Abstract

The continuous tuning range of an external-cavity diode laser can be extended by making small corrections to the external-cavity length through an electronic feedback loop so that the cavity resonance condition is maintained as the laser wavelength is tuned. By maintaining the cavity resonance condition as the laser is tuned, the mode hops that typically limit the continuous tuning range of the external-cavity diode laser are eliminated. We present the design of a simple external-cavity diode laser based on the Littman–Metcalf external-cavity configuration that has a measured continuous tuning range of 1  GHz without an electronic feedback loop. To include the electronic feedback loop, a small sinusoidal signal is added to the drive current of the laser diode creating a small oscillation of the laser power. By comparing the phase of the modulated optical power with the phase of the sinusoidal drive signal using a lock-in amplifier, an error signal is created and used in an electronic feedback loop to control the external-cavity length. With electronic feedback, we find that the continuous tuning range can be extended to over 65   GHz. This occurs because the electronic feedback maintains the cavity resonance condition as the laser is tuned. An experimental demonstration of this extended tuning range is presented in which the external-cavity diode laser is tuned through an absorption feature of diatomic oxygen near 760   nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, "Progress toward a water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source," U. N. Singh , ed., Laser Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI, Proc. SPIE 5887, 205-215 (2005).

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, S. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, "A mode hopping suppressed external-cavity semiconductor laser using feedback control," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C98-103 (2002).

2001 (2)

C. Petridis, I. D. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Mode-hop-free tuning over 80 GHz of an external cavity diode laser without antireflection coating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811-3815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, A. L. Cook, C. M. Fitzgerald, and A. N. Dharamsi, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to absorption lines of water vapor in the 944-nm wavelength region," Opt. Eng. 40, 525-528 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Continuous wavelength sweep of external cavity 630 nm laser diode without antireflection coating on output facet," Opt. Rev. 5, 267-270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gerginov, Y. V. Dancheva, M. A. Taslakov, and S. S. Cartaleva, "Frequency tunable monomode diode laser at 670 nm for high resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 149, 162-169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

M. de Labachelerie and G. Passedat, "Mode-hop suppression of Littrow grating-tuned lasers," Appl. Opt. 32, 269-274 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Libbrecht and J. L. Hall, "A low-noise high-speed diode laser current controller," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2133-2135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1978 (1)

Abshire, J. B.

Adams, C. S.

Aumiler, D.

D. Aumiler, T. Ban, and G. Pichler, "High resolution measurements of the pressure broadening and shift of the rubidium 52S1/2-62P3/2 line by argon and helium," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032723(1)-032723(5) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, T.

Ban, T.

D. Aumiler, T. Ban, and G. Pichler, "High resolution measurements of the pressure broadening and shift of the rubidium 52S1/2-62P3/2 line by argon and helium," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032723(1)-032723(5) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, H. E.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J. L.

M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, "Progress toward a water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source," U. N. Singh , ed., Laser Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI, Proc. SPIE 5887, 205-215 (2005).

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, and D. S. Hoffman, "Diode laser transmitter for water vapor DIAL measurements," in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1947-1950.
[CrossRef]

Cartaleva, S. S.

V. P. Gerginov, Y. V. Dancheva, M. A. Taslakov, and S. S. Cartaleva, "Frequency tunable monomode diode laser at 670 nm for high resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 149, 162-169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. L.

G. J. Koch, A. L. Cook, C. M. Fitzgerald, and A. N. Dharamsi, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to absorption lines of water vapor in the 944-nm wavelength region," Opt. Eng. 40, 525-528 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dancheva, Y. V.

V. P. Gerginov, Y. V. Dancheva, M. A. Taslakov, and S. S. Cartaleva, "Frequency tunable monomode diode laser at 670 nm for high resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 149, 162-169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, H. J.

Day, T.

de Labachelerie, M.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dharamsi, A. N.

G. J. Koch, A. L. Cook, C. M. Fitzgerald, and A. N. Dharamsi, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to absorption lines of water vapor in the 944-nm wavelength region," Opt. Eng. 40, 525-528 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dibble, R. W.

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

C. Petridis, I. D. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Mode-hop-free tuning over 80 GHz of an external cavity diode laser without antireflection coating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811-3815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, C. M.

G. J. Koch, A. L. Cook, C. M. Fitzgerald, and A. N. Dharamsi, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to absorption lines of water vapor in the 944-nm wavelength region," Opt. Eng. 40, 525-528 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Continuous wavelength sweep of external cavity 630 nm laser diode without antireflection coating on output facet," Opt. Rev. 5, 267-270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V. P.

V. P. Gerginov, Y. V. Dancheva, M. A. Taslakov, and S. S. Cartaleva, "Frequency tunable monomode diode laser at 670 nm for high resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 149, 162-169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

K. G. Libbrecht and J. L. Hall, "A low-noise high-speed diode laser current controller," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2133-2135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R. M.

Hoffman, D. S.

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, and D. S. Hoffman, "Diode laser transmitter for water vapor DIAL measurements," in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1947-1950.
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kameyama, H.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, S. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, "A mode hopping suppressed external-cavity semiconductor laser using feedback control," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C98-103 (2002).

Kinugawa, S.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, S. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, "A mode hopping suppressed external-cavity semiconductor laser using feedback control," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C98-103 (2002).

Koch, G. J.

G. J. Koch, A. L. Cook, C. M. Fitzgerald, and A. N. Dharamsi, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to absorption lines of water vapor in the 944-nm wavelength region," Opt. Eng. 40, 525-528 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, K. W.

Kourogi, M.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Continuous wavelength sweep of external cavity 630 nm laser diode without antireflection coating on output facet," Opt. Rev. 5, 267-270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozuma, M.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Continuous wavelength sweep of external cavity 630 nm laser diode without antireflection coating on output facet," Opt. Rev. 5, 267-270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M. A.

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y.-P.

Libbrecht, K. G.

K. G. Libbrecht and J. L. Hall, "A low-noise high-speed diode laser current controller," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2133-2135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, I. D.

C. Petridis, I. D. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Mode-hop-free tuning over 80 GHz of an external cavity diode laser without antireflection coating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811-3815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

Machol, J. L.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mattori, S.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, S. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, "A mode hopping suppressed external-cavity semiconductor laser using feedback control," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C98-103 (2002).

McNicholl, P.

Meng, L. S.

M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, "Progress toward a water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source," U. N. Singh , ed., Laser Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI, Proc. SPIE 5887, 205-215 (2005).

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, and D. S. Hoffman, "Diode laser transmitter for water vapor DIAL measurements," in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1947-1950.
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H. J.

Nayuki, T.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Continuous wavelength sweep of external cavity 630 nm laser diode without antireflection coating on output facet," Opt. Rev. 5, 267-270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Continuous wavelength sweep of external cavity 630 nm laser diode without antireflection coating on output facet," Opt. Rev. 5, 267-270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, Q.-V.

Nilse, L.

Obland, M. D.

M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, "Progress toward a water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source," U. N. Singh , ed., Laser Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI, Proc. SPIE 5887, 205-215 (2005).

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, and D. S. Hoffman, "Diode laser transmitter for water vapor DIAL measurements," in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1947-1950.
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Continuous wavelength sweep of external cavity 630 nm laser diode without antireflection coating on output facet," Opt. Rev. 5, 267-270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, S.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, S. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, "A mode hopping suppressed external-cavity semiconductor laser using feedback control," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C98-103 (2002).

Pan, C.-L.

Pan, R.-P.

Passedat, G.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petridis, C.

C. Petridis, I. D. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Mode-hop-free tuning over 80 GHz of an external cavity diode laser without antireflection coating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811-3815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pichler, G.

D. Aumiler, T. Ban, and G. Pichler, "High resolution measurements of the pressure broadening and shift of the rubidium 52S1/2-62P3/2 line by argon and helium," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032723(1)-032723(5) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Repasky, K. S.

M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, "Progress toward a water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source," U. N. Singh , ed., Laser Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI, Proc. SPIE 5887, 205-215 (2005).

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, and D. S. Hoffman, "Diode laser transmitter for water vapor DIAL measurements," in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1947-1950.
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, T.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, S. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, "A mode hopping suppressed external-cavity semiconductor laser using feedback control," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C98-103 (2002).

Sandberg, S. P.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwenz, K. T.

Senff, C. J.

Shaw, J. A.

M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, "Progress toward a water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source," U. N. Singh , ed., Laser Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI, Proc. SPIE 5887, 205-215 (2005).

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, and D. S. Hoffman, "Diode laser transmitter for water vapor DIAL measurements," in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1947-1950.
[CrossRef]

Shirono, J.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, S. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, "A mode hopping suppressed external-cavity semiconductor laser using feedback control," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C98-103 (2002).

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stothard, D. J. M.

C. Petridis, I. D. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Mode-hop-free tuning over 80 GHz of an external cavity diode laser without antireflection coating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811-3815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Switzer, G. W.

G. W. Switzer, "Semiconductor laser transmitter for water vapor lidar on Mars," Ph.D. dissertation (Montana State University, Bozeman, Mont., 1998), pp. 37-49.

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taslakov, M. A.

V. P. Gerginov, Y. V. Dancheva, M. A. Taslakov, and S. S. Cartaleva, "Frequency tunable monomode diode laser at 670 nm for high resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 149, 162-169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, S. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, "A mode hopping suppressed external-cavity semiconductor laser using feedback control," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C98-103 (2002).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. P. Gerginov, Y. V. Dancheva, M. A. Taslakov, and S. S. Cartaleva, "Frequency tunable monomode diode laser at 670 nm for high resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 149, 162-169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. J. Koch, A. L. Cook, C. M. Fitzgerald, and A. N. Dharamsi, "Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to absorption lines of water vapor in the 944-nm wavelength region," Opt. Eng. 40, 525-528 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Continuous wavelength sweep of external cavity 630 nm laser diode without antireflection coating on output facet," Opt. Rev. 5, 267-270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Aumiler, T. Ban, and G. Pichler, "High resolution measurements of the pressure broadening and shift of the rubidium 52S1/2-62P3/2 line by argon and helium," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032723(1)-032723(5) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

C. Petridis, I. D. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Mode-hop-free tuning over 80 GHz of an external cavity diode laser without antireflection coating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811-3815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Libbrecht and J. L. Hall, "A low-noise high-speed diode laser current controller," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2133-2135 (1993).
[CrossRef]

U. N. Singh (1)

M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, "Progress toward a water-vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) using a widely tunable amplified diode laser source," U. N. Singh , ed., Laser Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VI, Proc. SPIE 5887, 205-215 (2005).

Other (2)

G. W. Switzer, "Semiconductor laser transmitter for water vapor lidar on Mars," Ph.D. dissertation (Montana State University, Bozeman, Mont., 1998), pp. 37-49.

K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, J. L. Carlsten, M. D. Obland, L. S. Meng, and D. S. Hoffman, "Diode laser transmitter for water vapor DIAL measurements," in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 1947-1950.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the ECDL in the Littman–Metcalf configuration. The drawing on the left shows operation of the ECDL at λ(1). Here, the first-order reflection from the grating is directed back to the diode laser via a second reflection from the grating. This feedback forces the ECDL to operate at λ(1). Continuous tuning of the ECDL is achieved by simultaneously rotating and moving the grating so that λ(2) is fed back into the laser diode while maintaining the cavity resonance condition at this new wavelength. This is shown schematically by the drawing on the right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Photograph of the ECDL built in the Littman–Metcalf external-cavity configuration. The major components of the ECDL are identified along with the pivot point about which the retroreflecting roof prism rotates. TEC, thermoelectric cooler; PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the operating frequency of the ECDL as a function of voltage applied to the PZT. This plot shows that the ECDL will tune approximately 1   GHz before an external-cavity mode hop occurs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the operating frequency of the ECDL as a function of voltage applied to the PZT. This plot shows the external-cavity mode hop of approximately 1   GHz occurring for every 2 .5   V applied to the PZT. The laser diode facet mode hops of approximately 26   GHz are seen for every 24   V applied to the PZT. The available operating wavelengths for the ECDL are limited due to both the external-cavity and the facet mode hops.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of the operating frequency shown as the solid curve and photodiode voltage shown as the dashed curve as a function of PZT voltage. The PZT voltage is used to electronically tune the ECDL. The photodiode voltage is measured using an external photodiode and this voltage is proportional to the output power of the ECDL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of the output power as a function of frequency measured using an OSA analyzer. This optical spectrum was measured when the ECDL was tuned to location A shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of the output power as a function of frequency measured using an OSA. This optical spectrum was measured when the ECDL was tuned to location B shown in Fig. 5. Note the increase in the spontaneous emission in this optical spectrum as compared with the optical spectrum shown in Fig. 6. The increase in the spontaneous emission results in the higher output power of the ECDL as seen in Fig. 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of the side-mode suppression ratio shown as the solid curve and the photodiode voltage shown as the dashed curve as a function of the PZT voltage used to tune the ECDL. The photodiode voltage is proportional to the output power of the ECDL. As the spontaneous emission grows due to the external cavity moving away from its resonance condition, the side-mode suppression ratio decreases and the output power of the ECDL increases.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Schematic of the experimental setup used to extend the continuous tuning range of the ECDL.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plot of the operating frequency as a function of voltage applied to the PZT with and without the electronic feedback connected. Without the electronic feedback, the ECDL experiences a 1   GHz mode hop for every 2 .5   V applied to the PZT and a 26   GHz facet mode hop for every 24   V applied to the PZT. When the electronic feedback is connected, the external-cavity and facet mode hops are suppressed as the laser is continuously tuned over 65   GHz . The continuous tuning in this case was limited by the fact that only 100   V can be applied to the PZT before the PZT is damaged.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Schematic of the experimental setup used for absorption measurements of diatomic oxygen with the extended tuning range of the ECDL.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Plot of the normalized transmission as a function of the optical frequency. The solid curve represents the theoretical prediction of the transmission using the HITRAN database. The circles, triangles, and squares represent three different scans across two oxygen absorption lines. Good agreement between the prediction and measurements is demonstrated.

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