Abstract

TiO2-Ta2O5 composite films were prepared by a radio frequency ion-beam sputtering deposition process, and the refractive indices and extinction coefficients of the composite films were found to be between those of the TiO2 and Ta2O5 films. The structure of the as-deposited films was amorphous, and the surface roughness was approximately 0.1 nm. The residual stress of the composite films was less than that of pure TiO2 film. The structure of the composite films after annealing was amorphous, with low surface roughness and slightly increased residual stress. The film containing 6.3% TiO2 displayed better properties than either the pure TiO2 or the pure Ta2O5 film.

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  1. W. H. Wang and S. Chao, "Annealing effect on ion-beam-sputtered titanium dioxide film," Opt. Lett. 23, 1417-1419 (1998).
  2. J. C. Hsu and C. C. Lee, "Single- and dual-ion-beamsputter deposition of titanium oxide films," Appl. Opt. 37, 1171-1176 (1998).
  3. C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, "Effect of thermal annealing on the optical properties and residual stress of TiO2 films produced by ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Opt. 44, 2996-3009 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakarn, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titania films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. R. Kozlowski, "Damage-resistant laser coating," in Thin Films for Optical System, F. R. Flory, ed. (Dekker, 1995), pp. 521-549.
  6. S. Chao, W. H. Wang, M. Y. Hsu, and L. C. Wang, "Characteristics of ion-beam-sputtered high refractive index TiO2-SiO2 mixed films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1477-1483 (1999).
  7. S. Chao, W. H. Wang, and C. C. Lee, "Low-loss dielectric mirror with ion-beam-sputtered TiO2-SiO2 mixed films," Appl. Opt. 40, 2177-2182 (2001).
  8. E. Feldman, N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2969-2974 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, and J. F. DeNatale, "Intrinsic stress and structural properties of mixed composition thin film," Appl. Opt. 27, 1564-1567 (1988).
  10. B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Stress reduction in ion beam sputtered mixed oxide films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2800-2805 (1989).
  11. S. Chao, C. K. Chang, and J. S. Chen, "TiO2-SiO2 mixed films prepared by the fast alternating sputter method," Appl. Opt. 30, 3233-3237 (1991).
  12. J. S. Chen, S. Chao, J. S. Kao, H. Niu, and C. H. Chen, "Mixed films of TiO2-SiO2 deposited by double electron-beam coevaporation," Appl. Opt. 35, 90-96 (1996).
  13. T. U. Ryu, S. H. Hahn, S. W. Kim, and E. J. Kim, "Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of MgF2-ZnS and MgF2-Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by coevaporation," Opt. Eng. 39, 3207-3213 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, N. von Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Optical constants of sputter-deposited Ti-Ce oxide and Zr-Ce oxide films," Appl. Opt. 37, 5993-6001 (1998).
  15. X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, "Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2-SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering," Thin Solid Films 338, 105-109 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Ritz, "TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 651-654 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Cevro, "Ion-beam sputtering of (Ta2O5)x-(SiO2)1−x composite thin films," Thin Solid Films 258, 91-103 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. C. Lee, C. J. Tang, and J. Y. Wu, "Rugate filter made with composite thin films by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1333-1337 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
  21. J. Chastain and R. C. King, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1995), pp. 44-45, 72-73, and 170-171.
  22. D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC Press, 2001).
  23. D. E. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and O. Hunderi, "Effective medium models for the optical properties of inhomogeneous materials," Appl. Opt. 20, 26-30 (1981).
  25. H. Windischmann, "An intrinsic stress scaling law for polycrystalline thin films prepared by ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1800-1807 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Ritz, "TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 651-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

T. U. Ryu, S. H. Hahn, S. W. Kim, and E. J. Kim, "Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of MgF2-ZnS and MgF2-Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by coevaporation," Opt. Eng. 39, 3207-3213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Chao, W. H. Wang, M. Y. Hsu, and L. C. Wang, "Characteristics of ion-beam-sputtered high refractive index TiO2-SiO2 mixed films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1477-1483 (1999).

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, "Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2-SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering," Thin Solid Films 338, 105-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Cevro, "Ion-beam sputtering of (Ta2O5)x-(SiO2)1−x composite thin films," Thin Solid Films 258, 91-103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

H. Windischmann, "An intrinsic stress scaling law for polycrystalline thin films prepared by ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1800-1807 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakarn, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titania films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Feldman, N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Cevro, M.

M. Cevro, "Ion-beam sputtering of (Ta2O5)x-(SiO2)1−x composite thin films," Thin Solid Films 258, 91-103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. K.

Chao, S.

Chen, C. H.

Chen, H. C.

Chen, J. S.

DeBar, J. I.

DeNatale, J. F.

Farabaugh, N.

E. Feldman, N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, E.

E. Feldman, N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

Gunning, W. J.

Hahn, S. H.

T. U. Ryu, S. H. Hahn, S. W. Kim, and E. J. Kim, "Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of MgF2-ZnS and MgF2-Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by coevaporation," Opt. Eng. 39, 3207-3213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haller, W. K.

E. Feldman, N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, T.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, "Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2-SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering," Thin Solid Films 338, 105-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. C.

Hsu, L. S.

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakarn, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titania films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, M. Y.

Hunderi, O.

Jaing, C. C.

Kao, J. S.

Kim, E. J.

T. U. Ryu, S. H. Hahn, S. W. Kim, and E. J. Kim, "Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of MgF2-ZnS and MgF2-Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by coevaporation," Opt. Eng. 39, 3207-3213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

T. U. Ryu, S. H. Hahn, S. W. Kim, and E. J. Kim, "Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of MgF2-ZnS and MgF2-Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by coevaporation," Opt. Eng. 39, 3207-3213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. R. Kozlowski, "Damage-resistant laser coating," in Thin Films for Optical System, F. R. Flory, ed. (Dekker, 1995), pp. 521-549.

Kullman, L.

Lee, C. C.

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, H.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, "Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2-SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering," Thin Solid Films 338, 105-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

Niu, H.

Pond, B. J.

Raj, T.

Ritz, A.

A. Ritz, "TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 651-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

Rujkorakarn, R.

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakarn, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titania films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, T. U.

T. U. Ryu, S. H. Hahn, S. W. Kim, and E. J. Kim, "Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of MgF2-ZnS and MgF2-Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by coevaporation," Opt. Eng. 39, 3207-3213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, D. M.

E. Feldman, N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

She, C. Y.

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakarn, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titania films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sites, J. R.

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakarn, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titania films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Someno, Y.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, "Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2-SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering," Thin Solid Films 338, 105-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stempniak, R. A.

E. Feldman, N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).

Tang, C. J.

Veszelei, M.

von Rottkay, N.

Wang, L. C.

Wang, W. H.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, "Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2-SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering," Thin Solid Films 338, 105-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windischmann, H.

H. Windischmann, "An intrinsic stress scaling law for polycrystalline thin films prepared by ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1800-1807 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. Y.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

D. E. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: A microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, and O. Hunderi, "Effective medium models for the optical properties of inhomogeneous materials," Appl. Opt. 20, 26-30 (1981).

H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, and J. F. DeNatale, "Intrinsic stress and structural properties of mixed composition thin film," Appl. Opt. 27, 1564-1567 (1988).

B. J. Pond, J. I. DeBar, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, "Stress reduction in ion beam sputtered mixed oxide films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2800-2805 (1989).

S. Chao, C. K. Chang, and J. S. Chen, "TiO2-SiO2 mixed films prepared by the fast alternating sputter method," Appl. Opt. 30, 3233-3237 (1991).

J. C. Hsu and C. C. Lee, "Single- and dual-ion-beamsputter deposition of titanium oxide films," Appl. Opt. 37, 1171-1176 (1998).

J. S. Chen, S. Chao, J. S. Kao, H. Niu, and C. H. Chen, "Mixed films of TiO2-SiO2 deposited by double electron-beam coevaporation," Appl. Opt. 35, 90-96 (1996).

M. Veszelei, L. Kullman, C. G. Granqvist, N. von Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Optical constants of sputter-deposited Ti-Ce oxide and Zr-Ce oxide films," Appl. Opt. 37, 5993-6001 (1998).

S. Chao, W. H. Wang, and C. C. Lee, "Low-loss dielectric mirror with ion-beam-sputtered TiO2-SiO2 mixed films," Appl. Opt. 40, 2177-2182 (2001).

C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, "Effect of thermal annealing on the optical properties and residual stress of TiO2 films produced by ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Opt. 44, 2996-3009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. J. Tang, and J. Y. Wu, "Rugate filter made with composite thin films by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1333-1337 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Windischmann, "An intrinsic stress scaling law for polycrystalline thin films prepared by ion beam sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1800-1807 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hsu, R. Rujkorakarn, J. R. Sites, and C. Y. She, "Thermally induced crystallization of amorphous-titania films," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3475-3480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. E (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constant n, k and the thickness of the weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

E. Feldman, N. Farabaugh, W. K. Haller, D. M. Sanders, and R. A. Stempniak, "Modifying structure and properties of optical films by coevaporation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2969-2974 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. U. Ryu, S. H. Hahn, S. W. Kim, and E. J. Kim, "Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of MgF2-ZnS and MgF2-Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by coevaporation," Opt. Eng. 39, 3207-3213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

A. Ritz, "TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 651-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

M. Cevro, "Ion-beam sputtering of (Ta2O5)x-(SiO2)1−x composite thin films," Thin Solid Films 258, 91-103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, "Microstructure and optical properties of amorphous TiO2-SiO2 composite films synthesized by helicon plasma sputtering," Thin Solid Films 338, 105-109 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. R. Kozlowski, "Damage-resistant laser coating," in Thin Films for Optical System, F. R. Flory, ed. (Dekker, 1995), pp. 521-549.

J. Chastain and R. C. King, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, 1995), pp. 44-45, 72-73, and 170-171.

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC Press, 2001).

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