988).

M. McCormick, "Integral 3D imaging for broadcast," in Proceedings of the Second International Display Workshop, T. Hatada, ed. (Institute of Television Engineers, 1995), pp. 77-80.

Min, S. W.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method," Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, "Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system," Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitani, K.

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

Okano, F.

J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system," Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, J. Arai, and F. Okano, "Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display," Appl. Opt. 44, 4475-4483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).

F. Okano and J. Arai, "Optical shifter for a three-dimensional image by use of a gradient-index lens array," Appl. Opt. 41, 4140-4147 (2002).

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38(6), 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

Okui, M.

J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system," Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, J. Arai, and F. Okano, "Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display," Appl. Opt. 44, 4475-4483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

Park, H.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, "Reflection-type integral imaging scheme for displaying three-dimensional images," Opt. Lett. 27, 704-706 (2002).

Park, J. H.

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimamoto, H.

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

Sugawara, M.

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

Yamashita, T.

Yang, L.

L. Yang, M. McCormick, and N. Davies, "Discussion of the optic of a new 3-D imaging system," Appl. Opt. 27, 4529-4534 (1988).

Yuyama, I.

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38(6), 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array," Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Real-time all-optical three-dimensional integral imaging projector," Appl. Opt. 41, 4866-4869 (2002).

L. Yang, M. McCormick, and N. Davies, "Discussion of the optic of a new 3-D imaging system," Appl. Opt. 27, 4529-4534 (1988).

Appl. Opt. (4)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, "La photographic intergrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998).

J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, "Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 996-1004 (2003).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 461-467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, "Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography," Opt. Eng. 38(6), 1072-1077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, "High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector," Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional projection integral imaging using micro-convex-mirror arrays," Opt. Express 12, 1077-1083 (2004).

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method," Opt. Express 13, 4358-4369 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, "Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays," Opt. Eng. 33, 3624-3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, M. Sugawara, K. Mitani, H. Shimamoto, and F. Okano, "Integral three-dimensional television based on super-high-definition video system," in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. Woods, M. Bolas, J. Merritt, and S. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE 5006, 49-57 (2003).

B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

M. McCormick, "Integral 3D imaging for broadcast," in Proceedings of the Second International Display Workshop, T. Hatada, ed. (Institute of Television Engineers, 1995), pp. 77-80.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Principle of integral photography. Elemental images and elemental lenses are used to capture and reconstruct 3D information.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Basic setup of projection-type integral imaging with a converging lens. Elemental images are focused as real images without a screen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Formation of viewing area. A viewing area with the maximum width can be formed at the viewing distance Z 2 by properly placing elemental images and elemental lenses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Travel paths of light beams to an elemental lens. Some of these beams enter adjacent lenses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Effects of an added lens array EL 2 . The rays concentrate on the target elemental lens after passing through EL 2 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Optical arrangement with two lens arrays.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Variations with two lens arrays with the same-pitch lens arrays.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Front-projection optical setup with a half-mirror.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Offset optical setup for front image projection.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Original image used in the experiment. Reproduced image of integral 3D television.[20]

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) (a) Viewing zones with a diffusion screen (light intensity in the center is 650 lx); (b) a viewing zone with a converging lens and a lens array (light intensity in the center is 4400 lx).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Reproduced images by an optical setup with a converging lens and a lens array.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Reproduced images by an optical setup with converging lenses and two lens arrays. Two converging lenses are used.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Viewing zone with two converging lenses and two lens arrays.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) System arrangement with a front projector-type screen used in the experiment.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Reproduced image of a front-type projector.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Experimental system arrangement with an offset front projector screen.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Reconstructed images on the screen formed by an offset front projector.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Elemental Image Materials Used in the Experiments

Tables Icon

Table 2 Display Device Used in the Experiments

Equations (3)

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B E = A P f E / Z 1 ,
1 / g = 1 / f 1 1 / Z 2 = 1 / f 2 1 / Z 1 .
tan θ = p / g ,

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